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# Must Know High School Physics

## Descrizione

**Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product.**

**A UNIQUE NEW APPROACH THAT’S LIKE A LIGHTNING BOLT TO THE BRAIN**

You know that moment when you feel as though a lightning bolt has hit you because you finally get something? That’s how this book will make you react. (**We hope!)** Each chapter makes sure that what you really need to know is clear right off the bat and sees to it that you build on this knowledge. Where other books ask you to memorize stuff, we’re going to show you the must know ideas that will guide you toward success in physics. You will start each chapter learning what the **must know** ideas behind a physics subject are, and these concepts will help you solve the physics problems that you find in your classwork and on exams.

**Dive into this book and find:**

• 250+ practice questions that mirror what you will find in your classwork and on exams

• A bonus app with 100+ flashcards that will reinforce what you’ve learned

• Extensive examples that drive home essential concepts

• An easy-access setup that allows you to jump in and out of subjects

• Physics topics aligned to national and state education standards

• Special help for more challenging physics subjects, including electromagnetism, projectile motion, and energy transfer.

We’re confident that the **must know** ideas in this book will have you up and solving physics problems in no time—or at least in a reasonable amount of time!

## Informazioni sull'autore

## Correlato a Must Know High School Physics

Einstein For Dummies di Carlos I. Calle Valutazione: 4 su 5 stelle

### Anteprima del libro

### Must Know High School Physics - Christopher Bruhn

started!

**PART ONE **

**The Mechanics of Physical Objects **

Mechanics shows us the behavior of solid objects, like where they are in space and time, and what they are doing. It explains how objects interact with each other through forces and how forces can change the motion of objects. Amidst all this moving about and changing, mechanics reveals that momentum and energy are conserved.

**1 Motion **

**MUST ****KNOW **

Position tells us where we are, distance tells us how far we have traveled, and displacement tells us how far and in which direction we are from where we started.

Speed tells us how fast we are going. Velocity tells us how fast and in which direction we are going.

Acceleration tells us if we are changing speed and/or direction.

Before we can go very far in physics, we need to know where things are at and how they are moving. The study of motion is called **kinematics**. In this chapter, our goal is to learn the terminology of motion and how to describe motion with several different representations: pictures and words, dot diagrams, graphs, and equations.

**Position, Distance, and Displacement **

Where are you right now? Your house or school? In physics we need to be a little more exact. Pull out your phone or computer and go to your maps app. Drop a marker at your location, and you will get the latitude and longitude grid coordinates of your exact location on the Earth. In physics, we will set up a coordinate system that is convenient for us to use. The figure shows an **x-axis **that runs horizontally left and right. This is called a **number line **in math, but in physics our axis has units so we know where things are really at. Our x-axis is measured in units of meters (m).

A person is moving along our axis. We want to know the person’s position, distance, and displacement.

**Position **is the exact location of the object at a specific time measured in meters (m). This is a vector. This means it has a magnitude and a direction. For instance, there is a difference between 10 m to the east as opposed to 10 m to the west.

**Distance **is how far the object has traveled in total measured in meters (m) during a period of time. This is a scalar quantity, meaning it has a magnitude but not a direction.

**Displacement **Δ*x *is the change in position: Δ*x *= *xf *− *xi *where *xf *is the final position and *xi *is the initial position. Displacement is only concerned about the starting and ending positions. It tells us how far and in what direction an object is from where it started during the time period of travel. This is a vector quantity because it has a magnitude and direction.

**EXAMPLE **

Let’s practice finding these for our person on our axis.

At the start, the person is at position 4 m. At a time of 2 s, the person is at position 8 m. At 5 s, the position is −3 m. For the entire 5 s, the person has traveled 4 m to the right and then 11 m to the left for a total distance of 15 m.

The displacement is Δ*x *= *xf *− *xi *= ((−3 m )−4 m) = −7 m.

Notice how the displacement is negative. This tells us the person is to the left of where they started.

**IRL **

**Cars have an odometer and your phone has GPS. What do these two devices measure: position, distance, or displacement? An odometer indicates how far the car has traveled, so it measures distance. GPS indicates where you are, so it measures position. **

**Speed and Velocity **

**Speed **tells us how fast the object is traveling over a time period. Speed = distance divided by time interval. **Velocity **. Let’s look at our person on the x-axis again. Let’s take a look at our moving stick figure:

. The velocity over the same time interval is almost the same, but it has a direction associated with it:

Notice how velocity contains the direction information in the negative sign, which tells us in the negative direction

or to the left.

**EXAMPLE **

Using the same figure just provided, let’s find the speed and velocity of the person over the entire 5 seconds.

to the left for 5 seconds, they would have ended up at the same result.

**IRL **

**Cars have a speedometer. Is it really a speed-ometer or is it a velocity-o-meter? Since the meter only tells the speed and not direction, it is named correctly. It is a speed-o-meter. Does the speedometer measure average or instantaneous values? Every time the car is stopped, the speedometer reads zero, so it is reading how fast the car is going at that instant. Some cars also have a travel computer that indicates the average speed of the trip. **

**Acceleration **

When you step on the gas, a car will speed up. In physics, we call this **acceleration**. When you step on the brake and the car slows down, physics still calls this acceleration. Positive acceleration means changing velocity toward the positive direction, while negative acceleration means changing the velocity toward the negative direction. This can be confusing.

Look at the figure on the following page. The top car has a positive velocity and acceleration, which means the car is moving to the right and accelerating to the right. So, the car is speeding up and goes faster and faster. The second car has a positive velocity and a negative acceleration, which means the car is going to the right but accelerating to the left. So, this car is slowing down.

Can you tell what is happening to the bottom two cars? The third car is moving to the left and slowing down because the velocity is to the left and the acceleration is to the right. The fourth car is moving to the left and speeding up because the velocity and acceleration are in the same directions.

*Negative acceleration doesn’t necessarily mean slowing down. It only means that the object is accelerating in the negative direction. To determine if an object is speeding up or slowing down, we need to know how the directions of the acceleration and velocity compare. When they are in the same direction, the object is speeding up. The velocity and acceleration are in the opposite direction when the object is slowing down. *

Acceleration is a vector with units of meters per second squared.

**EXAMPLE **

Suppose we are late for an appointment. You jump in your car and stomp on the gas. You accelerate from zero to 50 m/s in 14 s but then you see a police motorcycle and hit the brakes, slowing to 30 m/s when the clock hits 19 s. See the following figure.

Notice that your acceleration is to the right for the first part of the journey but to the left when you are slowing down. The acceleration for the first part of the trip is:

After you hit the brakes, the acceleration is:

You had a greater acceleration when hitting the brakes. Notice that the acceleration is in the opposite direction of the velocity, which means you are slowing down.

**IRL **

**Smartphones have measuring devices inside called accelerometers that are used to measure the phone’s changes in movement. They let the phone know what orientation it is in and flip the screen for you and know when you are walking so it can count your steps for the day. **

**Motion Diagrams **

In the following figure a dog is running. Drawing all these pictures to represent the dog’s motion is challenging.

In physics, we simplify the picture by only drawing one point to represent the entire object. Usually, this point is the **center of mass **. Below the dog is a dot to represent the position of the dog as it runs. This is called a **dot diagram **or a **motion diagram**. Times and arrows can be added to show when the dog was at each location and what velocity it was traveling.

**EXAMPLE **

Look at the three motion diagrams presented next. Each dot is drawn one-tenth of a second apart. A ruler with major marking every centimeter is shown for scale.

Which object is traveling faster: *A*, *B*, or *C*? We can tell that object *C *is moving the fastest because the dots that represent the object are spaced farther apart. By the same reasoning we can tell that B is the slowest because it’s dots are more closely spaced.

Calculate the speed of the fastest and slowest object:

In the next figure, notice how objects *D *and *E *travel the same distance in the 7 s, but the distances between the dots for object *D *are getting farther and farther apart. Object *D *started slow and accelerated to the right, while *E *is traveling at a constant velocity the entire time.

Can you tell when the two objects are traveling the same velocity? Both will have the same velocity when they cover the same distance in the same amount of time. Between 3 s and 4 s both appear to travel the same distance in 1 second and must be traveling the same velocity.

**Graphs **

Dot diagrams help us visualize motion in a simple way, but sometimes we need more detail. For this we use graphs. There are three graphs you need to know in kinematics: position-time (*x*-*t*), velocity-time (*v*-*t*), and acceleration-time (*a*-*t*) graphs.

Two objects, *A *and *C*, are moving in the motion diagram shown next. With this information, we can create a data table and a position-time graph.

To find the position of the object at any time, we simply need to read the graph. But how can we find how fast the objects are going? For this we need to calculate the **slope of the line**. But our graph is not an *x*-*y *graph—it is a position-time graph.

To find the position of the object at any time, we simply need to read the graph—but how can we find how fast the objects are going? For this, we need to calculate the **slope of the line**.

**EXAMPLE **

Look back at our data table and graph of objects *A *and *C*. Can you tell from the graph which object is traveling faster?

The velocity of an object equals the slope of the position-time graph. Therefore, *C *is faster because it has a steeper slope.

What aspect of the graph tells you that the objects are traveling at a constant velocity?

Both lines are straight. Since the slope of both graphs does not change, both are traveling at a constant velocity.

Calculate the velocity of both objects.

Let’s look at another example.

**EXAMPLE **

Look at the motion diagram for object *D *presented next. Describe the motion. What is object *D *doing? (The object is moving to the right and speeding up.) Let’s check your description by turning this motion diagram into a graph. Notice that the slope of the graph is getting bigger and bigger, indicating that the object is speeding up. This graph is curved because object *D *is accelerating. If the object is accelerating at a constant rate, the curve will be a **parabola**.

, which equals the acceleration. We do not know where the object started, but we can tell how far it has gone by calculating the **area of the graph**. See the shaded area in the figure. This is true because the area equals length times width, which equals *v*Δ*t *= Δ*x *on the *v*-*t *graph.

**EXAMPLE **

Here is another velocity-time graph for a toy car.

Can you figure out the initial and final velocities of the toy car? Since this is a v-t graph, all we need to do is read the velocities off the graph. At *t *= 0, the car is traveling at 2 m/s and at *t *= 10 s the car has sped up to 8 m/s.

How far did the car travel over the entire 10 seconds? Δ*x *= area of the graph = 50 m. If you don’t remember the formula for the area of a trapezoid, just break the shape into a rectangle and a triangle.

Our final graph is the acceleration-time graph (*a*-*t *graph). By reading this graph, we find the acceleration of the object at any time. Calculating the area of the graph will give us the change in velocity (Δ*v*) of the object. Putting these three graphs together gives us a complete picture of three very common types of motion: **constant position**, **constant velocity**, and **constant acceleration**.

Imagine a car sitting in a parking lot. The car has a constant position. It does not move, or in physics terms, it is at **rest**. Let’s plot the motion of this stationary car on our three graphs, which are shown next. The *x*-*t *graph is a constant horizontal line at the original location of the object. Notice how both the *v*-*t *and *a*-*t *graphs are zero.

Now plot the motion of a car traveling at a constant velocity on the highway. The *v*-*t *graph has a constant velocity of *v*0. The *x*-*t *graph will be a straight line because the constant slope equals the constant velocity of the car. Since the velocity is not changing, the acceleration will be zero.

Now imagine the car rolling slowly backwards and the driver applying the gas so that the car accelerates forward at a constant rate. The *a*-*t *graph has a constant positive value. The *v*-*t *graph begins with an initial negative value, but has a constant slope that equals the positive acceleration of the car. Notice that at point *T, *the car momentarily stops rolling backward and begins moving forward.

*It is a good idea to get to know these three groupings of graphs because we repeatedly see constant position, constant velocity, and constant accelerated motion in physics. *

The equation of this line is *v *= *v*0 + *at*. The *x*-*t *graph is the most complicated. Since the slope of this graph equals the velocity of the car and the car’s velocity is changing, the slope of this line will also be changing.

This produces a parabolic curve. The equation of this parabola is *x *= *x*0 + *v*0*t *where *x*0 is the starting position of the car, *v*0 is the initial velocity of the car, and *a *is the acceleration of the car. Note that at point *T *the slope of the *x*-*t *graph is zero, indicating that the car momentarily stops before changing direction.

**Kinematics Equations **

Motion diagrams give us a simple picture of motion. Graphs give us a more detailed picture of position, velocity, and acceleration. Our final representation will be algebraic. Our graphical representation of motion has given us two useful equations:

If we solve the bottom equation for *t *and substitute it into the top equation, we get a third equation:

These equations can be used for any object that has a constant acceleration.

*There are six variables in these equations. To get organized, I have my students create a table to keep them all straight. Any variable you don’t know, label with a question mark. Indicate the variable you are trying to find. *

**EXAMPLE **

Let’s go back to our imaginary car rolling slowly backwards and the driver applying the gas. The car is rolling backwards at 4 m/s when the driver applies the gas so that the car accelerates forward at a constant rate of 2 m/s².

How long does it take for the car to stop rolling backward? Organize our data in a table:

Since we are not given a starting position, assume it to be zero. We do not know the final position and are looking for *t*. Our starting velocity is negative because it is backwards, and the ending velocity is zero because that is when we stop rolling backwards. Which equation do we use? Use the equation that has the variable that we are looking for and where we know all the other variables in the equation:

How far has the car gone after 10 s? Organize your data in a table:

All of the initial condition variables stay the same, but now we are looking for the position at the 10 s mark where we do not know the velocity. Choose your equation and solve:

What is the velocity of the car when it reaches 100 m? Organize your data in a table:

All of the initial condition variables are still the same, but now we are looking for the velocity at the 100 m position and we don’t know the time it takes to get there. Choose your equation and solve:

Here is another example for us to practice on.

**EXAMPLE **

You are driving at 15 m/s when a cute puppy runs out in front of your car 10 m ahead. You slam on your brakes. What acceleration do you need to stop in time? Organize your data and pick an equation to use:

Do you know why the acceleration is negative? It’s because the car is slowing down.

How long does it take you to stop? Our data is already organized, as presented in the earlier table. We just need to pick an equation to use:

**Freefall **

When you drop a baseball, it accelerates downward toward the floor. We call this the **acceleration caused by gravity **and it is designated by the symbol *g*. On Earth the acceleration from gravity is *g *= 9.8 m/s² downward toward the ground. This means that every second the baseball goes 9.8 m/s faster than the second before as long as we are ignoring the effects of air resistance.

**IRL **

**On other planets, the acceleration caused by gravity will be different. On Mars, g = 3.8 m/s². On the Moon, g = 1.6 m/s². This means that objects fall slower on the Moon and Mars than on Earth. **

**EXAMPLE **

Let’s put all of this together. You throw a baseball upward at 39.2 m/s. Sketch the *y*-*t*, *v*-*t*, and *a*-*t *graphs for the ball.

Notice that our position graph shown here is for the y-direction this time.

Since the acceleration is downward and constant, the acceleration is a negative horizontal line and the velocity will begin at 39.2 m/s and have a slope of −9.8 m/s². The position graph is a parabola pointing downward because of the negative acceleration. Note that *t*1, the time to reach maximum height, is half of *t*2, the time to return to ground. Also note that the velocity is zero at the maximum height at *t*1.

Now let’s use our equations. How long does it take the ball to stop going upward?

How high does the ball go?

What velocity will the ball be going when it returns to you? From our graph, we can see that the motion is symmetrical on the way up and down. Thus, the velocity of the ball when it returns is −39.2 m/s. You can prove this with equations as well.

**Two-Dimensional (2D) Motion **

So far, we have only considered motion in one dimension. What happens if the direction of motion changes?

**EXAMPLE **

The following figure shows a girl walking around in the city as she goes from her apartment, to a coffee shop, and then to work.

The distance she walked to work is 400 m, but her displacement is 80 m east from the starting position to work. From the starting position to the coffee shop her distance is 240 m, and her displacement is 179 m at an angle of 27° north of east.

Remember that displacement is a vector pointing from the starting point to the coffee shop. So, make a triangle, use the Pythagorean theorem, and use the trigonometry functions to find the magnitude and direction! See the following figure.

**Circular motion **is a common 2D motion. In the following figure, you see the Earth orbiting the Sun.

**EXAMPLE **

. The distance around a circle is the **circumference**: *C *= 2*πr*.

This is the instantaneous velocity because the Earth is constantly changing direction and therefore accelerating.

Circular motion will be covered in more detail in **Chapter 5. **

**IRL **

**The Earth’s orbit is actually a little elliptical, like all the planets. Pluto and comets have much more elliptical orbits. **

Every time you throw an object through the air, it moves forward but also arcs toward the ground. This is a type of 2D motion called **projectile motion**. Consider the following figure as we go through a specific example.

Projectile motion is two separate motions occurring at the same time. In the *y*-direction the ball accelerates downward at 9.8 m/s² due to gravity. But in the *x*-direction, there aren’t any forces to speed up or slow down the ball so it travels at a constant speed. The figure shows a baseball thrown up and to the right. Notice how the motion diagram in the *x*-direction shows a constant velocity motion. The *y*-direction motion diagram shows the ball slowing down on the way up and speeding up on the way down. When we overlap these two motions, the path of the ball forms a parabolic arc. As long as air resistance isn’t too great, everything that launches through the air follows a parabolic arc: footballs, Olympic gymnasts, and cars flying off cliffs.

Let’s look at an example of 2D projectile motion.

**EXAMPLE **

While filming an action movie, a director wants a car to be driven horizontally off a 20-m-high cliff at 30 m/s, as seen in the following figure. How long will it take the remotely controlled car to hit the ground, and how far will it travel?

Some of our data is *x*-direction information and some is *y*-direction information. We need to keep this information separate. Sort out the data in a table, keeping the "*y*-stuff separate from the

*x*-stuff."

Notice in our table that only the time is shared in both columns because it is a scalar without direction. In the *x*-direction, the acceleration is zero and the *x*-velocity remains the same, leaving us with only this equation to use: *x *= *x*0 + *v*0*t*. Both the time and final position are unknown, leaving the equation unsolvable. We will have to start with *y*-direction information instead. Setting up our *y*-equation, we can solve for the time to impact:

Now that we have the time, we can go back to the *x*-information and find out how far the car traveled horizontally before landing:

How fast will the car be going when it hits the ground below the cliff? The *x*-velocity stays the same, but the *y*-velocity is increasing because of gravity:

To find the car’s total resultant velocity, we need to add the *x*- and *y*-velocities using geometry:

Yikes … That’s about 80 mph … good thing the car was remotely controlled by the stunt coordinator!

**REVIEW QUESTIONS **

Let’s review what we have learned about kinematics by answering the following questions.

**1. Which are vectors and which are scalars: position, displacement, distance, velocity, speed, acceleration. **

**2. A boy walks 40 m east and then 30 m south in 100 s. What is the boy’s distance and displacement, velocity, and speed for the journey? **

**3. Sketch a motion diagram of a car starting at rest, speeding up, and then traveling at a constant velocity. **

**4. Describe what the object is doing in this motion diagram. **

**5. Convert the information in this motion diagram into a position-time graph. **

**6. Calculate the speed of the object in the motion diagram in Question 5 from t = 0 to 2 s. **

**7. Describe the motion of the object in this position-time graph. What is the velocity of the object? **

**8. Describe the motion of the object in this velocity-time graph. How far has the object traveled in 5 s? What is the acceleration of the object? **

**9. Sketch what a rock dropped to the ground looks like on an x-t, v-t, and a-t graph. Use a coordinate system where up is positive and the ground is the zero height. **

**10. A villain pushes a puppy off a building. Our hero grabs a parachute and jumps off the building a second after the puppy in order to catch it and save it. Will the hero be able to catch and save the puppy? **

**11. A girl throws a football straight up at 19.6 m/s. How high does it go, and how long does it take for the football to return to her? **

**12. A car is traveling 10 m/s when the driver steps on the gas and accelerates at 4 m/s² for 8 s. How far has the car traveled after 8 s? How fast is the car going at 8 s? **

**13. A horse on a carousel travels at 4.5 m/s and takes 6.8 s to make one complete trip around. What is the radius of the carousel? **

**14. A rock is dropped from a cliff at the same time an identical rock is launched horizontally from the cliff. Which rock hits the ground below first? **

**15. Describe the x- and y-velocities of an object thrown upward at an angle through the air. **

**2 Forces **

**MUST ****KNOW **

Forces only exist when two objects interact with each other, *and *this interaction always creates an equal and opposite force-pair on the two objects.

Objects can’t exert a force on themselves. Therefore, an object that’s sitting still won’t move, *and *an object that’s already moving won’t stop unless a different object exerts a force on it.

Forces from outside the object can accelerate the object.

In the previous chapter, we developed several ways to describe the motion of things but never really talked about *why *objects move the way they do. In this chapter, our goal is to learn the why

of motion. The question is: What makes certain objects sit still and others move about? In order to grasp this, we will explore the concept of a force. A force is a push or a pull that tries to change the motion of things. Forces are vectors, which means they have a magnitude and direction. A push to the right is different from a push to the left. Therefore, we will have to use a little geometry and trigonometry to understand force vectors. The unit for force is kg · m/s² which we call a **newton **(N). I’ll introduce you to some forces you encounter in daily life, and we will build a model for what forces do and how they can change the motion of objects.

Like many great scientists, Newton did a lot of great and also dumb things, but he is best known for his three laws of motion. They are actually the connection between forces and motion. Newton’s laws are deceptively simple and far reaching. I think it is easier to understand Newton’s ideas by first understanding that forces are an interaction between two different objects before we investigate what forces do to those objects. For this reason, I’m going to introduce Newton’s Laws to you, starting with the Third Law.

**Newton’s Third Law **

Forces only occur when one object interacts with another object. When an object exerts a force on another, the second object always replies with a duplicate force in the opposite direction. Forces are always produced in an equal magnitude, but opposite in direction pairs.

Stand up. Grab your shoelaces. Try to pull your feet off the ground. It’s impossible. Why? Your hand is pulling your feet up, but your feet are pulling your hands down with an equal but opposite force. Since your hands and feet are connected by your