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Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Advanced Membrane Separation Processes for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management - Case Studies and Sustainability Analysis

Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Advanced Membrane Separation Processes for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management - Case Studies and Sustainability Analysis

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Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Advanced Membrane Separation Processes for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management - Case Studies and Sustainability Analysis

Lunghezza:
900 pagine
9 ore
Pubblicato:
Jan 31, 2020
ISBN:
9780128198551
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Advanced Membrane Separation Processes for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management - Case Studies and Sustainability Analysis gives an up-to-date review and research developments of MBR systems (including hybrid systems) in wastewater treatment in terms of pollutant removal, nutrient recovery, and energy production as well as the achievement of energy efficiency of the process itself. The current challenges that hinder the application and industrialization of MBR technology as well as knowledge gaps and future research perspectives are also discussed, including possible strategies to solve the various problems involved.

This work is an excellent reference for education and understanding of biotechnology, microbiology, environmental science and technology, environmental engineering, chemical engineering, biotechnology and bioengineering research and development. It is also an invaluable resource to postgraduate and doctoral students, educators, professional course students, researchers, and wastewater treatment professionals.

  • Covers different aspects of MBR in wastewater treatment, such as fundamental knowledge, sustainability, cost analysis and case studies
  • Focuses on different MBR configurations and systems/hybrid systems in treating a large variety of wastewaters
  • Provides state-of-the-art technological development of MBR technology, advantages, and challenges as well as strategies to overcome limitations
  • Includes MBR technology in removing priority substances (PSs) and emerging contaminants of environmental concern as well as evaluates energy potential in wastewater treatment
Pubblicato:
Jan 31, 2020
ISBN:
9780128198551
Formato:
Libro

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Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering - Elsevier Science

Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Advanced Membrane Separation Processes for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management - Case Studies and Sustainability Analysis

First Edition

Series Editor

Ashok Pandey

Edited by

Giorgio Mannina

Ashok Pandey

Christian Larroche

How Yong Ng

Huu Hao Ngo

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

Contributors

Authors’ Biography

Preface

1: Sustainability analysis of large-scale membrane bioreactor plant

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Sustainability analysis framework and methodology

3 A case study at a large-scale MBR plant

4 Conclusions and perspectives

2: Fouling control in MBR in a sustainable perspective

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Fouling control strategies

3 Conclusions and perspectives

3: Baffled membrane bioreactor: Efficient nutrient removal, operational energy reduction, and modeling

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2 Materials and methods

3 Performance of the pilot-scale BMBR

4 Conclusions and perspectives

4: Sludge reduction and microbial structures in MBRs: Features influencing the sustainable adoption of MBRs

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2 Sludge reduction mechanism

3 Sludge reduction in conventional MBR

4 Enhancement of sludge reduction of MBR by side-stream reactor

5 Conclusions and perspectives

5: Greenhouse gases from membrane bioreactors: New perspectives on monitoring and mathematical modeling

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Factors influencing N2O emissions

3 Direct emission of GHG from MBR

4 Indirect emissions

5 Mathematical models for accounting GHG emissions

6 Conclusions and perspectives

6: Advanced membrane bioreactors for emerging contaminant removal and quorum sensing control

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2 MBR as a promising treatment for OMPs

3 MBR integrated with other processes for OMP removal

4 Membrane fouling as a result of microbial activity and QQ as a promising solution

5 Conclusions and perspectives

7: Membrane Bioreactors treating tannery wastewaters: Limits and potentials for an optimized full-scale application

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Tannery wastewater characterization

3 Tannery wastewater treatment processes

4 MBR process for tannery wastewater treatment

5 MBR and RO for a enhanced water recovery

6 Tanning wastewater MBR systems modeling

7 Anaerobic MBR for tannery wastewaters

8 Conclusions and perspectives

8: High salinity wastewater treatment by membrane bioreactors

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 MBR configurations for saline wastewater treatment

3 Effects of salinity on MBR performances

4 Effect of wastewater salinity on membrane fouling

5 Effects of salinity on kinetic/stoichiometric parameters in MBR processes

6 Effect of salinity on MBR sludge dewatering

7 Influence of salinity on GHG emission from MBR

8 Conclusions and perspectives

9: Sustainable adoption and future perspectives for membrane bioreactor applications

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Development in membrane bioreactors

3 Current achievements and trends in membrane bioreactors application

4 Case studies on membrane bioreactors applications

5 Conclusions and perspectives

10: Self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactors (SFD MBR) for wastewater treatment: Principles and applications

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 The self-forming membrane: Principles and dynamic behavior

3 Conceptual model and main driving factors

4 Main applications of the SFD MBR

5 Influencing parameters

6 Conclusions and perspectives

11: Environmental profile of decentralized wastewater treatment strategies based on membrane technologies

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2 Wastewater management strategies: Centralization and decentralization

3 Operational efficiency of centralized treatment

4 Change of paradigm based on decentralized technology

5 Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology: General concept

6 Environmental assessment of membrane systems

7 Sustainability approach of decentralized systems

8 Membrane technology in aerobic (MBR) and anaerobic (AnMBR) systems

9 Environmental and economic results

10 Relevant indicators and categories in wastewater technologies

11 Social aspects and decision making

12 Conclusions and prospects

12: Energy and environmental impact of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant treating urban wastewater

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2 Environmental impact of AnMBR

3 Conclusions and perspectives

13: Membrane bioreactors for wastewater reclamation: Cost analysis

Abstract

Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

2 Advantages and disadvantages of MBR: Implication on the treatment costs

3 Wastewater treatment costs

4 Cost curves

5 Data on CAS and MBR costs

6 Conclusions and perspectives

14: Membrane bioreactors sludge: From production to disposal

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 The excess sludge production in MBRs

3 Treatment of MBR excess sludge

4 Sludge dewaterability: Features, operational parameters, and case study

5 Costs of sludge disposal and techniques for excess sludge reduction

6 Conclusions and perspectives

15: New applications in integrated fixed film activated sludge-membrane bioreactor (IFAS-MBR) systems

Abstract

1 Introduction: IFAS classification

2 IFAS-MBR pilot plant for treating municipal wastewater

3 IFAS-MBR pilot plant for high strength and recalcitrant wastewater treatment

4 Conclusions and perspectives

16: Influence of bio(de)flocculation on activated sludge processes in membrane bioreactors

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Bio(de)flocculation dynamics in membrane bioreactor (MBR)

3 Factors affecting bio(de)flocculation in MBR

4 Impact of bio(de)flocculation on membrane bioreactor

5 Bio(de)flocculation kinetic models

6 Conclusions and perspectives

Index

Copyright

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Notices

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Contributors

Andrea Arias     Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain

Vincenzo Belgiorno     Sanitary Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy

Laura Borea     Sanitary Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy

Christoph Brepols     Erftverband, Bergheim, Germany

Riccardo Campo     Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Marco Capodici     Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Zhuo Chen     Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

Fabio Corsino     Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Alida Cosenza     Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Mark Daniel G. de Luna

Environmental Engineering Program, National Graduate School of Engineering

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines

Gaetano Di Bella     Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Enna Kore, Enna, Italy

Daniele Di Trapani     Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

George Ekama     Water Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Guleda Onkal Engin     Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Hanife Sari Erkan     Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Giovanni Esposito     Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy

Massimiliano Fabbricino     Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy

Gumersindo Feijoo     Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain

José Ferrer     CALAGUA – Unidad Mixta UV-UPV, Institut Universitari d'Investigació d’Enginyeria de l’Aigua i Medi Ambient – IIAMA, Universitat Politècnica de València, València, Spain

Wenshan Guo     School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Shadi W. Hasan     Center for Membrane and Advanced Water Technology (CMAT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Hong-Ying Hu

Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing

Shenzhen Environmental Science and New Energy Technology Engineering Laboratory, Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen, PR China

Jing Huang     College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China

Lu-Man Jiang     College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China

Jie Jiang     College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China

Antonio Jiménez-Benítez     CALAGUA – Unidad Mixta UV-UPV, Institut Universitari d'Investigació d’Enginyeria de l’Aigua i Medi Ambient – IIAMA, Universitat Politècnica de València, València; CALAGUA – Unidad Mixta UV-UPV, Department d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat de Valéncia, Valéncia, Spain

Katsuki Kimura     Division of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

Kwok-Yii Leong     Center for Water Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Claudio Lubello     Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Florence, Firenze, Italy

Giorgio Mannina     Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Alberto Mannucci     Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Florence, Firenze, Italy

Jessa Marie J. Millanar-Marfa     Environmental Engineering Program, National Graduate School of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines

María Teresa Moreira     Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain

Vincenzo Naddeo     Sanitary Environmental Engineering Division (SEED), Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy

How Yong Ng     Center for Water Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Huu Hao Ngo     School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Stefano Papirio     Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy

Francesco Pirozzi     Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy

Alfieri Pollice     Istituto Di Ricerca Sulle Acque (IRSA), Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche (CNR), Bari, Italy

Ludovico Pontoni     Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy

Ching-Kwek Pooi     Center for Water Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Jiaxin Qiang     College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China

Usman Rehman     AM-TEAM, Ghent, Belgium

Ángel Robles     CALAGUA – Unidad Mixta UV-UPV, Department d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat de València, València, Spain

Paolo Roccaro     Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

Frank Rogalla     FCC Aqualia, S.A., Madrid, Spain

Aurora Seco     CALAGUA – Unidad Mixta UV-UPV, Department d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat de València, València, Spain

Lei Shi     Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

Mingxing Sun     International Ecosystem Management Partnership, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China

Michele Torregrossa     Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Nouha Bakaraki Turan     Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Federico G.A. Vagliasindi     Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

José Ramón Vázquez     FCC Aqualia, S.A., Madrid, Spain

Pompilio Vergine     Istituto Di Ricerca Sulle Acque (IRSA), Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche (CNR), Bari, Italy

Gaspare Viviani     Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Dan Wang

Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing

Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, PR China

Kaichong Wang     College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China

Guangxue Wu

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, PR China

Tsuey-Shan Yeap     Center for Water Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Yue Zheng     College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China

Zhen Zhou     College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China

Authors’ Biography

Giorgio Mannina is Professor of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering at the Engineering Department of Palermo University—Italy. His research interest and focus is on: advanced wastewater treatments (MBR, MBBR, hybrid processes, IFAS, etc.), BNR processes, mathematical modeling, etc. He is author of more than 350 papers of which > 100 on ISI Journals and Editors of around 10 books with more than 20 authored chapters. He has been invited to give several plenary/keynotes and invited talks, seminars, and lecturers in the international conferences as well as the universities/research institutions. Prof. Mannina has been visiting Professor in several Universities: Columbia University (United States), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium), Laval University (Canada).

Prof. Mannina is Associate/Guest Editor of multiple ISI Journals. He is Chair of the International Water Association (IWA) Task Group on Membrane Bioreactor modeling and control and Member of the IWA Specialist Group Membrane Technology.

Ashok Pandey is currently Distinguished Scientist at the Center for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India and Executive Director (Honorary) at the Center for Energy and Environmental Sustainability—India. His major research and technological development interests are industrial and environmental biotechnology and energy biosciences, focusing on biomass to biofuels and chemicals, waste to wealth and energy, industrial enzymes, etc. Professor Pandey is Adjunct/Visiting Professor/Scientist in universities in France, Brazil, Canada, China, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, etc. and also in several universities in India. He has ~ 1300 publications/communications, which include 16 patents, 83 books, ~ 700 papers and book chapters, etc. with h index of 96 and > 42,000 citations (Google scholar). Professor Pandey is Editor-in-Chief of Bioresource Technology, Honorary Executive Advisor of Journal of Water Sustainability and Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Subject Editor of Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, India.

Christian Larroche is Director of Polytech Clermont-Ferrand, a graduate school of engineering at the University Clermont-Auvergne, France. He is also a member of the research laboratory Institut Pascal and of the laboratory of excellence ImobS3 at the same university. He has strong research skills and expertise in the area of applied microbiology and biochemical engineering. He is author of 220 documents, including 114 articles, three patents, 15 book chapters, and 24 co-editions of books or journal special issues. He is a member of the French Society for Process Engineering (SFGP), French Society of Biotechnology and European Federation of Chemical Engineering. He is administrator of IBA-IFIBiop and editor of Bioresource Technology.

How Yong Ng is a Provost Chair’s Professor of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the National University of Singapore (NUS). He also currently serves as the Director of the NUS Environmental Research Institute and the Director of the Sembcorp-NUS Corporate Laboratory. His research focuses on biological treatment processes including modeling, membrane bioreactor, and microbial fuel cell for water reuse and energy recovery. He had contributed to more than 350 publications in referred international journals and conference papers. Dr. Ng is an Associate Editor of Water Research and an Editor of the Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination. He is a Fellow of the International Water Association (IWA) and is currently the Vice-Chair of the IWA Membrane Technology Specialist Group (MTSG) and the President of the Environmental Engineering Society of Singapore (EESS).

Huu Hao Ngo is currently a Professor of Environmental Engineering who is serving as Deputy Director of Center for Technology in Water and Wastewater, Co-Director of Joint Research Centre for Protective Infrastructure Technology and Environmental Green Bioprocess, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney. Ngo is internationally well-known for his activities in the areas of advanced biological waste treatment technologies and membrane technologies. His expertise and practical experience also covers the areas of water and wastewater quality monitoring and management, water and wastewater treatment reuse technology and assessment, desalination, and solid waste management. Currently, his activities focus more on the development of specific green bioprocessing technologies: resource recovery, water-waste-bioenergy nexus, and greenhouse gas emission control. Ngo has published more than 500 technical papers and a number of patents while receiving several highly recognized honors/awards.

Preface

Giorgio Mannina, Professor of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Engineering Department, Palermo University, Palermo, Italy

Ashok Pandey, Distinguished Scientist, Center for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India, Executive Director (Honorary), Center for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Lucknow, India

Christian Larroche, Director of Polytech Clermont-Ferrand, University Clermont-Auvergne, Clermont Ferrand, France

How Yong Ng, Provost Chair‘s Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Huu Hao Ngo, Professor of Environmental Engineering & Deputy Director of Center for Technology inWater and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia

The book titled Advanced Membrane Separation Processes for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management – Case Studies and Sustainability Analysis is a part of the comprehensive series on Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering (Editor-in-Chief: Ashok Pandey), in which overall three books are included on Advanced Membrane Separation Processes for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management. This book is one of these three books, and it covers advances in the areas of membrane bioreactors (MBR) and provides an excellent, concise, interdisciplinary, and updated overview of MBR technology in terms of pollutants removal, nutrients recovery, and energy production, as well as the energy efficiency of the process and savings. It seeks to give an up-to-date review regarding research developments of MBR systems (including hybrid systems) in wastewater treatment in terms of pollutants removal, nutrients recovery, and energy production, as well as the achievement of energy efficiency of the process itself.

The current challenges that hinder the application and industrialization of MBR technology, knowledge gaps, and future research perspectives are also discussed, including possible strategies to solve the various problems involved. Thus, the book is a valued resource for engineers, scientists, educators, students, and the general public to understand the current developments and future prospects in the field of MBR research. Researchers looking to enter into this endeavor will find substantially detailed material that helps them come up to speed; more experienced practitioners in the field will find this to be a convenient reference source. In this context, this book seeks to bridge the gap between introductory textbooks at one extreme and original research articles at the other.

The book covers different aspects of MBR in wastewater treatment such as fundamental knowledge, sustainability, cost analysis, and case studies. Further, the book focuses on different MBR configurations and hybrid systems in treating a large variety of wastewaters. It also provides state-of-the-art technology development of MBR technology, advantages, and challenges as well as the strategies to overcome the limitations. Finally, the book includes MBR technology in removing the priority substances (PSs) and emerging contaminants of environmental concern as well as evaluates energy potentials in wastewater treatment.

There are 16 chapters presented in this volume, on which a brief overview is provided below. Chapter 1 presents an overall sustainability evaluation of the large-scale MBR plant in terms of technical, environmental, and economical aspects. Authors apply a framework and methodology for a sustainability analysis of the MBR plant to better understand the technical performance of the water reclamation plant with respect to the compliance rate, stability of effluent quality, removal efficiency, and removal loading. Chapter 2 discusses emerging antifouling control methods that are critically reviewed to cover most of the recently emerging studies and issues related to biofouling control. The mechanical cleaning and chemical cleaning through the addition of different chemical agents are discussed in detail, focusing on the latest emerging chemical approaches. In addition, the role of aeration and the development of different modification strategies are negotiated as well for their effect on membrane fouling mitigation and energy consumption minimization. Chapter 3 presents a baffled membrane bioreactor study in which baffles are inserted in a submerged MBR, and the level of water in the reactor is controlled to facilitate simultaneous nitrification/denitrification without sludge recirculation.

Chapter 4 reviews recent advances of sludge reduction and microbial community structure in membrane bioreactors. Four fundamental mechanisms of sludge reduction, lysis-cryptic growth, uncoupling, predation, and maintenance metabolism, were introduced. Chapter 5 presents recent studies on greenhouse gases from MBR discussing the state of the art and future trends. Chapter 6 promotes a more practical approach to increase organic micropollutants removal through MBR and mitigate fouling. Chapter 7 contains a review of MBR application to tannery wastewater treatment based on the scientific literature. An overview of the tannery wastewater characterization and of the common applied wastewater treatment trains is reported. Chapter 8 reviews literature studies on the influence of the salinity on wastewater treatment from MBR, discussing limits and possible cures. Chapter 9 examines the application of MBR technology in the water sector along the dimensions of sustainability: social inclusion, prosperity, and environmental protection. Chapter 10 presents a novel approach toward a more sustainable MBR process of the self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactor (SFD MBR), where temporary filtering layers are formed on a supporting surface made of relatively coarse material. Chapter 11 presents the evaluation of three decentralized plants: (i) one conventional (activated sludge) and (ii) two membrane bioreactors (one aerobic and other anaerobic) from an environmental and economic perspective. Chapter 12 shows results of a case study related to energy and environmental impact of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating urban wastewater. Chapter 13 discusses the costs of MBR reporting and some examples on the evaluation of pro and cons with conventional activated sludge systems. Chapter 14 presents literature studies about sludge disposal from MBR reporting solutions for resource recovery and production minimization. Chapter 15 presents a literature review on Integrated Fixed film Activated Sludge-Membrane Bioreactor (IFAS-MBR) Systems with results from case studies. Finally, Chapter 16 provides principal understanding of bio(de)flocculation of the activated sludge and factors affecting the bio(de)flocculation process in the MBR. We are confident that this book will be profitable to students, professors, researchers, and professionals interested in studying MBR.

We highly appreciate the excellent work done by the authors in compiling the relevant information on different aspects of MBR, presenting case studies and sustainability analysis, which we believe will be very useful to the scientific community. We gratefully acknowledge the reviewers for their valuable comments, which helped in improving the scientific content and quality of various chapters. We also acknowledge the support received from the French Government Research Program Investissements d′avenir through the IMobS3 Laboratory of Excellence (ANR-10-LABX-16-01) to AP and CL. We thank the Elsevier team comprised of Dr. Kostas Marinakis, Senior Book Acquisition Editor; Miss Sara Valentino, Editorial Project Manager; Mr. Omer Mukthar Moosa, Production Manager; and the entire Elsevier production team for their consistent hard work in the publication of this book.

Editors

1

Sustainability analysis of large-scale membrane bioreactor plant

Zhuo Chena; Huu Hao Ngob; Hong-Ying Hua,c; Wenshan Guob; Guangxue Wub,d; Lei Shia; Mingxing Sune; Dan Wanga,d    a Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (SMARC), School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China

b School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

c Shenzhen Environmental Science and New Energy Technology Engineering Laboratory, Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen, PR China

d Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, PR China

e International Ecosystem Management Partnership, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China

Abstract

Many countries and regions around the world have experienced severe water shortages and water contamination problems because of population increase and ever-growing water demands combined with climate change and imbalanced rainfall distributions. Consequently, reclaimed water is being increasingly considered as a feasible and reliable alternative water resource that is vital for water supply and management in a sustainable way. As for reclaimed water production, membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is receiving increasing attention in the wastewater treatment and reuse field. This study presents an overall evaluation of the sustainability of large-scale MBR plants with respect to multiple aspects, namely technical, environmental, and economic sides. As for technical evaluation, the plant performs well on account of a high compliance rate, stable effluent quality, and high removal rate of pollutants over a long-term operation. The plant is also adaptive and responsive to ever-increasing stringent water quality limits. However, from the environmental and economic perspectives, electricity consumption is the main aspect that contributed largely to increased life cycle environmental impacts and costs, accounting for 51.6% of the overall life cycle costs. Consequently, to deal with these challenges, harnessing the best use of energy in the MBR treatment unit and performing strategies on sludge treatment and handling is recommended. The extension of membrane life span also can reduce significantly the life cycle environmental impacts and costs. The results from the study can provide theoretical and applicable information for the operation and management of other MBR plants.

Keywords

Water reuse; membrane bioreactor plant; Performance sustainability; Electricity consumption

Chapter outline

1Introduction

2Sustainability analysis framework and methodology

2.1Technical aspects

2.2Environmental aspects

2.3Economic aspects

2.4Social aspects

3A case study at a large-scale MBR plant

3.1Technical performance

3.2Environmental performance

3.3Economic performance

3.4Overall consideration and evaluation

4Conclusions and perspectives

References

1 Introduction

In recent decades, water shortage and water pollution problems have been recognized as major issues worldwide. Indeed, the rapid increases in population, industrialization, urbanization, socio-economic development, highly variable climate, and rainfall imbalance have strongly influenced both water quality and quantity. The situations are even worse in water-deficient and/or less developed countries and regions where local authorities have only limited ability to handle challenges that are raised in water supply and sanitation [1–3]. Water-related issues have strong connections with health, productivity, and social security [4–6]. By 2050, it is estimated that with the continuing socio-economic development status, more than 67% of the global people will be urban residents. At that time, the world water demand is likely to grow by more than 50% [6]. This can remarkably introduce challenges in guaranteeing the water security and sustainable development for the community [7]. Therefore, it is vital to convert wastewater into useful resources in terms of water, energy, and organics so as to achieve maximized values and move toward a circular economy society [8].

Currently, many water-deficient regions and cities are considering reclaimed water as a feasible and reliable alternative resource for conventional water supply. The nonpotable water reuses include agricultural uses, industrial applications, scenic environment, and recreational uses. Residential uses include landscape irrigation, toilet flushing, road cleaning, fire-fighting, car washing, ornamental fountains, and lakes, etc. [1]. Potable water reuses, including direct and indirect potable reuses, also are receiving increasing attention. The direct potable reuse is associated with the mixture of high-quality reclaimed water with drinking water at the point of water treatment plant (WTP) downstream, or introduction of the reclaimed water before drinking water treatment. The indirect potable reuses highlight the use of environmental buffers such as water storage reservoirs and/or groundwater aquifers for further storage and purification of the reclaimed water via mixing, dilution, and assimilation before entering into the WTP [9,10].

The development and selection of effective wastewater treatment and reuse technologies are vital for fit-for-purpose water reuse [11,12]. Referring to current technologies, membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of biological treatment with membrane filtration have been widely applied worldwide in the last 20 years. MBR technology has remarkable advantages because of limited reagent consumption, a high level of effluent quality, high operational performance in terms of flexibility and reliability, higher sludge retention time than conventional activated sludge, complete solid retention, less excess sludge being produced, and a small footprint [13,14].

Presently, MBR plants are constructed and practiced in more than 200 countries with a rough growth rate of 15% in the global market. By 2019, the total market value of MBR technology is estimated to reach US $3 billion [15]. The number of large-scale MBR installations also continues to grow for multiple wastewater treatment purposes [16,17]. For instance, by the end of 2017, there were about 200 large-scale MBRs in China, the capacity of which are over 4.5 million m³/d. The market value are expected to reach to US $1.3 billion [18–20].

Hence, there is still a strong desire and need both in academic and industrial fields to move the large-scale MBR applications toward sustainable pathways. Notably, there are some barriers in existing MBR systems, such as energy use, high expenses in capital and operational parts, membrane fouling, and module life span as well as full-scale operational experiences. These issues may limit the further expansion of the MBR market globally [21,22]. Many studies have already researched the strategies for membrane fouling control via the newly proposed designs on system configurations [23], the use of additional material or media such as adsorbents, carriers, and enzymes [24,25] or the upgrade of membrane material via advanced approaches [26]. Currently, it is difficult to solve the complicated challenges through a single approach or solely rely on monotonous factors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have looked at the sustainability of MBR systems through holistic assessment by taking into account multifaceted technical, environmental, and economic indicators [16].

Some studies investigated environmental aspects of wastewater treatment and reuse systems in small-scale scenarios and pointed out that compared to traditional activated sludge and natural treatment systems such as reed beds and green roof-based treatment systems, MBR units exerted an overall greater environmental profile as a result of higher energy consumption [27,28]. Likewise, one study compared the environmental impacts of MBR systems with different configurations on a pilot scale and found that there are some connections between technical complexity and environmental footprint [29]. Similarly, another study evaluated the environmental profile of a pilot MBR plant and neglected the input with respect to sludge treatment and disposal. The major contributors to environmental impact are identified to be energy use and membrane module material [30]. Additionally, one study focused on small wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and applied the environmental assessment and cost-benefit approaches to compare the treatment technologies. It is identified that MBRs achieved superior performance due to the production of high-quality effluent [31]. However, doubt continues since experiences and lessons learned from small-scale or pilot-scale MBR systems could hardly provide a holistic evaluation of the system due to the limited scale [16,32,33].

In addition, it is proposed to conduct an overall assessment of advanced treatment processes in terms of technical, environmental, and economic views [34]. Similarly, another study recommended the evaluation of treatment approaches through multicriteria analysis based on economic, environmental, and social concerns [35]. Currently, further research is needed to assess the sustainability of large-scale MBR plants, which can provide implications for other projects and sustainable water reuse practices [36].

Consequently, this chapter reviews the sustainability performance of a full-scale MBR plant and evaluates the behavior and advantages according to detailed analyses that integrate multiple dimensions and indicators. The information is expected to: first, further the development and expansion of MBR projects; and second, provide a better implication of the connections between water, energy, nutrients, and materials so that resource utilization and recovery are maximized.

2 Sustainability analysis framework and methodology

The sustainability of the MBR project is likely to influence the practice of potential new end use applications as well as the expansion of existing water reuse facilities. In many circumstances, it is difficult to evaluate all accumulative and interactive effects of multifaceted activities via a single dimension since each aspect reflects the project from a different perspective. For instance, one study has evaluated five different treatment processes and observed that although the MBR process is able to produce the effluent with highest quality, the associated environmental impacts and costs are relatively high [37]. For integral sustainability evaluation, a systematic framework can be established, which normally consists of four dimensions, namely the technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects [35,36]. Each aspect can be evaluated in terms of several indexes and subindexes.

2.1 Technical aspects

The influent concentrations and rations among different water quality parameters of reclaimed water may affect the treatment unit selection and the functions. Similarly, the effluent quality are also important to assess the performance of MBR since high concentrations of some of the parameters may subsequently affect or introduce risks on human health, the environment, and advanced treatment process design. Therefore, it is vital to perform statistical analyses on water quality parameters of concern, such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) [38]. Statistical analyses of these parameters can be conducted with certain tools, such as OriginPro (developed by OriginLab Corporation, Northampton, USA) and Excel. Based on this information, further studies can be conducted to evaluate the plant's technical performance.

Currently, the technical aspects can be assessed via qualitative and quantitative ways. As for technical performance indicators, stability of effluent quality, reliability, and simplicity are normally classified as qualitative indicators. The quantitative indicators usually refer to removal loading, removal efficiency, and the distribution of effluent concentrations, etc. [39,40]. Apart from this, another key objective of the MBR plant is to satisfy the standard or guideline requirements on effluent discharge or water reuse so as to protect the receiving water environment [41,42]. For ease of calculation and comparison, four important indexes: the compliance rate, stability of effluent quality, removal efficiency, and removal loading are proposed for evaluating technical performance in this study. The calculated equations of the technical indexes are shown as follows.

(1)Compliance rate:

   (1)

where, Ns refers to the number of samples of which the produced effluent quality meet the relevant standard or guideline values; Nt is the total number of samples.

(2)Stability of effluent quality:

   (2)

where, SDeff and Meaneff are the standard deviation and the mean value of effluent quality, respectively;

(3)Removal efficiency:

   (3)

(4)Removal loading:

   (4)

where, Cin and Ceff are the influent and effluent concentrations of water quality parameters, respectively.

2.2 Environmental aspects

Despite tertiary treatment of a WWTP can greatly improve the effluent quality, it directly or indirectly affects the overall environmental profile as a result of substantial energy, chemicals, and other materials’ utilization [43]. Recently, the short term and long term impacts of wastewater treatment and reclamation processes on the environment have been receiving increasing attention. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is considered as an effective approach for environmental impact assessment. It can give holistic environmental performance results as the tool takes into account both the input- and output-related interventions and address the release of typical substances (e.g., CO2 for the whole life cycle) to the environmental media (e.g., air, soil, or water bodies) [44,45].

Thus, LCA has been performed in this chapter to evaluate the environmental aspects of the MBR plants thoroughly. There are normally four steps in the LCA whole processes that are interconnected and can be applied sequentially for assessment and decision-making. These include: Step 1: goal and scope definitions, Step 2: life cycle inventory analysis, Step 3: life cycle impact assessment, and Step 4: life cycle improvement analysis and interpretation [46–49]. Specifically, in Step 1, it is important to identify the inputs and outputs of the LCA system boundary (e.g., materials, energy sources, emissions, and wastes). For simplicity and efficiency of the analysis, some insignificant factors can be excluded or ignored in the LCA study. This can also contribute to energy and time savings regarding data collection in Step 2 [50].

In Step 3, several life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approaches including midpoint, endpoint, and combined approaches are normally applied for quantification of different environmental indexes. For midpoint approach methodologies, it is found that EDIP 97 and CML 2001 only resulted in minor differences for most impact categories except for the ones that describe toxicity to humans and the ecosystems. However, since EDIP 97 and Eco-indicator 99 are midpoint and endpoint methodologies, respectively, their calculation algorithms for weighting and aggregation of most important contributors are apparently different. Hence, their results for some inventories finally reached in opposite directions [51]. These indicate that more studies should be devoted to LCA indicators associated with human and ecosystem toxicity. Existing LCIA methodologies could not result in similar conclusions in terms of toxicity aspects [51,52]. Presently, the selection of LCIA approaches and the implementation of LCA analyses can be easily performed by commercial LCA software such as Gabi and SimaPro.

In this chapter, the wastewater treatment and reclamation units (e.g., fine screen, grit chamber, biological treatment, MBR, and disinfection processes) are included in the system boundary. The associated energy flows, chemical flows, and material flows as well as effluent, emission, and sludge treatment are considered. Due to the lack of field data and limited environmental impacts, construction and demolition phases of the MBR plant are excluded from LCA system boundary [53,54]. The GaBi software is applied for detailed calculation and modeling processes. For the LCIA analysis, CML2001 midpoint methodology is applied where 15 categories are included in the approach, namely the aquatic acidification, aquatic ecotoxicity, aquatic eutrophication, global warming potential (for a given horizon of 500 years), ionizing radiation, land occupation, mineral extraction, carcinogens, noncarcinogens, nonrenewable energy, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidation, respiratory effects, terrestrial acidification/nitrification, and terrestrial ecotoxicity [55].

2.3 Economic aspects

In order to establish economic indexes, both the internal factors and external factors are suggested to be considered whenever possible [41].

The internal costs are normally comprised of:

•Capital costs, which include land, civil, machinery, equipment, and distribution works as well as the construction of treatment, storage, and distribution facilities. For a typical WRP, the capital costs normally account for 45%–75% of the total cost [56].

•Operational and maintenance costs, which include routine expenses related to wastewater treatment, storage, and distribution as well as water quality monitoring and maintenance [57].

•Financial subsidies and taxes. Some water reuse projects have received financial supports in terms of investment subsidies, long-term loans, interest rebates or state taxes. These ways can contribute to reclaimed water affordability [58].

External benefit refers to quantifying the available aspects based on hypothetical scenarios or patterns observed in related markets with respect to health and financial savings from reduced diseases and work/school absenteeism avoided). External costs are excluded from consideration since it is difficult to quantify external influences in monetary units [59]. For simplicity and ease of calculation, life cycle cost (LCC) is performed in which the internal costs are calculated as expense per functional unit. Specifically, capital costs of the MBR plant refer to expenses on land acquisition, civil works, and facilities whereas the operation and maintenance costs of the project are mainly associated water electricity and chemical use, MBR membrane module material use (i.e., polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF) and waste discharge (i.e., effluent discharge and sludge disposal). All relevant data on economic aspects are obtained from field investigation on a full-scale MBR plant [60].

2.4 Social aspects

Regarding social performance indicators, public awareness, public acceptability, political support, educational opportunity, local development, indigenous and heritage features, aesthetics, and traffic disruption are often considered as main indexes. These need to be seriously addressed when considering the further exploitation and development of water reuse schemes [61–63]. Because of the unavailability of related quantitative data for social indicators of the project and low reliability of the qualitative data for analysis, this chapter has performed the sustainability analysis without considering the social indexes. When the results from a comprehensive assessment are shown to be within unsustainable levels, corresponding management and/or control strategies need to be established, and the project can then be reevaluated. Nevertheless, the model structure and boundary differences are required to be carefully assessed, which may possibly induce misinterpreted or ambiguous conclusions [64].

3 A case study at a large-scale MBR plant

In China, apart from water scarcity and the desire of high-quality reclaimed water production for subsequent applications, the bloom of MBR applications also is accelerated by ever stringent regulations and standards on WWTP effluent discharge and water reuse [17]. It is found that for large scale municipal wastewater treatment and reuse, the MBR systems with the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) configurations have wider applications than MBRs with oxic and anoxic/oxic processes [18]. Noticeability, the AAO processes are able to achieve satisfactory removal rates of nutrients (e.g., TN and TP) and soluble extracellular polymeric substances while eliminating potential membrane foulants. These facilitate the performance of MBR unit downstream [16,60]. Therefore, to illustrate the sustainability evaluation processes, a case study is conducted at a full-scale AAO-MBR plant. The plant is located in Kunming city, China, with a capacity of 60,000 m³/d (Fig. 1). In addition, another adjacent water reuse project using ACTIFLO (i.e., coagulation and flocculation) processes with a capacity of 210,000 m³/d is also included for comparison and reference.

Fig. 1 Generic flow chart and system boundary of the MBR plant.

For both of the plants, the functional unit is the production of 1 m³ of reclaimed water. All the scenarios, i.e., setting, influent, material, electricity, and chemical inputs, effluent, emissions, sludge treatment, emissions, etc., are calculated on the basis of this functional unit. As can be seen, in the MBR plant, electricity flows are related to the fine screen, grit chamber, biological treatment, MBR, sludge treatment, and ozonation processes. The chemical flows are associated with the addition of chemical reagents in influent, primary, biological, MBR, and sludge treatment as well as the residuals in effluent, whereas the material flows mainly refer to membrane material use in MBR processes.

3.1 Technical performance

Table 1 summarizes the influent and effluent quality of both WRPs (plant A: ACTIFLO processes and plant B: MBR processes) with respect to six key water quality parameters. The origins of wastewater sources are mainly municipal sewage streams, with a possible mixture of other sources such as industrial wastewater, stormwater, and/or surface water. Thus, the influent water quality of both plants is relatively stable and less contaminated in organics and nutrients compared to pure industrial streams. As shown in Table 1, the influent concentrations of both WRPs are maintained at similar contamination levels. After treatment processes, the effluent concentrations of all parameters declined significantly. Nevertheless, the technical performances of both plants can vary largely because of the application of different wastewater treatment and reclamation processes.

Table 1

Note: UQ, upper quartile, 75th percentile; median, 50th percentile; LQ, lower quartile, 25th percentile; SD, standard deviation.

Specifically, the compliance rates of both WRPs are assessed, and two regulations are applied for evaluation. One regulation is the Chinese national discharge standard of pollutants for municipal WWTPs (GB18918-2002). The Class 1A water quality in the guideline is currently implemented as compulsory requirements for both plants, which prescribed the requirements of BOD5, CODCr, SS, TN, TP, and NH3-N as 10, 50, 10, 15, 0.5, and 5 mg/L, respectively. The effluent that reaches the Class 1A water quality level is allowed to be applied for urban scenic environmental and recreational uses [38]. Additionally, another scenario regarding the execution of a new regulation with more rigorous water quality requirements is also taken into account since there is a high possibility of local authorities to enact legislations and policies toward water contamination reduction and local water environment enhancement.

According to Fig. 2A, both of the plants achieve high levels of compliance to the national standard. Especially for the MBR plant, 100% of compliance rates are observed in all water quality parameters over a long-term operational period. In comparison, the effluent quality of the ACTIFLO plant experienced some fluctuations in terms of SS, TN, TP and NH3-N parameters and only the concentrations of BOD5 and CODCr reached 100% compliance rates.

Fig. 2 Technical performances of the MBR plant. (A) N refers to compliance rates that correspond to Class 1A water quality of Chinese national discharge standard of pollutants for municipal WWTPs (GB18918-2002), (B) Stability indicates the fluctuations of effluent quality and stable operation of the plants, (C) L refers to compliance rates that correspond to the scenario of a stringent local standard, (D) Removal efficiency and removal loading indicate the capability for pollutant removals.

Meanwhile, a scenario analysis of the compliance rates of both plants is also done based on the proposed new guideline limits. As illustrated in Fig. 2B, under a more stringent regulation scenario, the MBR system is still capable of achieving a satisfactory performance in effluent quality. The overall compliance rates of all water quality parameters are as high as 97%, except for TN. However, the ACTIFLO plant is less adaptive to the improvement of guideline limits, where compliance rates of the effluent quality are likely to decrease dramatically. This suggests that additional treatment measures should be conducted in plant A when facing more rigorous regulations. Remarkably, under this scenario, the removal of nitrogen should be addressed in both plants.

As well, during the WRP's route operation and management, many factors can affect the performance of the system, including shock loadings on influent quality (e.g., the intrusion of toxic and harmful substances), malfunction of one treatment unit, and microbial reactivation and regrowth after disinfection. Hence, it is vital to ensure the stability and resilience of the WRP so as to maintenance the high quality of effluent in spite of complicated and varying situations. As shown in Fig. 2C, the MBR system is able to achieve higher technical performance with respect to stability of effluent quality. In addition, regarding the removal efficiency of typical water quality parameters (Fig. 2D), a removal rate of more than 95% has been achieved by the MBR system on parameters including BOD5, CODCr, SS, TP, and NH4-N. Nevertheless, both plant A and B have poor removal rates on TN, which are only 58.3% and 69.9%, respectively. The results are similar to findings from other research, which reported that low removal rates of nutrients (e.g., TN and TP) are observed in more than 90% of WWTPs, especially the TN [65]. Additionally, as for removal loadings that are calculated as per unit of treated effluent, MBR plant exhibited a poor performance compared to plant A.

3.2 Environmental performance

Table 2 demonstrated the life cycle inventory data. Most of the data are sourced from field investigation or calculated from stoichiometry and are displayed based on the functional unit of 1 m³ of treated water. Based on the actual plant design planning, the life spans of ACTIFLO and MBR plant are measured as 23 and 25 years, respectively.

Table 2

Gas emissions calculated from stoichiometry refer to equations described by Refs. [38, 64].

a The numbers in the bracket are the ends of 95% confidence interval of water and solid wastes generation.

b The price of the pollutants in the water emissions is taken from The Law of China Environmental Protection Tax.

Table 3 illustrates the life cycle environmental impacts of two WRPs and the main contributors of different impact categories. As can be seen, in the MBR system, the dominant processes contributing to the environmental impact are electricity use, sludge landfill, membrane material use (i.e., PVDF), and direct emissions of gas and water. The results are consistent with findings from other similar studies [30]. It is worth noting that the existing sludge treatment and management (e.g., direct

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