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Solutions to the Unsolved Physics Problems

Solutions to the Unsolved Physics Problems

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Solutions to the Unsolved Physics Problems

149 pagine
1 ora
Apr 19, 2019


People have always wanted answers to the big questions. Where did we come from? How did the universe begin? What is the meaning and design behind it all? Is there anyone out there? The creation accounts of the past now seem less relevant and credible. They have been replaced by a variety of what can only be called superstitions, ranging from New Age to Star Trek. But real science can be far stranger than science fiction, and much more satisfying.

I am a scientist. And a scientist with a deep fascination with physics, cosmology, the universe and the future of humanity. I was brought up by my parents to have an unwavering curiosity and, like my father, to research and try to answer the many questions that science asks us. I have spent my life travelling across the universe, inside my mind. Through theoretical physics, I have sought to answer some of the great questions. At one point, I thought I would see the end of physics as we know it, but now I think the wonder of discovery will continue long after I am gone. We are close to some of these answers, but we are not there yet.

The problem is, most people believe that real science is too difficult and complicated for them to understand. But I don't think this is the case. To do research on the fundamental laws that govern the universe would require a commitment of time that most people don't have; the world would soon grind to a halt if we all tried to do theoretical physics. But most people can understand and appreciate the basic ideas if they are presented in a clear way with equations, which I believe is possible and which is something I have enjoyed trying to do throughout my life.

It has been a glorious time to be alive and doing research in theoretical physics. Our picture of the universe has changed a great deal in the last fifty years, and I'm happy if I have made a contribution. One of the great revelations of the space age has been the perspective it has given humanity on ourselves. When we see the Earth from space, we see ourselves as a whole. We see the unity, and not the divisions. It is such a simple image with a compelling message; one planet, one human race.

I want to add my voice to those who demand why we must ask the big questions immediate action on the key challenges for our global community. I hope that going forward, even when I am no longer here, people with power can show creativity, courage and leadership. Let them rise to the challenge of the sustainable development goals, and act, not out of self-interest, but out of common interest. I am very aware of the preciousness of time. Seize the moment. Act now.

Apr 19, 2019

Informazioni sull'autore

Balungi Francis was born in Kampala, Uganda, to a single poor mother, grew up in Kawempe, and later joined Makerere Universty in 2006, graduating with a Bachelor Science degree in Land Surveying in 2010. For four years he taught in Kampala City high schools, majoring in the fields of Gravitation and Quantum Physics. His first book, "Mathematical Foundation of the Quantum theory of Gravity," won the Young Kampala Innovative Prize and was mentioned in the African Next Einstein Book Prize (ANE).  He has spent over 15years researching and discovering connections in physics, mathematics, geometry, cosmology, quantum mechanics, gravity, in addition to astrophysics, unified physics and geographical information systems . These studies led to his groundbreaking theories, published papers, books and patented inventions in the science of Quantum Gravity, which have received worldwide recognition. From these discoveries, Balungi founded the SUSP (Solutions to the Unsolved Scientific Problems) Project Foundation in 2004 – now known as the SUSP Science Foundation. As its current Director of Research, Balungi leads physicists, mathematicians and engineers in exploring Quantum Gravity  principles and their implications in our world today and for future generations. Balungi launched the Visionary School of Quantum Gravity  in 2016 in order to bring the learning and community further together. It’s the first and only Quantum Gravity physics program of its kind, educating thousands of students from over 80 countries. The book "Quantum Gravity in a Nutshell1", a most recommend book in quantum gravity research , was produced based on Balungi's discoveries and their potential for generations to come. Balungi is currently guiding the Foundation, speaking to audiences worldwide, and continuing his groundbreaking research.

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Solutions to the Unsolved Physics Problems - Balungi Francis



To my wife W. Ritah for his constant feedback throughout and many long hours of editing,

To my sons Odhran and Leander,

To Carlo Rovelli, Neil deGrasse Tyson and Sabine Hossenfielder, I say thank you.


In 1900, the British physicist Lord Kelvin declared There is nothing new to discover in physics. All that remains is to more accurately measure its quantities today, hardly anyone would dare say that our knowledge of the universe and everything in it is almost complete.

There are still some deficiencies in the standard model of physics, such as the origin of mass, the strong CP problem, neutrino oscillatiobs, matter-antimatter asymmetry and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Another problem lies within the mathematical framework of the standard model itself.

Some of the major problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomena or experimental result. The others are experimental meaning that there is difficulty in creating an experiment to test a proposed theory.

In what follows, there is given a discussion of what are arguably the most unsolved problems in physics, astrophysics and cosmology. And this book sets to solve them living none untouched. The form of the discussion is not negative: formulating a problem succinctly is essential to a solution. Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of what follows is that many of the problems are interrelated, so the solution of one or a few opens the prospect of widespread advancement.

An excerpt from Lee Smolin’s book the trouble with physics explains in detail what this book is all about as given below in Lee’s original words.

To be fair we’ve made two experimental discoveries in the past few decades, that neutrinos have mass and that the universe is dominated by a mysterious dark energy that seems to be accelerating its expansion. But we have no idea why neutrinos (or any other particles) have mass or what explains their mass values. As for dark energy, its not explained in terms of any existing theory. Its discovery cannot then be counted as a success, for it suggests that there is some major fact we are all missing. And except for dark energy, no new particle has been discovered, no new force found, no new phenomenon encountered that was not known and understood twenty-five years ago.

Don’t get me wrong. For the past 25years we have certainly been very busy. There has been enormous progress in applying established theories to diverse subjects; the properties of materials, the molecular physics underlying biology, the dynamics of vast clusters of stars. But when it comes to extending our knowledge of the laws of nature we have made no real head way. Many beautiful ideas have been explored, and there have been remarkable particle aaccelerator experiments and cosmological observations, but these have mainly served to confirm exisiting theory. There have been few leaps forward, and none as definitive or important as those of the previous 200years. When something like this happens in sports or business, it’s called hitting the wall.

What are the major unsolved problems in physics? And what can we do to solve them? These are the central questions of my book.

1. The Problem of Quantum Gravity

Today we are blessed with two extraordinarily successful theories of physics. The first is the General theory of relativity, which describe the large scale behavior of matter in a curved space time. This theory is the basis for the standard model of big bang cosmology. The discovery of gravitational waves at LIGO observatory in the US (and then Virgo, in Italy) is only the most recent of this theory’s many triumphs.

The second is quantum mechanics. This theory describes the properties and behavior of matter and radiation at their smallest scales. It is the basis for the standard model of particle physics, which builds up all the visible constituents of the universe out of collections of quarks, electrons and force-carrying particles such as photons. The discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN in Geneva is only the most recent of this theory’s many truimphs.

But, while they are both highly successful, those two structures leave a lot of important questions unanswered. They are also based on two different interpretations of space and time, and are therefore fundamentally incompatible. We have two descriptions but, as far as we know, we’ve only ever had one universe. What we need is a quantum theory of gravity.

The development of a quantum theory of gravity began in 1899 with Max Planck’s formulation of Planck scales of mass, time, and length. During this period, the theories of quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and general relativity had not yet been developed. This means that Planck himself had no idea about what he had just developed-behind the Black board. Planck was not aware of quantum gravity and what it would mean for physicists. But he had just coined in formula one of the starting point for the holy grail of physics.

After P.Bridgman’s disapproval of Planck’s units in 1922, Albert Einstein having published the General Relativity theory, a few months after its publication he noted that to the intra-atomic movement of electrons, atoms would have to radiate not only electromagnetic but also gravitational energy if only in tiny amounts, as this is hardly true in nature, it appears that quantum theory would have to modify not only Maxwellian electrodynamics, but also the new theory of gravitation. This showed Einstein’s interest in the unification of Planck’s quantum theory with his newly developed theory of Gravitation.

Then in 1933 came Bronstein’s cGh-plan as we know it today. In his plan he argued a need for Quantum Gravity. In his own words he stated: After the relativistic quantum theory is created, the task will be to develop the next part of our scheme that is, to unify quantum theory (h), special relativity (c) and the theory of gravitation (G) into a single theory. Thus the theory of quantum gravity is expected to be able to provide a satisfactory description of the microstructure of space time at the so called Planck scales, at which all fundamental constants of the ingredient theories, c (speed of light), h ( Planck constant) and G ( Newton’s constant), come together to form units of mass, length and time.

The need for the theory of quantum gravity is crucial in understanding nature, from the smallest to the biggest particle ever known in the universe. For example, we can describe the behavior of flowing water with the long- known classical theory of hydrodynamics, but if we advance to smaller and smaller scales and eventually come across individual atoms, it no longer applies. Then we need quantum physics just as a liquid consists of atoms. Daniel Oriti in this case imagines space to be made up of tiny cells or atoms of space and a new theory of quantum gravity is required to describe them fully.

The demand for consistency between a quantum description of matter and a geometric description of spacetime, as well as the appearance of singularities and the black hole information paradox indicate the need for a full theory of quantum gravity. For example; for a full description of the interior of black holes, and of the very early universe, a theory is required in which gravity and the associated geometry of space-time are described in the language of quantum physics. Despite major efforts, no complete and consistent theory of quantum gravity is currently known, even though a number of promising candidates exist.

For us to solve the problem of quantum gravity (QG) we need to address and understand in detail the situations where the general theory of relativity (GR) fails. That is; General relativity fails to account for dark matter, GR fails to explain details near or beyond space-time singularities. That is, for high or infinite densities where matter is enclosed in a very small volume of space.  Abhay Ashtekar says that; when you reach the singularity in general relativity, physics just stops, the equations break down. In this chapter, we shall spend a big deal of our time discussing the resolution of classical singularities that plague General relativity.

The two approaches to formulation of quantum gravity leads to string theory, a theory which is problematic and still debatable. In what follows, we modify the uncertainity principle to create a structure called Loop quantum gravity which in turn provides a solution to the information paradox problem and the resolution of classical singularities which plague the General theory of relativity.

(a)Quantum geometry

To reconcile quanum mechanics with general relativity, we develop a quantum geometry in relativistic phase space (Rindler space) in which the maximal (proper) acceleration of a particle is modified to read,


Where, c is the constant speed of light, r is the linear dimension of a particle

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