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Approaches to Water Sensitive Urban Design: Potential, Design, Ecological Health, Urban Greening, Economics, Policies, and Community Perceptions

Approaches to Water Sensitive Urban Design: Potential, Design, Ecological Health, Urban Greening, Economics, Policies, and Community Perceptions

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Approaches to Water Sensitive Urban Design: Potential, Design, Ecological Health, Urban Greening, Economics, Policies, and Community Perceptions

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1,856 pagine
20 ore
Pubblicato:
Oct 3, 2018
ISBN:
9780128128442
Formato:
Libro

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Approaches to Water Sensitive Urban Design: Potential, Design, Ecological Health, Economics, Policies and Community Perceptions covers all aspects on the implementation of sustainable storm water systems for urban and suburban areas whether they are labeled as WSUD, Low Impact Development (LID), Green Infrastructure (GI), Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) or the Sponge City Concept. These systems and approaches are becoming an integral part of developing water sensitive cities as they are considered very capable solutions in addressing issues relating to urbanization, climate change and heat island impacts in dealing with storm water issues.

The book is based on research conducted in Australia and around the world, bringing in perspectives in an ecosystems approach, a water quality approach, and a sewer based approach to stormwater, all of which are uniquely covered in this single resource.

  • Presents a holistic examination of the current knowledge on WSUD and storm water, including water quality, hydrology, social impacts, economic impacts, ecosystem health, and implementation guidelines
  • Includes additional global approaches to WSUD, including SUDS, LID, GI and the Sponge City Concept
  • Covers the different perspectives from Australia (ecosystem based), the USA (water quality based) and Europe (sewer based)
  • Addresses storm water management during the civil construction stage when much of the ecological damage can be done
Pubblicato:
Oct 3, 2018
ISBN:
9780128128442
Formato:
Libro

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Approaches to Water Sensitive Urban Design - Elsevier Science

Approaches to Water Sensitive Urban Design

Potential, Design, Ecological Health, Urban Greening, Economics, Policies, and Community Perceptions

Editors

Ashok K. Sharma

Ted Gardner

Don Begbie

Table of Contents

Cover image

Title page

Copyright

List of Contributors

Editors

Foreword

Preface

Chapter 1. History of Water Sensitive Urban Design/Low Impact Development Adoption in Australia and Internationally

1.1. Introduction

1.2. North America

1.3. Europe

1.4. Australia—Water Sensitive Urban Design

1.5. New Zealand—Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD)

1.6. East Asia

1.7. Developing countries and their cities

1.8. Conclusion

Chapter 2. Water Sensitive Urban Design Approaches and Their Description

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Overview of water sensitive urban design approaches

2.3. Drivers for implementing water sensitive urban design approaches

2.4. Avoiding stormwater pollution

2.5. Mitigation options

2.6. Conclusion

Chapter 3. Stormwater Quality, Pollutant Sources, Processes, and Treatment Options

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Impacts of urbanization on aquatic ecosystems

3.3. Stormwater pollutants and sources

3.4. Influence of catchment and rainfall characteristics on stormwater quality and quantity

3.5. Pollutant processes

3.6. Chemical and microbial characteristics of stormwater

3.7. Overview of Water Sensitive Urban Design and current treatment approaches

3.8. Conclusions

Chapter 4. WSUD Design Guidelines and Data Needs

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Design guidelines

4.3. Data requirement for planning and design of water sensitive urban design systems

4.4. Conclusions

Chapter 5. The Role of Policy and Regulation in WSUD Implementation

5.1. Introduction

5.2. The evolution of institutional arrangements to promote technological innovation

5.3. WSUD implementation around the world

5.4. Australia

5.5. United States of America

5.6. Singapore

5.7. Europe

5.8. Lessons from the case studies

5.9. Conclusions

Chapter 6. Flood and Peak Flow Management Using WSUD Systems

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Flood management concepts

6.3. A review of WSUD-based flood control case studies

6.4. Discussion and research needs

6.5. Conclusions

Chapter 7. Water Sensitive Urban Design Approaches in Sewer System Overflow Management

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Stormwater control measures to reduce flows to combined sewers

7.3. Full-scale monitoring of WSUD/GI benefits for CSO control

7.4. Beneficial use of stormwater in CSO management plans

7.5. Conclusions

Chapter 8. Erosion and Sediment Control—WSUD During the Construction Phase of Land Development

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Erosion processes and management approaches

8.3. Construction and operational-phase sediment loads

8.4. Compliance levels and industry performance

8.5. Design standards and innovation

8.6. Regulatory approaches

8.7. Roles, responsibilities, and contracts

8.8. Conversion of construction-phase measures to permanent WSUD infrastructure

8.9. Conclusion

Chapter 9. Water Harvesting Potential of WSUD Approaches

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Stormwater runoff in the urban context

9.3. Yield assessment

9.4. Runoff capture and diversion

9.5. Storing harvested stormwater

9.6. The need for water treatment

9.7. Distribution and plumbing

9.8. Opportunities to integrate water harvesting into WSUD systems

9.9. Jurisdictional and governance considerations

9.10. Conclusion

Chapter 10. Using WSUD to Restore Predevelopment Hydrology

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Impact of urbanization on a catchment water balance

10.3. Effect of urbanization on flow regimes

10.4. Physical causes of flow regime change

10.5. Toward restoration of predevelopment flow regimes

10.6. Restoration of flow regimes at the catchment scale

10.7. Conclusion

Chapter 11. Urbanization: Hydrology, Water Quality, and Influences on Ecosystem Health

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Methods

11.3. Results and discussion

11.4. Macroinvertebrate assemblage composition

11.5. Conclusions

Chapter 12. Protecting and Managing Stream Morphology in Urban Catchments Using WSUD

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Channel form and function in urban catchments

12.3. Stormwater as an effective geomorphic agent

12.4. Sediment supply considerations

12.5. Rethinking stormwater management to better manage stream morphology

12.6. Managing sediment for stream protection and recovery

12.7. Perceptions and practicalities of streams in urban catchments

12.8. Conclusion

Chapter 13. Urban Lakes as a WSUD System

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Urban lakes and urban development

13.3. Urban lakes and stormwater quantity

13.4. Factors impacting urban lake health

13.5. Urban lakes and stormwater treatment

13.6. Evolution of urban design principles, management, and role in WSUD

13.7. Urban lakes and ecosystem health

13.8. Conclusions

Chapter 14. Economics of Water Sensitive Urban Design

14.1. Introduction

14.2. The overarching framework for WSUD economics—cost–benefit analysis using a total economic value framework

14.3. Estimating WSUD investment project costs

14.4. Shortcomings and challenges

14.5. Suburb-scale case study

14.6. Conclusion

Chapter 15. Optimization of WSUD Systems: Selection, Sizing, and Layout

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Use of simulation and optimization models for WSUD design

15.3. Case studies

15.4. Future developments

15.5. Summary and conclusions

Chapter 16. Infrastructure and Urban Planning Context for Achieving the Visions of Integrated Urban Water Management and Water Sensitive Urban Design: The Case of Melbourne

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Literature review on concepts and barriers

16.3. Exploring barriers using Melbourne as a case study

16.4. Discussion

16.5. Conclusion

Chapter 17. Integrating WSUD and Mainstream Spatial Planning Approaches: Lessons From South Africa

17.1. The interface between green infrastructure and WSUD

17.2. The state of WSUD in South Africa

17.3. The application of WSUD in a South African context

17.4. Spatial planning context in South Africa

17.5. South African approaches to WSUD

17.6. Lessons from South Africa

17.7. Conclusions

Chapter 18. The Role of WSUD in Contributing to Sustainable Urban Settings

18.1. The current role of WSUD in urban development

18.2. WSUD and urban planning

18.3. Drivers and impediments to the application of WSUD

18.4. Limiting factors for WSUD, IUWCM, and WSCs

18.5. Conclusion

Chapter 19. WSUD and Urban Heat Island Effect Mitigation

19.1. Introduction—urbanization and the urban heat island effect

19.2. Heat mitigation strategies (green infrastructure and WSUD)

19.3. Cooling effect of waterbodies

19.4. Cooling effect of urban greening

19.5. Urban greening case study

19.6. WSUD case study

19.7. Conclusion

Chapter 20. The Role of Green Roofs and Living Walls as WSUD Approaches in a Dry Climate

20.1. Water sensitive urban design

20.2. Green roof and living wall concepts

20.3. Green roof elements

20.4. Living wall elements

20.5. Green roof hydrology

20.6. Stormwater quality

20.7. Green roof vegetation growth factors

20.8. Thermal performance of green roofs

20.9. Conclusion

Chapter 21. Greening and Cooling the City Using Novel Urban Water Systems: A European Perspective

21.1. Existing challenges

21.2. Prospects for urban water management due to novel water infrastructure concepts

21.3. Consequences and required changes in the context of urban design

21.4. Conclusion

Chapter 22. WSUD Asset Management Operation and Maintenance

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Types of stormwater control measure

22.3. Operational and maintenance requirements for stormwater control measures

22.4. Lifespan of stormwater control measures

22.5. Asset management for stormwater control measures—the challenges

22.6. The path to initial success

22.7. The future of stormwater control measure asset management

22.8. Conclusion

Chapter 23. Capacity Building for WSUD Implementation

23.1. Introduction

23.2. What is capacity building?

23.3. Case study—South Australia

23.4. Future of WSUD capacity building

23.5. Conclusions

Chapter 24. Community Perceptions of the Implementation and Adoption of WSUD Approaches for Stormwater Management

24.1. Introduction

24.2. Visibility of WSUD systems

24.3. Recreation and other amenity

24.4. Economic considerations for residents and communities

24.5. Place attachment

24.6. Social capital and community engagement

24.7. Conclusion

Chapter 25. Post Implementation Assessment of WSUD Approaches: Kansas City Case. WSUD Systems Scale Monitoring and Watershed Level Model Validation

25.1. Introduction

25.2. Literature review

25.3. Field methods

25.4. Model framework

25.5. Results of catchment model prediction

25.6. Conclusions

Chapter 26. WSUD Implementation in a Precinct Residential Development: Perth Case Study

26.1. Introduction: precinct approaches to integrated urban water management

26.2. Project overview

26.3. Integrated Urban Water Management initiatives

26.4. Industry engagement and knowledge sharing

26.5. Conclusion

Chapter 27. WSUD Best in Class—Case Studies From Australia, New Zealand, United States, Europe, and Asia

27.1. Introduction

27.2. Case studies

27.3. Discussion and conclusions

Index

Copyright

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List of Contributors

Simon Beecham,     Natural and Built Environments Research Centre, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Don Begbie,     Urban Water Security Research Alliance, South East Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Beau B. Beza,     School of Architecture and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia

Rosmina Bustami,     Natural and Built Environments Research Centre, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Josh Byrne,     School of Design and Built Environment, Curtin University, Bentley, WA, Australia

Rob Catchlove,     Wave Consulting, Southbank, VIC, Australia

Elizelle Juanee Cilliers,     Urban and Regional Planning, Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Stephen Cook,     CSIRO Land and Water, Clayton, VIC, Australia

Stewart Dallas,     School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia

Graeme C. Dandy,     School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Peter Dillon

Honorary Fellow, CSIRO Land and Water, Glen Osmond SA, Australia

Adjunct Chair, National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, SA, Australia

Michael Di Matteo

School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Water Technology Pty. Ltd., Adelaide, SA, Australia

Meredith Dobbie,     School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Jago Dodson,     Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Hildegard Edith Rohr,     Urban and Regional Planning, Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

Lisa Ehrenfried,     Yarra Valley Water, Mitcham, VIC, Australia

Casey Furlong,     Centre for Urban Research, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Ted Gardner,     Institute for Innovation and Sustainability, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia

Simon Gehrmann,     Technical University of Darmstadt, Dept. for Urban design and Development, Faculty of Architecture, Darmstadt, Germany

Ashantha Goonetilleke,     Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Melissa Green,     Josh Byrne & Associates, Fremantle, WA, Australia

Wade Hadwen,     Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia

David Hamlyn-Harris,     Bligh Tanner Pty Ltd., Fortitude Valley, QLD, Australia

Frank Hanson,     Victorian Planning Authority, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Robert J. Hawley,     Sustainable Streams LLC, Louisville, KY, United States

Alan Hoban,     Bligh Tanner P/L, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

Sayed Iftekhar,     Centre for Environmental Economics & Policy (CEEP), University of Western Australia

Elmira Jamei,     Course Chair of Building Design, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Anthony Ladson

Victorian University, College of Engineering and Science, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Moroka Pty Ltd., Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia

James LaGro Jr. ,     University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States

Jane-Louise Lampard,     University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia

Catherine Leigh,     Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia

Rosemary Leonard,     School of Social Sciences and Psychology, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia

Terry Lucke,     Stormwater Research Group, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia

Yanan Ma,     AECOM-Water, Kansas City, MO, United States

Holger R. Maier,     School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Tony McAlister,     Water Technology Pty Ltd, West End, QLD, Australia

Peter Morison,     School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Jack Mullaly,     Ideanthro, PO Box 386, Sherwood, QLD, Australia

Baden R. Myers,     School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Wendy Neilan,     Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia

Michael Newham,     Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia

Deborah J. O'Bannon,     University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, United States

Micah Pendergast,     City of Port Phillip, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

David Pezzaniti,     School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Sam Phillips,     Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, for the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges NRM Board, SA, Australia

Robert Pitt,     Emeritus Cudworth Professor of Urban Water Systems, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States

Carolyn Polson,     Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia

John C. Radcliffe,     Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Glen Osmond, SA, Australia

Samira Rashetnia,     Institute for Innovation and Sustainability, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia

Mostafa Razzaghmanesh,     ORISE Fellow at US Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ, United States

Leon Rowlands,     Switchback Consulting, Caloundra, QLD, Australia

Annette Rudolph-Cleff,     Technical University of Darmstadt, Dept. for Urban design and Development, Faculty of Architecture, Darmstadt, Germany

Engelbert Schramm,     ISOE – Institute for Social-Ecological Research, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

Ashok K. Sharma,     Institute for Innovation and Sustainability, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia

Fran Sheldon,     Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia

Leila Talebi,     Senior Water Resources Engineer, Paradigm Environmental, San Diego, CA, United States

Nigel Tapper,     Urban Climate Research Group Leader, School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Grace Tjandraatmadja,     Institute of Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Susan van de Meene,     School of Social Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia

Marjorie van Roon,     University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

Geoff J. Vietz,     Streamology Pty Ltd., The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Christopher Walker

Stormwater Research Group, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia

Covey Associates Pty Ltd, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia

Andrea Walton

Josh Byrne & Associates, Fremantle, WA, Australia

CSIRO Land and Water, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

James Ward,     Natural and Built Environments Research Centre, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Kym Whiteoak,     RMCG, Melbourne, Australia

Martina Winker,     ISOE – Institute for Social-Ecological Research, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

Qian Yu,     China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China

Joshua Zeunert,     UNSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Martin Zimmermann,     ISOE – Institute for Social-Ecological Research, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

Editors

Ashok K. Sharma

Dr. Ashok K. Sharma is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Sustainability and Innovation, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. He has 30  years of research, teaching, and industrial experience on planning and design of centralized and decentralized water, wastewater, and stormwater systems; integrated urban water management; and water sensitive urban design. As Principal Research Engineer, CSIRO, Australia, he led research on alternative water, wastewater, and stormwater systems to address knowledge gaps in their mainstream uptake. He also worked as a Planning Engineer at the Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland, Australia, an Engineer at Uttar Pradesh State Water Corporation, and an Assistant Professor at Delhi College of Engineering in India. He has coauthored 3 books, 11 book chapters, 70 journal and 69 conference publications, and 45 technical reports. He completed his B. Tech (Civil Eng.) at G B P Agriculture and Technology University, Pantnagar, India and ME (Environmental Eng.) and PhD (Civil Eng.) at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers (Australia) and CP Eng. (Australia) (ashok.sharma@vu.edu.au; asharma2006@gmail.com).

Ted Gardner

Adjunct Professor Ted Gardner holds adjunct appointments at Victoria University, Melbourne and at a number of Australian regional universities. He chairs the technical advisory committee of the Australian Water Association's e-Water journal. Prior to his retirement in 2010, Ted was a Principal Research Scientist, Integrated Urban Water Systems, CSIRO, where he led research projects into decentralized water technologies and stormwater harvesting and reuse in South East Queensland. He was also the Principal Scientist with the Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management, leading the Urban Water Cycle group, which focused on urban water sustainability. In 2005, Ted was awarded the Australia Day Award Public Service Medal for his work on water recycling and urban water supply. In 2014, he was awarded the biennial McLean-Idema award from Irrigation Australia for his career work on irrigation using recycled water. He has an extensive publication record including over 200 peer-reviewed journal and conference papers, 4 book chapters, coeditor of a scientific monograph on purified recycled water, and an IWA book on rainwater systems, and he has made numerous presentations to technical and community groups. Ted completed his Bachelor of Agricultural Science and Master of Agricultural Science at the University of Queensland (tedandkayegardner@bigpond.com).

Don Begbie

Don Begbie was Executive Officer, Australian Water Recycling Centre of Excellence, and Program Manager, Research and Development, until the Center's closure in December 2016. Prior to that, Don was the Director of the Urban Water Security Research Alliance in South East Queensland, Australia, where he managed and coordinated the delivery of research for urban water security with a focus on integrated water management and alternative water sources such as rainwater tanks and stormwater harvesting. He was previously the Director of Water Science, Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Water, where he managed the delivery of research into urban water systems, groundwater and surface water modeling, and freshwater quality and aquatic ecosystem health. Don completed both his Bachelor of Agricultural Science and Master of Agricultural Studies at The University of Queensland (donaldbegbie@bigpond.com).

Foreword

Increasingly, we are living in big cities and managing stormwater is becoming a major challenge, thanks to the increase in hard, impermeable surfaces of roofs, roads, footpaths, and car parks.

Systems that can quickly drain runoff to minimize flooding may inadvertently create new problems: these systems can also very effectively transfer contaminants from the urban environment to receiving creeks and rivers. Pollutants such as nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals, and sediments substantially reducing their ecological health may indeed increase flooding through increased sedimentation.

Designing better systems to manage stormwater through water-sensitive urban design therefore makes a lot of sense—with its emphasis on stormwater reuse, rainwater tanks, and installing more vegetation, our precious environment and water resources are better protected.

There is much written about water-sensitive urban design from across the globe—this book helps to distill this knowledge for both the student and the urban water practitioner.

The challenges of achieving the right mix of hydrology, water quality, and design esthetics to protect or restore natural ecosystem functioning of complex urban water systems should not be underestimated in helping create a sense of place for new urban communities.

This book covers a wide range of topics and I congratulate the editors in getting such a skilled mix of international authors together to share their knowledge in a holistic and integrated manner, while keeping a fine balance between theory and practice.

I recommend this book to you, whether you are a student, a designer, a planner, or a local authority.

The principles and insights in this book will no doubt open your eyes to new concepts. Water is a limited and valuable resource, and we must cherish by adopting smart management techniques.

Happy reading!

Dr. Christine Williams,     A/Queensland Chief Scientist

Preface

Conventional stormwater systems in cities were designed to quickly drain the stormwater runoff from urban areas to minimize flooding. However, this hydrologically efficient system of gutters and big pipes was also very efficient in transferring contaminants and sediment to receiving creeks and waterways. This invariably caused a substantial reduction in their ecological health, and a destruction of their stream morphology by erosion and/or sediment smothering. Stormwater is essentially a diffuse pollution source and, as such, it is much more challenging to manage than point sources such as the discharge from sewage treatment plants and factories.

Over the last few decades Australia has invested many hundreds of millions of dollars into sewage treatment to reduce the contaminant loads into the bays and estuaries that surrounded most of its major cities. The attention of society is now turning to urban creeks and rivers that provide such important ecosystem services to their communities. Many of these waterways have been straightened and lined with concrete to make them more efficient conduits to transport the extra rainfall runoff from rapid urbanization.

Urban society has also developed the aspiration to be more locally self-sufficient and to protect the remaining natural urban ecosystem, involving effluent reuse, stormwater capture and reuse, rainwater tanks, combined with more energy-efficient technologies. Hence the concept of water sensitive urban design (WSUD) started to take off in Australia in the 1990s, with new ways of designing and building suburbs, which do not rely on the direct drainage of runoff from impervious surfaces to waterways. Moreover, there was an emphasis on alternative urban water supplies, renaturalization of water courses and associated riparian areas, and installing vegetative technologies that not only looked attractive in the urban street, but also delivered a much-improved stormwater quality.

Given the connectedness of the global community, it's not surprising that this WSUD concept emerged in other countries of the world, although each had their own nomenclature and drivers. Hence the terms: best management practices (BMPs), green infrastructure (GI), integrated urban water management (IUWM), low impact development (LID), low impact urban design and development (LIUDD), source control (SC), stormwater control measures (SCMs), sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS), Sponge City, and experimental sewer systems (ESS). The specific drivers for this innovation also varied between countries, with North America initially focusing on water quality improvement, while much of Europe was driven by the need to reduce local flooding and overflows from their combined sewers, which carry both stormwater and sewage. Australia focused on water quality protection, waterway ecosystem protection, and littoral zone conservation, while other countries, such as China, are facing urban water shortages that somewhat perversely are accompanied by regular flooding, and impaired stormwater quality.

Even though these approaches are comparatively new, we find ourselves today with a wide range of WSUD technologies, design models, descriptive terms, driving objectives, guidelines, regulations, effectiveness metrics, and economic values as part of societies' journey to urban sustainability.

WSUD approaches are implemented in existing and new developments to address impacts from climate change, urbanization, and population growth. Incorporating WSUD as a mainstream practice in urban developments can play a significant role in the transition from the current water, wastewater, and stormwater systems to a more sustainable paradigm including mitigating impacts from climate change and urbanization. WSUD systems can deliver multiple benefits including water supply, stormwater quality improvements, flood control, landscape amenity, healthy living environment, and ecosystem health improvement of urban waterways.

So, if we know so much about WSUD, why do we need to write another book on it? The answer we think is in the vast store of data, information, and social drivers that can make distilling the knowledge a very difficult task for the student, the water practitioner, and the urban planner.

It is also important to understand what WSUD cannot do, especially for protection from low-frequency flooding events and the high erosion losses and stream degradation that can occur during civil construction before WSUD measures are implemented. The challenge is getting the right mix of hydrology with water quality and design aesthetics to protect, or restore, the natural functioning of a complex urban water ecosystem, which helps create a sense of place for new urban communities.

In this book, we aim to provide a holistic overview of WSUD technologies, their applications, and successes using Australian and international studies (mainly North America and Northern Europe). The book has 27 chapters, each written by different authors, and has been divided into several themes. These chapters are described in brief to provide overview of the associated themes.

1. History of WSUD and WSUD approaches

Chapter 1 sets the scene for water sensitive urban development, both historically and geographically. It considers the evolution of ecologically sustainable stormwater management in Europe, North America, United Kingdom, Asia, Australia/NZ and introduces terms used in those countries, such as LID, SuDS, Sponge City, and GI. A key underlying principle of WSUD/LID is to emulate the natural hydrology of a site by using decentralized management measures. However, the drivers for adopting WSUD can be quite different between countries, and includes: sewer overflow protection, flood management, access to green space, water quality protection, waterway ecosystem protection and littoral zone conservation, and stormwater harvesting and reuse.

Chapter 2 focuses on the WSUD technologies used in Australia. Avoidance measures (such as permeable pavement) avoid the generation of contaminated stormwater runoff from allotments. Mitigation measures (including gross pollutant traps, swales, bioretention basins, wetlands, and smart street trees) are typically implemented to detain and treat stormwater runoff. The selection of technologies is heavily influenced by the preferences of local authorities and site-specific considerations such as soil type and slope and existing assets. Despite over 20  years of WSUD practice in Australia, there is still much to be learned about the performance of many of the treatment technologies, as installed in the field. Nonetheless, simple visual assessment of healthy plant growth is a very useful criterion of the operational effectiveness of vegetated, treatment devices.

2. Stormwater quality

Chapter 3 discusses the chemical and microbiological characteristics of stormwater and the types and efficacies of typical stormwater quality mitigation measures. Catchment characteristics including stormwater and wastewater infrastructure, land-use activities, traffic characteristics, and climate are key influencers of water quality. The authors give a detailed description of pollutants' build up and wash off processes, and how these may be modeled. Detections of pharmaceuticals, human pathogens, and human-specific biomarkers in stormwater from catchments with separate sewers highlight the need for further research on pollutant transport processes.

3. Design guidelines and regulations

Chapter 4 discusses the international, national, regional, and local planning and design guidelines that have been developed by various agencies for the sustainable implementation of WSUD/LID systems. These guidelines help water professionals to plan, design, and implement these approaches based on urban development requirements, water quality and hydrology criteria, catchment characteristics, local climatic conditions, local regulations, and environmental and community considerations.

Chapter 5 reviews WSUD policy and regulation in Australia and internationally. Case studies from Australia, Europe, the United States, and Singapore show how the mix of policies, incentives, regulation, capacity building, and institutional perceptions at various levels impact the institutional culture and context in each jurisdiction. Municipal government has typically been the key agent for WSUD implementation. However, collaboration is required across discipline areas and stakeholders to support and empower local government and community in the implementation of WSUD.

4. Potential for WSUD

Chapter 6 reminds us that most WSUD features are designed to be multifunctional elements that provide benefits to runoff volume, peak flow rate, water quality, and stream ecology. The systems are also intended to reduce flooding and peak flows from small and frequent storms. Critical parameters for successful flood mitigation performance are detention storage size, the portion of catchment impervious area connected to the storage, and the rate at which the storage is emptied. Their efficacy to reduce flooding and peak flows from larger, less frequent storms at the broader catchment scale has yet to be confirmed.

Chapter 7 discusses the use of GI stormwater controls such as rain gardens, swales, and porous pavement to alleviate the magnitude and frequency of combined sewer overflows (CSO). Although many modeling studies have demonstrated the potential of large-scale use of these controls for CSO reduction, there have been few monitoring efforts. This chapter reviews two such large-scale projects in the United States, which monitored the performance of retrofitted GI in combined sewer catchments with areas of 8–40  ha.

Chapter 8 examines the impacts and magnitude of sediment loads generated during the construction phase of subdivision and compares this with the loads generated during the operational phase of development—traditionally the major focus of WSUD in Australia. Without application of erosion and sediment control measures, sediment export from the construction phase is orders of magnitude greater than the sediment export from unmitigated operational-phase runoff. Even with application of conventional best practice measures, the construction-phase loads are still equivalent to nearly a decade of operational-phase sediment exports. The author recommends that much greater emphasis should be placed on the construction phase in regulation and research.

Chapter 9 introduces the role of stormwater and roof water harvesting for beneficial use as part of an integrated WSUD approach to urban development. An effective scheme must combine sufficient rainfall, a suitable catchment, opportunities for diversion and storage, adequate demands, and water treatment suitable for the proposed end uses. Other issues discussed include stormwater contamination, validation and verification, and governance issues. However, the main impediments for operators to develop harvesting schemes with regulatory and financial confidence are the uncertainties with the long-term operation, governance, and compliance requirements.

5. Ecological health covering impacts and benefits from WSUD

Urban development changes the hydrology of catchments (including runoff volume, frequency, and peak flow) and the transport of sediment, nutrients, and pollutants. Consequently, it has a degrading impact on urban stream morphology and in-stream biota. A key question is whether, and to what extent, WSUD can prevent these changes. Chapter 10 suggests that WSUD can restore hydrology at small scales; however, restoration at the catchment scale is much more challenging, and there is limited evidence that existing techniques are effective. Chapter 11 finds that even when WSUD measures are implemented to help restore more natural flow patterns, degraded water quality can have an overriding influence on stream ecosystem health.

Chapter 12 discusses the changes to stream morphology and the opportunities for WSUD to ameliorate the impact. WSUD has been successful in reducing pollutant loads and providing some reductions in flow volume. However, current practice has commonly failed to arrest the geomorphic degradation of streams, due in part to the fact that WSUD has rarely been applied at a catchment scale, sufficient to mitigate the increased magnitude and frequency of runoff from connected impervious areas.

In Chapter 13 we learn that engineered urban lakes primarily increase amenity and property values and provide a flood-mitigation purpose. The failure of many urban lakes to remain in a healthy ecosystem usually stems from poor design and a lack of runoff pretreatment. Once a lake changes to a degraded state, it is very difficult to recover the initial healthy state.

6. WSUD economics and optimization

Economic assessment of WSUD investments is challenging. Data shortages and the broad range of nonfinancial benefits provided by WSUD make it difficult to rigorously quantify economic benefit. Chapter 14 provides a framework to overcome these difficulties. Cost–benefit analysis (CBA) transparently provides a decision-maker with a decision metric for proceeding with an investment, or otherwise. Total Economic Value (TEV) identifies and categorizes all benefits accruing from an investment, including environmental and social benefits that may be difficult to quantify. A remaining challenge to rigorous economic assessment is the data availability of environmental and social benefits produced by WSUD investments.

Chapter 15 discusses how optimization methods can be used to plan and design WSUD schemes to achieve the best outcomes and identify system trade-offs between a range of economic, social, and environmental indicators. Two case studies consider the selection, sizing, and layout of WSUD components for water quality improvement and stormwater harvesting. Future developments in optimization are also discussed.

7. WSUD in integrated urban water management and urban planning

Chapter 16 outlines a case study from Melbourne, Australia, where water industry experts discuss the practical infrastructure and urban planning processes to achieve the vision of IUWM and WSUD. Effective coordination of policy development, strategy, planning, and implementation of WSUD approaches is required to overcome the primary barriers to achieving these visions.

Chapter 17 focuses on the lessons from South Africa in WSUD and GI, planning, application, and implementation. It describes the need for context-driven design guidelines and for emerging middle class South Africa to become familiar with WSUD approaches, the importance of social benefits, and the integration of WSUD into mainstream spatial planning.

WSUD is currently applied at the local municipal level, with much of the current planning and design-related WSUD material focused on stormwater harvesting, management, and maintenance-related issues such as greening roads and street verges, open space areas, and a cities' landscape features. Chapter 18 highlights the opportunity for WSUD to contribute to and enhance urban sustainability through the relatively new concepts of healthy and liveable cities, which can be used to promote sustainability and provide economic and social benefits to communities.

8. Urban heat island and greening the city

Urbanization can lead to the development of the urban heat island effect, whereby public health and thermal comfort are adversely affected. Chapter 19 provides examples from various climates to illustrate how the application of GI (including parks, street trees, green roofs, and green walls) and WSUD approaches can be effective in mitigating increased urban air temperature.

Chapter 20 reviews the key elements of resilient green roof and living wall systems. Green roofs and living walls are becoming an important component of WSUD systems and provide many environmental, economic, and social benefits such as: reduced temperatures both inside and outside of buildings, reduce building energy usage, improved air quality, and reduced pollution levels. This chapter will assist urban planners and designers in developing resilient GI for cities, particularly those located in dry climates.

Chapter 21 provides a European perspective on the use of novel urban water systems in greening and cooling the urban environment. Although WSUD design principles usually focus on stormwater management, this chapter provides examples of the integration of urban wastewater into WSUD.

9. Capacity building and community perception for WSUD

As the stormwater components of WSUD have gained traction, large numbers of SCMs have been constructed as new assets. However, failure to appropriately maintain and operate these WSUD assets runs the risk of reducing public support for the implementation and adoption of WSUD approaches. Chapter 22 describes the challenges, operation, and maintenance requirements, and an eight-step process is described to develop WSUD asset management plans for the ongoing operation and maintenance of SCMs as a mainstream activity in local authorities.

Capacity-building programs are a critical component for the successful delivery and operation of WSUD systems. As WSUD systems are comparatively new, different skills for their planning, design, operation, and maintenance are required, and the associated capacity building programs are still evolving. Chapter 23 uses a case study from South Australia to follow the process of developing a business case and implementing a capacity building program. Successful capacity building results in the efficient delivery of assets, an improved return on the investment, and reduces the risk of asset failure.

The community can easily recognize the improved aesthetics, greenspace, and recreational amenity features of above ground WSUD systems. However, there is a need to educate the community about the benefits of other less visual outcomes such as water quality improvement and flood mitigation. Chapter 24 explores five dimensions of people's attitudes to, and engagement with, WSUD systems: visibility; recreation and other amenity; economic benefits for residents; place attachment; and social capital and community engagement. Interventions that increase awareness of WSUD benefits strengthen social capital within a community and helps support WSUD over the long term.

10. WSUD post implementation assessment and case studies

Postimplementation assessment of developments designed with WSUD features is essential to learn from on-ground implementation of such systems to better inform future developments. Chapter 25 describes a case study from Kansas City, Missouri, USA, where a linear regression model was developed and verified with field data using a limited palette of SCM installations. The model was demonstrated to reliably estimate stormwater removal/capture by SCMs in the catchment. The performance of SCMs over a range of rainfall events during a 3-year monitoring period was shown to be effective in preventing CSO and supported the efficacy of green solutions in reducing urban runoff.

Chapter 26 provides a precinct-scale case study of an infill development near Perth, Western Australia. The development implemented a range of sustainable water, energy, and urban greening initiatives in a medium density site of mixed building typologies. Understanding the delivery process and learnings from the on-ground implementation experience are an important factor for the success of future such developments.

Chapter 27 provides Australian and international case studies of some leading edge WSUD approaches and discusses the challenges and benefits from implementing WSUD. The findings reinforce the importance of WSUD being integrated across different urban functions, stakeholders, and levels of government. The benefits of WSUD often extend beyond the primary objective of improved urban stormwater management, reflecting the multifunctional nature of many WSUD approaches. Case study findings can be used to refine standards and guidelines, build confidence in the WSUD approaches, and help build public understanding and engagement in the benefits of WSUD. The studies also identified the importance of using economic instruments that reflect the true cost of different stormwater management approaches, thereby helping create financial incentives for the adoption of WSUD.

Ashok K. Sharma

Ted Gardner

Don Begbie

Chapter 1

History of Water Sensitive Urban Design/Low Impact Development Adoption in Australia and Internationally

John C. Radcliffe     Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Glen Osmond, SA, Australia

Abstract

Since the 1980s, urban planning and development has increasingly taken account of natural water and nutrient cycles, with water flows managed as would have occurred on the original greenfield site, emulating the original ecosystem. However, other drivers deriving from the impact of urban development and increased human activity include

• managing stormwater quality,

• mitigating a risk of increased flooding, especially where there had been some previous history of them in the greenfield environment,

• harvesting of rainwater and stormwater for potable and nonpotable use,

• greening the urban environment to reduce the heat island effect generated by intensive urban development and increased pavements, and

• improving the aesthetics of the urban environment to encourage a feeling of well-being in the community.

These philosophies were developed in North America as Low Impact Development and later Green Infrastructure (which sometimes also assumes a consideration of energy management) in response to the 1972 passage of the Clean Water Act (US). Planning may incorporate green roofs, rain gardens, swales, permeable pavements, wetlands, green spaces, and urban natural vegetation corridors. Britain adopted Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) techniques. In Europe, planners and local government respond to the European Union Water Management and Flooding Directives on a river basin basis. In Australia, similar policy developments took place under the philosophy of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD). The components and drivers vary between communities, each choosing emphases appropriate to their catchments, infrastructure, seasonal climate, local water cycle, and social expectations.

Cities in East Asia have been undergoing rapid urbanization over the past 40  years, often accompanied by increased flooding, especially in China. In 2013, China introduced new urban policies which included the concept of Sponge Cities where stormwater can be naturally conserved, infiltrated, and purified for potential reuse, thereby reducing flood risks and increasing water availability. Construction guidelines were issued. Thirty major cities are participating as pilot cities. Each is eligible for central government subsidies. In Africa, the term Water-Sensitive Settlements has been suggested as the WSUD approach as originally envisaged does not take cognizance of the developmental or equity issues, which are particularly important in developing countries that may have legacies from their colonial or apartheid past.

Many countries are now beginning to consider the necessity for WSUD in their cities and settlements. Addressing technical integration problems, legislative constraints, social equity, and community acceptance will be necessary for them to develop Water Sensitive Cities. This chapter summarizes the history of WSUD adoption and examples of the approach that has been taken across the globe.

Keywords

Decentralized urban design; Green infrastructure; Low impact development; Low impact urban design and development; Sistemas Urbanos de Drenaje Sostenible; Sponge cities; Sustainable urban drainage systems; Techniques alternatives; Water sensitive settlements; Water sensitive urban design

Chapter Outline

1.1 Introduction

1.2 North America

1.2.1 United States of America—Low Impact Development/Green Infrastructure

1.2.2 Canada

1.3 Europe

1.3.1 Britain—Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS)

1.3.2 Germany—Decentralized Urban Design

1.3.3 The Netherlands

1.3.4 France—Techniques alternatives

1.3.5 Spain—Sistemas Urbanos de Drenaje Sostenible (SUDS)

1.4 Australia—Water Sensitive Urban Design

1.4.1 Queensland

1.4.2 New South Wales

1.4.3 Victoria

1.4.4 South Australia

1.4.5 Western Australia

1.5 New Zealand—Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD)

1.6 East Asia

1.6.1 South Korea

1.6.2 Japan

1.6.3 China—Sponge Cities

1.6.4 Taiwan

1.6.5 Singapore

1.7 Developing countries and their cities

1.8 Conclusion

References

1.1. Introduction

As humans moved into settlements, they inevitably located near to rivers and smaller watercourses for ease of access to water, the fount of life. After heavy rain, floods sometimes occurred, but that was part of the normal water cycle. As buildings developed, there was an increase in the impermeability of surfaces, thereby increasing runoff. Watercourses began to erode from this additional water flow, or else channels were specifically constructed to take away the water. By the end of the 18th century, London, then the world's largest city, housed 10% of the population of Britain. Open channels carried not only stormwater but also wastewater to the River Thames (White, 2009). One London water company secured its supply below this point reinforcing the epidemiological observations about cholera by John Snow (Paneth, 2004). As cities further developed, piped systems of sewage collection were installed. In many older cities, these were linked with the stormwater channels that had been developed, producing what have come to be known as combined sewers. Frequently these discharged to the nearest river or other receiving waters, adding to the pollution already occurring from enhanced overland flows following closer settlement.

Many older cities in Britain, Europe, Japan, Asia, and eastern North America still depend on combined sewer/stormwater systems, even though in many cities, new such installations have not been permitted since the mid-twentieth century. A typical American example is Portland, Maine, incorporated in 1876. This city and its surrounding greater metropolitan area has a population of half a million and is served by a sewerage system which began at the time of incorporation. It now consists of 151  km of sewers, 227  km of stormwater pipe, and 192  km of combined sewers. During wet weather, raw sewage can overflow from the combined sewer system into Casco Bay before reaching a sewage treatment works, making swimmers sick and contaminating seafood. There is currently no treatment system for polluted stormwater runoff from the land (Gallinaro, 2015).

By contrast, combined sewers are not used in any major Australian city with the exception of central Launceston (Jessup, 2015). Consequently sewer overflows and contamination of urban watercourses are much less of a problem in Australia. Nevertheless, stormwater ingress into the sewerage system during storm events can lead to sewage overflows into creeks, rivers, and bays. Sydney, which initiated a separate stormwater system from 1890, can be vulnerable to this because of its sandstone geology (Aird, 1961).

A consequence of increased population density in cities has been an inevitable increase in impermeable surfaces leading to an increase in stormwater runoff. Because of urban development, the natural water cycle has been disrupted, causing such problems as urban flooding, droughts, poor water quality, and reduced groundwater-sourced base flow in creeks. The historical response has been based on a philosophy to build facilities that carry away stormwaters as fast as possible, often using concrete conveyance structures that are themselves impermeable, leading to increased pollution, sedimentation, and measurable suspended solids that can exceed the environmental thresholds of the receiving waters.

A response to this has been one of the detentions, which involves the construction of large capacity holding basins or wetlands to hold runoff for relatively short periods to reduce peak flow rates until released into natural or artificial watercourses to continue the hydrological cycle as channel flow, evaporation, groundwater recharge, and input to lakes and marine water bodies. The volume of surface runoff involved in the temporary ponding process is relatively unchanged (Argue, 2005), but attenuation of the flow rate allows the water to leave the detention basin over a longer time interval with reduced risk of damaging flood levels and erosion. However, such approaches are well removed from the original presettlement hydrological cycle because of the increased volumes involved, the increased frequency of runoff events, flood risks, reduced groundwater infiltration, and evapotranspiration associated with the increasing fraction of impervious surfaces (Konrad, 2003).

Since the 1980s, management of stormwater has undergone progressive change—in parts driven by changes in the nature of cities, the increased proportion of a country's population living in them, and the frequency and severity of flooding. However, the widespread creation of Environment Protection Authorities also had an important impact. Although these gave particular attention to the composition of waters from wastewater treatment plants discharged to receiving waters, attention also was directed to the composition of stormwaters and the nonpoint pollution consequences of them.

Progressively, understanding broadened to encompass the whole hydrological cycle bringing in the concept of retention which refers to procedures and schemes whereby stormwater is held for relatively long periods and reused in the urban water cycle via the natural processes of infiltration, percolation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, domestic use (in house and outdoors), and industrial uses. The aim is to minimize direct discharge to natural or artificial watercourses (Argue, 2005). This seeks as far as possible to retain precipitation on the area where it falls, embodying a framework of Integrated Catchment Management or Total Catchment Management. The concept has led to changing the entire development philosophy and the evolution of cities. These developments resulted in a variety of technology descriptors such as Low Impact Development (LID), Green Infrastructure (GI), Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS), Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD), Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD), and Water Sensitive Cities (WSC). Although the concepts are similar, different titles have been adopted in different countries (Fletcher et al., 2015).

To review the effectiveness of WSUD/LID technologies, Ahiablame et al. (2012) examined the global literature on the topic and also commented on some examples of computational models used for developing options. They observed that the literature has focused on evaluating examples of bioretention basins rather than other technologies, but evaluation should be strengthened for other techniques such as green roofs and swale systems. They also noted the need for greater attention to be given to microbial removal and the assessment of new and emerging contaminants such as trace organics and pharmaceuticals.

A total of 14 LID structures can be identified and are classified into three types: point, linear, and area. These can be incorporated into the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration (SUSTAIN) stormwater model (Shoemaker et al., 2009), a tool for evaluating, selecting, and placing best management practices (BMPs) in an urban watershed on the basis of user-defined cost and effectiveness criteria. SUSTAIN is capable of evaluating the optimal location, type, and cost of stormwater practices needed to meet water quality goals and has improved effectiveness in considering the separate sediment fractions of sand, silt, and clay. Bioretention cells, cisterns, constructed wetlands, dry ponds, infiltration basins, rain barrels, sand filters (surface), and wet ponds are classified as point installations. Grassed swales, infiltration trenches, and sand filters (nonsurface) are linear structures; green roofs and porous pavements are defined as area structures. Bioretention and bioinfiltration technologies have become the principal control mechanisms at source (Davis et al., 2009), rather than relying on end-of-pipe solutions such as large sedimentation dams. These systems are described in detail in Chapter 2.

However, these technologies cannot just be used in some sort of universal urban design as there is no one definable problem and no one big solution. There are many small, mutually dependent problems and solutions (Wong, 2016). The appropriate solutions will require consideration of the location, hydrology, infrastructural and planning options, and sociological circumstances. There will usually be a need to protect the ecosystem health of urban watercourses. This will require inter alia management of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and other pollutants. Not least of the considerations will be whether the city has a combined sewer system that also conveys stormwater.

1.2. North America

1.2.1. United States of America—Low Impact Development/Green Infrastructure

Within the United States, the term LID has been adopted. Its first use appears to have been by Barlow et al. (1977), covering land-use planning in Vermont following the introduction of the US Federal Clean Water Act in 1972 (USEPA, 2017). This was encouraged by a seminal LID manual prepared for use in St George's County, Maryland, later reprinted for wider use (Coffman, 1999), seeking to emulate the original natural hydrology that had been present before urban development had taken place. The vaguely defined expression, BMP then came into use to encompass pollution issues, but following a review of stormwater practice (National Research Council, 2008), was replaced by the term Stormwater Control Measures (SCM).

Figure 1.1  Bioretention infiltration system.

However, the regulatory environment for implementing LID is managed by the individual states with great variability. Over 770 US cities have combined sewer systems that lead to the discharge of uncontrolled overflows (including untreated sewage) into receiving waters during storm events (USEPA, 2016a). Earles et al. (2009) listed major barriers to the incorporation of LID into urban planning, viz., (1) LID is typically not integrated early in the planning process; (2) LID is recommended but not mandated; and (3) there is no consensus on LID protocols between the different governmental departments. To help overcome these impediments, a National Municipal Stormwater Alliance has been formed in the United States to coordinate the activities of state and regional municipal stormwater organizations, with a vision to provide clean water for the nation (NMSA, 2016). This is based on meeting stormwater quality runoff standards for stormwater separately transported through Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems, (not combined), so-called MS4s, which often discharge untreated stormwater into local water bodies. The United States uses a concept of Total Daily Maximum Load, required under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (US), for managing waterways and the discharges of natural and human-induced pollution sources to them. It is a calculation of the maximum amount of pollutants that a waterbody can receive from point pollution sources, nonpoint pollution sources, and allowing a margin of error to permit the water resource to still meet water quality standards required for its beneficial uses, be it for a drinking water reservoir, industrial use, or irrigation (USEPA, 2016b). To assist regional planning practitioners, the US Environment Protection Authority maintains a LID Urban Design Tools Website (USEPA, 2007).

LID with its focus on stormwater quality/peak discharge has been complemented with the concept of GI which links landscape architecture and urban ecosystem services with water cycle management and on occasions linking to achieving energy efficiency. The incorporation of green roofs, rain gardens, swales, permeable pavements, improved infiltration (Fig. 1.1), wetlands, green spaces, and urban natural vegetation corridors aims to improve urban amenity and reduce flood and pollution risks. The initiative is supported by the Environment and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, which seeks to assist the integration of public policy and technical expertise into the planning, design, construction, operation, management, and regulation of environmentally sound, sustainable infrastructure (ASCE-EWRI, 2016).

New York, the most densely developed city in the United States, has responded through its Department of Environment Protection to the changing approach toward stormwater management. Under its Protection Strategic Plan 2011–14, it aims to maximize GI, control other water sources, and reduce runoff from existing and newly developed areas (Bloomberg, 2011). The aim is to progressively develop over the next 20  years, installations to collect the first 25  mm of rainfall on 10% of the impermeable areas to reduce combined sewer overflows. A GI Plan will increase public and private investment in swales, green roofs, and other source controls, as well as in managing stormwaters. Other benefits will flow from cooler urban temperatures, better air quality, more green space, lower energy bills, expected higher property values, and a reduction in combined sewer overflows (OECD, 2014).

1.2.2. Canada

Canada began to develop stormwater planning in the late 1970s, including detention basins built on ditch and pipe systems. Like elsewhere in North America, planning was often driven by a cycle in which local governments typically proceeded from flooding to panic to planning and then to procrastination and the next flood (BC MWLAP, 2002). In 1992, the province of British Columbia generated a Stormwater Planning Guidebook that recognized detention ponds can mitigate flooding but usually do not prevent the ongoing channel erosion that creates adverse impacts on property and fisheries. Detention solutions also often do not allow the sustained stream base flow that is ecologically critical in dry months. The Guidebook recognized five principles, viz., agree that stormwater is a resource; design for the complete spectrum of rainfall events; act on a priority basis in at-risk drainage catchments; plan at four scales—regional, watershed, neighborhood, and site; and that best solutions and reduced costs are achieved by adaptive management (BC MWLAP, 2002).

Ontario issued its Stormwater Management Planning and Design Manual in 2003 (Ontario Ministry of Environment, 2003) and focused on the opportunities for infiltration at the site scale and recognized that stormwater management solutions need to consider specific site conditions. However, it continued to be primarily oriented to a combination of allotment level, conveyance, and end-of-pipe stormwater management practices. The multiple objectives of stormwater management were maintaining the hydrologic cycle, protection of water quality, and preventing increased erosion and flooding. End-of-pipe stormwater management practices were still required to control urbanization's adverse effects, which remained after preventative techniques and allotment level and conveyance measures had been applied.

By 2010, Ontario observed that the practice of managing stormwater was continuing to evolve as the science of watershed management and understanding of watersheds grew. The Low Impact Development Stormwater Management Planning and Design Guide (T&RCA and CVCA, 2010) was released to augment the 2003 Ontario Design Manual. The ultimate goal of LID was defined as to maintain natural or predevelopment hydrologic conditions, including minimizing the volume of runoff produced at the site (i.e., neighborhood, subdivision, or individual lot). Runoff reduction is defined as the total runoff volume reduced through urban tree canopy interception, evaporation, rainwater harvesting, and engineered infiltration and evapotranspiration stormwater BMPs. LID comprises a set of site design strategies that minimize runoff with distributed, small-scale structural practices that mimic natural or predevelopment hydrology through the processes of infiltration, evapotranspiration, harvesting, filtration, and detention of stormwater. These practices can effectively remove nutrients, pathogens, and metals from runoff. They reduce the volume and peak discharge of stormwater flows. Opportunities were recognized at the community scale, the neighborhood scale with infill, and redevelopment opportunities and opportunities at the site scale. Thirteen LID structures were suggested for consideration. These include

• Reduced lot grading

• Roof discharge to surface ponding areas

• Roof discharge to soakaway pits

• Pervious pipes

• Pervious catch basins

• Sand filters

• Infiltration trenches

• Enhanced grass swales

• Vegetated filter strips

• Wet ponds

• Dry ponds

• Wetlands, and

• Infiltration basins.

Several of these also provided space to store snow. Structures were adapted to withstand cold weather conditions in the region, withstand freeze–thaw conditions, and where possible treat the quality of snowmelt runoff.

There have been concerns that LIDs may be less effective in cold climates where the ground can be frozen, with poor substrate permeability and low biological growth rates coinciding with high flows from subsequent snow melts. However, Roseen et al. (2009) demonstrated that while impacts due to cold climate had been observed, they did not substantially change hydraulic efficiency.

1.3. Europe

Within the EU as a whole, a revised Water Directive in 2000 (transposed into United Kingdom legislation in 2003), sought to extend water protection to all surface and groundwaters. The aims were to achieve good status for all waters by a set deadline; develop water management based on river basins; establish a combined approach of emission limit values and quality standards; get the prices right; ensure citizens were closely involved; and to streamline legislation. Objectives are set for each river basin encompassing ecological status, quantitative status, chemical status, and protected area objectives (EU, 2016a). Flood risk management plans were required to be developed by 2015, but no specific technologies were advised.

However, the Director-General Environment of the European Commission identified preferred options for the flood risk management by working with nature, rather than against it. Building up GI—which requires investing in ecosystems—offers triple-win measures through (1) contribution to the protection and restoration of floodplain and coastal ecosystems; (2) mitigation of climate change impacts by conserving or enhancing carbon stocks or by reducing emissions caused by wetland and river ecosystem degradation and loss; and (3) by provision of cost-effective protection against some of the threats that may result from climate change such as increased floods. The key ecosystem services from floodplains are water retention, clearance of water, and prevention of soil erosion. These services can contribute significantly to flood prevention and mitigation if the delivering ecosystems are in good health (D-G Environment, 2011).

A Multiuse water Services (MUS) approach for the more effective planning and management of the urban environment has been developing in Europe. The objective has been to optimize solutions for greenfield (new) and retrofitted urban planning developments. Components encompass the reinstatement of natural flows, increased infiltration, better use of rainwater, reuse of wastewater, and improved urban planning that incorporates local characteristics into the plan. The expectation is that local water management is more efficient and effective than if managed centrally. This potentially global MUS approach is being led through Germany, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom (Maksimovic et al., 2015).

The EU also sponsored a WSUD manual through its Software Workbench for Interactive, Time Critical, and Highly self-adaptive Cloud applications (SWITCH) program. This joint venture research project is focused on Innovative Water Management for the City of the Future, to achieve a more integrated approach in urban water management (Hoyer et al., 2011). To achieve this goal, SWITCH improved the scientific basis and shared knowledge to ensure that future water systems are robust, flexible, and adaptable to a range of global change pressures. The SWITCH project (2006–11) defined and reported on specific water issues in 12 cities (Fig. 1.2), namely Accra (Ghana); Alexandria (Egypt); Beijing (China); Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Birmingham (UK); Bogotá (Colombia); Cali (Colombia); Hamburg (Germany); Lima (Peru); Lódź (Poland); Tel Aviv (Israel); and Zaragoza (Spain) (SWITCH, 2012).

Because of the variability of European flooding events, much flexibility in objectives and measures is being left to the European states in line with subsidiarity, a principle that directs attention to those levels of government where policy objectives can best be formulated and implemented (EU, 2016b). Thirty-four EU guideline documents are available. Water resource managers are expected to review plans and maps every 6  years. The number of inhabitants and economic activity potentially at risk and the environmental damage potential must be indicated (EU, 2016b).

1.3.1. Britain—Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS)

The concept of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) was developed in Britain and was published in 2000 as definitive guidance documents for Scotland and Northern Ireland (Martin et al., 2000a) and separately for England and Wales (Martin et al., 2000b). Details have since been progressively revised as The SuDS Manual (Woods Ballard et al., 2016). SuDS is a key part of WSUD, integrating the management of surface water runoff into the urban form. However, WSUD considers more broadly the whole water cycle, including wastewater and water supply, and the wider integration of watercourses and flood pathways within urban planning and design. The four primary benefits of SuDS are focused on water quantity, water quality, amenity, and biodiversity. The philosophy is to try to mimic the natural hydrology that is usually adversely impacted by urban development. Priority is

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