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Where Time Begins

Where Time Begins

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Where Time Begins

Lunghezza:
282 pagine
2 ore
Pubblicato:
Feb 22, 2018
ISBN:
9781370670178
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

A computer simulation of the gravitational field of the universe has been developed that precisely predicts the observed recession velocities of nearby and distant galaxies, even where it deviates from Hubble’s Law. It is called the COI universe model. Many other unusual cosmic observations like the Fingers of God effect, the Galactic windup dilemma, and the age of distant galaxies are also explained. No other simulation has ever predicted these things. It uses only experimentally proven physics — no dark stuff. It hangs on one radical assumption; that time started from the outside of the universe. This is for physicists and astronomers yet kept simple enough for a layman. There is even a section to challenge Bible fanatics because the centre of the universe is revealed.

Pubblicato:
Feb 22, 2018
ISBN:
9781370670178
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore

The author has Bachelor degrees with distinctions in Physics and Electrical and Electronic Engineering; a Master’s degree in Communication Systems. He has worked at Adelaide University as a Research Officer and as a Limited Term Lecturer in Engineering. However, the majority of his professional life has been in software engineering of radar and communication systems. He is currently retired.

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Where Time Begins - Nicholas Jones

Where time begins

By Nicholas Jones

Version: 1.55, April 5, 2021

ISBN: 9781370670178

Copyright 2020 Nicholas Jones.

Smashwords Edition, License Notes

This eBook is licensed for your personal enjoyment only. It may not be re-sold or given away to other people. If you would like to share this book with another person, please purchase an additional copy for each recipient. If you’re reading this book and did not purchase it, or it was not purchased for your use only, then please return to your favourite eBook retailer and purchase your own copy. Thank you for respecting the hard work of this author. Excerpts of up to 10 pages may be printed for personal use or in discussion groups and teaching classes, as long as it is provided without cost. Quotes may be reprinted for purposes of review and critique. Previews of this eBook can be found at the author’s website GeckoFocus.com, along with copyright conditions and supplements.

Jump to TOC

~~~~~~~oooOOOooo~~~~~~~

Cover pictures: (public domain images from wpclipart.com)

• Inside stopwatch face: spiral galaxy M81 in ultraviolet from wpclipart.com.

• Background: Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image taken in full range of ultraviolet to near-infrared light. It contains some of the most distant galaxies. wpclipart.com.

More info at: wiki/Hubble_Ultra-Deep_Field.

The original image may have been sourced via NASA’s hubblesite.org or ESA/Hubble’s spacetelescope.org

Tip:

The figures strongly contribute to the explanations, and since the PDF version allows the fine detail in some figures to be magnified, you might appreciate the PDF version of this book. Also, PDF readers usually allow jumping to bookmarks and back again. The PDF is currently only available at Smashwords. However the EPUB and MOBI readers have very flexible presentation formats to enhance readability.

Table of Contents

Cover photo

Preface

Part 1: Redshift duplicated in a finite universe

Abstract

1. Introduction

The #1-default model

2. Fundamental concepts

2.1 The critical geometry

2.1.1 Start-of-time approach …Figure 1a, Equation (2)

2.1.2 Start-of-gravity approach …Figure 1b

2.1.3 Gravitational force of the MGR curves …Figure 1c, Figure 1d

2.2 The software algorithm

2.3 The time base

2.4 The source code repository

2.5 The experimentally proven physics

2.5.1 Integrating Gravitational Force to Potential

2.5.2 Updating Age

2.5.3 Speed Updates

2.5.4 Redshift Updates

2.5.5 Has General relativity been fulfilled?

3. Results

3.1 The Maximum Gravitational Range (MGR) …Figure 2a, Figure 2b, Figure 2c, The #2-default model

3.2 The Gravity Profiles …Figure 3a, Figure 3b, Figure 4

3.3 The Speed Profiles …Figure 5a, Figure 5b, Figure 5c

3.4 The Redshift profiles …Figure 6a, Figure 6b, Figure 6c, Figure 6d

3.5 The Density profile …Figure 7a, Figure 7b, Figure 7c, Outer shell parameters, Matter migration

3.6 The Heating profile …Figure 8

3.7 The Age profiles …Figure 9

3.8 So where is the centre?

4. Discussion

4.1 Distances above redshift 0.1 …Figure 10, My really big problem, Figure 11a, Figure 11b, Figure 11c, The #3-default model, Sample galaxy lists, Figure 11d

4.2 A possible CMB cause …Axis of Evil

4.3 Redshift Distortions …Fingers of God Effect, Peculiar velocities, Quasars

4.4 Galactic structure and distribution …Galaxy-windup-dilemma

5. Conclusions

6. Acknowledgements

7. Epilogue

7.1 The initial timeless state

7.2 What is proven?

7.3 Dark Energy evidence

Part 2: Dream time

8. The gravitational shockwave

9. The Bubble model

10. Galactic distribution

10.1 The shrinking shell …Figure 12, Figure 13, Figure 14

10.2 An expanding shell

10.3 The final question

10.4 A cold winter’s day

10.4.1 The time-stopped approach

10.4.2 The Condensation approach

Part 3: What we understand and what we believe

11. Biblical consistency

11.1 A note to atheists

11.2 The key scriptures

11.3 A challenge to our understanding

11.4 Proof of God

11.5 The day thing

11.6 The image of God

11.7 To my critics

Follow-up

Updates

Update 1: The outer shell in scripture

Update 2: Colliding galaxies

Personal acknowledgements

Foreword

Version history

References

[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10],

[11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20],

[21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30],

[31], [32].

~~~~~~~oooOOOooo~~~~~~~

…Discover a simpler universe…

Back to TOC

Preface

Are you a PhD Physicist? If so, you probably don’t need to read this preface that gradually introduces a new way to look at the universe, and quietly challenges long held assumptions of other models. I suggest that you jump to Chapter 2 and read the discussion about Equation (2). One relatively simple equation predicts a linearly increasing recession speed of galaxies at near ranges, with an exponentially growing gravitational redshift at far ranges. That is exactly what real redshift observations show in Figure 11a. But wait, there is more… See precise explanations of the KBC void; the CMB; and deviations from Hubble’s Law normally written off as peculiar velocities. Or what about a prediction based on time dilation for the increasing Super Nova Type Ia (SNIa) light curve widths in Figure 10. Hard questions like the galaxy-windup-dilemma and the fingers-of-god-effect are also resolved. Does that wet your appetite? The rest of us mere mortals can simply read on.

Part 1 is not a story. It is a physics only, self-contained description of how gravity evolved across the universe from the start of time. The Big Bang Model (BBM) also has start of time and start of gravity events that are compatible with this model, so it should not be a surprise, but wow, it sure is a surprise when you read section 2.1.2. Chapter 7 continues the surprises with a discussion of a fairly new metric that seems to explain how time might re-start from the outside-in after a rapid expansion phase.

The changes in gravity are integrated to show the speeds at which galaxies would move, and to determine the gravitational potential between galaxies. However, two novel assumptions are made. First, a spherical universe is assumed. That’s not too radical. In fact, it’s exactly what you expect from a universe that explodes, inflates and/or expands from a singularity. The second assumption is that time itself started at the outside of the universe. Now, that’s radical, but to my own genuine surprise; the physical mechanisms discussed in section 2.1.2 and Chapter 7 can account for this outside-in start-up, or something mathematically similar. Having observed that Part 1, using only experimentally proven physics, clearly and numerically predicts what we observe today, these novel assumptions would seem to be vindicated.

There are still further questions to answer. How did the initial mass distribution form? How did this mass distribution take the shape of stars, gathered into galaxies, gathered into clusters and super clusters with great voids in between? These questions are addressed in Part 2, but the answers there are just speculative; even pure imagination. No experimental physics can test or go back before the start of time but there are hints. I also suggest some of these hints in Part 1.

I really want to get you to the exciting bits. So, if you are already familiar with redshift and its causes, you can probably skip this history lesson that shows how we got into the current confused state. Why not jump to Part 1 now, and come back to this later.

…The history lesson

What I am going to propose in this book is quite reasonable and consistent with the known laws of physics, but it’s going to be the exact opposite of everything you have come to expect. Let’s have a quick look at aspects of the prevailing Expanding Universe model. A good place to start is Hubble’s Law which is an observation that the redshift of distant galaxies increases in proportion to their distance from the earth. Redshift means that the light from the galaxy is decreased in frequency. This causes colours in the visible spectrum to become redder. The effect is well documented and could be caused by the distant galaxy travelling away from the earth at some speed. Since redshift increases with distance then this recessional speed must also be increasing. This is known as the Doppler Effect and is called Doppler redshift. The only problem is that some of the most distant galaxies would have to be receding at up to or over the speed of light. It also seemed totally improbable that our galaxy was at the centre of 200 billion odd galaxies in the universe. So speed induced redshift was discounted.

Redshift can also be caused by a gravitational field where it is known as gravitational redshift. The way I like to remember gravitational redshift is to say that as you move against gravity (to a higher gravitational potential) time runs faster under General Relativity. And if time runs faster the frequency of a distant light source appears to be lower. In General Relativity this effect is referred to as Time Dilation. Can gravitational redshift account for the redshift predicted by Hubble’s Law? Well, if the universe looks the same in all directions we might assume we are close to the centre. However, in a steady state universe, the light coming from the outside to the centre would be traveling in the same direction as the prevailing gravity and would appear blue-shifted; the opposite of redshift. So, it seems that gravitational redshift was discounted.

With nowhere else to go, in 1927 Georges Lemaitre, proposed the expansion of the universe based on Einstein’s General Relativity. This didn’t have experimental confirmation but seemed to work in principle. The proposal is that if space–time was expanding then it would expand the wavelength of light, causing the frequency of the light to reduce and voila - redshift. Sadly, over the last 90 odd years, more and more problems have surfaced with this expansion theory. You will hear about them if you choose to read on, but as the only redshift explanation not discounted, it has persisted, and been modified. Since I am going to propose a new model of the universe, it is important to note that my universe model is also derived or built on principles of Einstein’s General Relativity. Deviating from the Expanding Universe model is not breaking the laws of physics. It is changing the underlying assumptions that all models have tucked away somewhere.

Well, it seems that no one has considered a model of the universe which tracks the changes in gravitational field strength as the universe evolves from the start-of-gravity to steady state... Suppose you could make a universe suddenly pop into existence that is 14 billion light years (14 Gly) in radius. It would take 14 billion years for the gravity of the outer galaxies to reach the centre and another 14 billion years for the whole universe to be in gravitational contact, nominally steady-state. A lot of changes can happen in 14 billion years!

Now, let’s add a little twist. Imagine that there is a dense outer shell around the universe. Its gravitational impact dominates the universe’s gravitational field, but it takes 14 billion odd years to propagate to the centre. The gravitational impact of this dense outer shell will propagate inwards at the speed of light. Given the initial assumption that this universe just popped into existence, no one would complain about this inward propagation of the gravity of the dense outer shell. Well rather than the universe popping into existence, suppose the universe started out small and expanded (inflated) faster than the speed of light. Then when the inflation stopped, the gravity of the dense outer shell would start to propagate inwards at the speed of light. Surprisingly this does not sound too much different to Big Bang assumptions except that we have this dense outer shell present. (Note: Big Bang uses a faster-than-light inflation that spreads out even the atoms of the universe but then changes to an expansion mode that only moves galaxies apart.)

But wait, just one more little twist… Suppose that time itself starts at the outside and like any causal system, it spreads inwards at the speed of light. This seems like a rather radical supposition, but is it that radical? Expansion is radical and faster than light inflation is radical. Starting, stopping and changing the rate of expansion simultaneously across the entire universe is radical. Creating an infinite universe in a finite time from a singularity is also pushing the envelope. But if this little twist is a bit much for you, then I’ll just mention that the inwards propagation of the gravitational field of a dense outer shell behaves much like the start of time. So this start of time twist is just a mathematical convenience to some extent.

However you picture the start-up of the universe, it seems like something is breaking the laws of physics. But guess what — Einstein’s equations actually allow time to stop under special conditions, and a rapidly expanding universe with a dense outer shell is one of them. (More details in Chapter 7). My starting point and the start of time occurs when the inflation stops. By the way, I cannot explain why inflation would stop — no one can! It’s a fundamental change in the physics of the universe that unfolds without propagation delay, yet it is accepted whole heartedly. Oh well, I had to start somewhere and the start of time seemed like a good place.

It’s pretty clear that for the first 14 billion odd years of this model, the overall gravitational pull of my proposed universe would be outwards. This outward gravity would accelerate all galaxies outwards establishing a Doppler redshift. Light travelling from the outside to the centre of such a universe would be continuously travelling against gravity, to a higher potential, meaning that there would be a monotonically increasing gravitational redshift. Time would literally be accelerating rather than the universe expanding. But ultimately this universe would begin to collapse as steady state was reached. That is why this model is called the COI universe, Collapsed from the Outside In. Have you got that twist clear? The universe is collapsing inwards but the gravitational pull is initially outwards.

The COI universe is the antithesis of an Expanding universe. The COI model pictures a finite closed universe shrinking under its own gravity, which is currently evolving as gravitational forces establish steady state. By contrast, the Expanding universe is in some manner infinite, growing in mass-energy every day and generally gives little attention to factors like the rate at which gravity might achieve steady state. Which model should you select? That will become more apparent as you read on. I don’t want to tackle everything in this preface. But since the expanding universe model seems to sit unopposed as the only explanation, I think it is fair to complain a little more, so that if you want to defend that model, you know what you are approving…

It has become an art form in the way we try and sweep these problems under the carpet. The inconsistencies between predictions and observations are labelled as dark or peculiar or dilemmas. If you have been working in this field for a long time you may have become desensitised to these problems. This book is not a complete answer to life, the universe and everything, but it is a major step to unveiling a new model, or at least thinking outside the box. This solution is much simpler. It is not brilliant. It does not involve any new physical laws or matter. It just involves this new assumption about time or gravity starting from the outside. I don’t think that anyone can prove or disprove this assumption, just as no one can observe the start of time. Yet this strange assumption is supportable.

There is no magic or sleight of hand involved. I want you to meticulously apply the experimentally proven laws of physics to the initial state and see that it predicts the observed redshift. I don’t want you to be happy with all manner of inconsistencies, but there are still many things to be resolved. These are discussed in Chapters 8 to 10. Instead, get excited that these fundamental issues are now closer; perhaps even within our reach. And what have we done? We have not got smarter. We just needed to refine our assumptions, that is, the framework on which our universe is founded. Will this new framework turn out to be just a stepping stone to something even better; or will it prove to be a rock solid foundation — only time will tell! I hope it will be sooner rather than later because there is a lot of research by really clever people looking for dark stuff that simply does not exist under the COI model.

Finally, let me restate what is proven and what is conjecture. I claim that Part 1, the COI process, as virtually proven. That is, starting from its assumed initial state, the redshift profile of this universe will result from the action of the known laws of physics. There is some evidence in Chapter 7

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