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Early US Armor: Armored Cars 1915–40

Early US Armor: Armored Cars 1915–40

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Early US Armor: Armored Cars 1915–40

4/5 (1 valutazione)
102 pagine
40 minuti
Feb 22, 2018


The first American armoured cars began to emerge around the turn of the century, seeing their first military use in 1916 during the Punitive Expedition against Pancho Villa. When the United States entered World War I, the American Expeditionary Forces used some armoured cars in France, and American armoured cars were used by the French Army.

The inter-war years saw considerable innovation and experimentation in armoured car design. Of the 1930s scout car designs, the M3A1 scout car was good enough to be produced in very large numbers in World War II, and was widely exported to many other armies via Lend-Lease. It also served as the basis for the late M2 and M3 armoured half-tracks.

In this study, using detailed full colour plates and rigorous analysis, US armour expert Steven J. Zaloga chronicles the development of the US armoured car in the years leading up to World War II.
Feb 22, 2018

Informazioni sull'autore

Steven J. Zaloga received his BA in History from Union College and his MA from Columbia University. He has worked as an analyst in the aerospace industry for over three decades, covering missile systems and the international arms trade, and has served with the Institute for Defense Analyses, a federal think tank. He is the author of numerous books on military technology and history, including NVG 294 Allied Tanks in Normandy 1944 and NVG 283 American Guided Missiles of World War II. He currently lives in Maryland, USA.

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Early US Armor - Steven J. Zaloga




There are a host of legends about the origins of American armored cars, some dating back to the Civil War. The Winans Gun is sometimes described as an armored car, though in fact it was not self-propelled. With the advent of automobiles in the late 19th century, the first primitive armed cars began to appear. These were typically gasoline or steam-powered automobiles fitted with a machine gun. The machine guns were often fitted with small armored shields, leading to their classification as armored cars. By today’s definition, these were not true armored cars since they lacked significant armored protection. Here they are called armed cars.

The Winans Steam Gun, built in Baltimore in 1861 at the outset of the Civil War, is often cited as an antecedent of American armored cars. In fact, the steam unit was used to power the centrifugal gun, not to propel the vehicle itself. The device did have an armored shield, but it had to be towed into position by horse. This is a contemporary illustration from Harper’s Weekly, May 25, 1861.

The Regular Army of the United States showed very little interest in early armored cars. However, state National Guard units were spurred on by the local automobile industry and became the vanguards of armored-car development in the United States prior to World War I. The individual most responsible for the early efforts was Major (later Colonel) Royal P. Davidson of the Wisconsin National Guard, and superintendent of the Northwestern Military and Naval Academy on Lake Geneva in Wisconsin. Davidson designed several armed automobiles, constructed with the aid of the academy’s cadets. The first of these, in 1899, was built on a Duryea three-wheeled automobile fitted with a Colt-Browning M1895 .30cal machine gun. Davidson felt that these vehicles could form the core of a flying machine-gun patrol, supported by armed motorcycles. In the summer of 1900, Davidson and the cadets drove this armed car from Fort Sheridan, Illinois, to Washington, DC, to deliver a message from the commandant of the Wisconsin National Guard to General Nelson A. Miles, the Army Chief of Staff. Miles was impressed enough with this demonstration that in 1903 he recommended to the Secretary of War that five existing Cavalry regiments should be converted to an automobile corps with Davidson’s cars. The Cavalry was not amused by this radical proposal and ignored it. In 1900, Davidson and the cadets completed a second armed car on a Duryea quadricycle. After the academy had relocated to Highland Park, Wisconsin, Davidson and his cadets assembled two more designs on steam-powered automobiles. In 1909, Davidson armed a Cadillac automobile as a machine-gun car. This was followed in 1910 by a pair of Cadillacs armed with machine guns in high-elevation mounts as balloon destroyers. The first Davidson design that was a true armored car was built in 1915 on a Cadillac chassis. In contrast to the previous designs, it was enclosed on all sides but the top with armor plate. It was armed with a single Colt-Browning .30cal machine gun on a pintle mount with an armored shield. The academy’s cadets staged a demonstration, starting on July 10, 1915, with a convoy of Cadillac-based vehicles from Chicago to Los Angeles to demonstrate the viability of army motorization. The trip took 40 days, in no small measure due to the absence of adequate roads in many parts of the western United States.

The steam-powered Davidson Automobile Battery armored car of 1901 was built by the Peoria Rubber and Motor Vehicle Manufacturing Company, based on patents of the Duryea Motor Wagon Company. The vehicle’s fuel tank and engine were covered with armor. This is the sole surviving example of Royal Davidson’s designs and is preserved at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. (Wikimedia Commons)

Royal Davidson built his first fully armored automobile in 1915 on a Cadillac chassis by Wisconsin’s Naval and Military Academy. It is seen here in 1917 during maneuvers at Fort Sheridan, Illinois.


The outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was a major catalyst for the development of armored cars in the United States. Many of the combatants began shopping for automobiles and trucks in the United States, some of which were used to construct armored cars back in Europe. France purchased White automobiles as the basis for their armored cars, and Russia acquired several different types of American vehicles to manufacture their own armored cars including Garford, Jeffery, and White trucks.


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  • (4/5)
    Zaloga, the author, is Osprey's go-to man for AFV, and he gives this book a game effort. The biggest problem I had with it is that the material for the book is very thin. Most of the armoured cars produced were small-run models, prototypes, or failed production runs. Only the last car discussed, the M3A1 scout car, had any real combat usage, and it's relegated to the last few pages. Really only recommended if you're a completist, and are trying to understand the very faint origins of US armoured cars.