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Fruit Juices: Extraction, Composition, Quality and Analysis

Fruit Juices: Extraction, Composition, Quality and Analysis

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Fruit Juices: Extraction, Composition, Quality and Analysis

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1,975 pagine
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Nov 24, 2017


Fruits Juices is the first and only comprehensive resource to look at the full scope of fruit juices from a scientific perspective. The book focuses not only on the traditional ways to extract and preserve juices, but also the latest novel processes that can be exploited industrially, how concentrations of key components alter the product, and methods for analysis for both safety and consumer acceptability. Written by a team of global experts, this book provides important insights for professionals in industrial and academic research as well as in production facilities.

  • Presents fruit juice from extraction to shelf-life in a single resource volume
  • Includes quantitative as well as qualitative insights
  • Provides translatable information from one fruit to another
Nov 24, 2017

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Fruit Juices - Academic Press


Section I



Chapter 1 Fruit Juices: An Overview

Chapter 2 Market Dimensions of the Fruit Juice Industry

Chapter 3 Classification of Fruit Juices

Chapter 4 Quality Attributes of Apple Juice: Role and Effect of Phenolic Compounds

Chapter 5 Fruit Juices (Apple, Peach, and Pear) and Changes in the Carotenoid Profile

Chapter 6 Selenium and Other Beneficial Elements in Fruit Juices

Chapter 7 The Contribution of Phytochemicals to the Antioxidant Potential of Fruit Juices

Chapter 1

Fruit Juices

An Overview

Gaurav Rajauria¹ and Brijesh K. Tiwari²,    ¹University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland,    ²Teagasc Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin, Ireland


The objective of this chapter is to define juice and to highlight the socioeconomic relevance of fruit juices along with the challenges faced by the fruit juice sector. This chapter also discusses the objectives and significance of various chapters compiled in this book.


History; juice definition; health; bioactive; quality; safety

1.1 The Importance of Juice: An Introduction

Juice consumption has been documented since time immemorial, with the first reference being mentioned in Vedic or ancient Greek, Egyptian, or pre-Roman scripts, but the word juice meaning the watery part of fruits was first recorded in the early 14th century. A more recent definition by the Codex Alimentarius Commission is that Fruit juice is the unfermented but fermentable liquid obtained from the edible part of sound, appropriately mature and fresh fruit or of fruit maintained in sound condition by suitable means including postharvest surface treatments applied in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Codex General Standard (CODEX STAN 247-2005). However, in the most general sense, fruit juice can be defined as an extract or an extractable fluid content of cells or tissues made by mechanically squeezing or pressing out the natural liquid contained in ripe fruits without using any heat or solvent.

In recent years, consumers have shown an increasing interest in health and wellbeing and are becoming much more aware of what they drink and what they want to drink. People are more inclined to choose drink products that are healthy and nutritive, and that fit in with their busy lifestyles, thus attention has been focused on the use of natural over artificial flavored drinks. Fruit juices are therefore a popular choice of beverage amongst consumers, they are natural and considered healthy, and play an important role in human diet (Mintel, 2009, 2015; Caswell, 2009). Apart from macronutrients and micronutrients, fruit juices are also a rich source of nutraceutical compounds which can provide better immunity and various other health benefits. According to the National Health Service (UK), a person should consume five recommended portions of a variety of fruits and vegetables a day (five-a-day), wherein a 150-mL glass of unsweetened 100% fruit or vegetable juice counts as one portion (one of your five-a-day) (NHS, 2015).

1.2 Demand and Consumption of Fruit Juices

The global juice market is expanding and it is likely driven by the fitness conscious consumer and the demand for healthy food products. Nowadays juice manufacturers are customer centered and focus on introducing different juices varieties, flavors, and mix juices along with innovative packaging and detailed nutrition and health claims (Transparency Market Research Report, 2015). The global juice market is predicted to witness strong growth at a compound annual growth rate of 3% during the period 2016–20 and is expected to be adding $128.74 billion to the world economy by the end of 2017. However, the growth is entirely dependent on the production, availability and geographical distribution of fruits. The global juice market is segmented into Latin America, the Middle East and Africa, Europe, Asia Pacific, and North America, but the leading markets for juice in these regions are Japan, China, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States ( Report, 2017). The key juice manufacturers in the global market are Nestlé, Coca-Cola, Welch’s, Dr. Pepper Snapple, Citrus World, PepsiCo, and Del Monte, among several others. On average, fruit juice consumption is directly related to a country’s income level and lifestyle. Across geographic regions, the average consumption of fruit juice was recorded to be from 0.66 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 0.36, 1.13) servings/day to 0.013 (95% UI: 0.011, 0.017) servings/day, with the highest intake in Australasia (especially in New Zealand) and the lowest in East Asia (Singh et al., 2015).

1.3 Juice Preparation

The preparation of juices from fruits has been documented as one of the earliest forms of agri-food operation, growing gradually with humans learning novel and practical ways of extracting it from various sources through trial and error (Bates et al., 2001). Nowadays, juice preparation has to follow certain codes of practice, wherein a juice should be prepared by a suitable process and should retain the essential nutritional and organoleptic characteristics of the fruits from which it comes. The juice may be cloudy, turbid, or clear, consisting of 100% pure fruit, and may contain aromatic substances and flavor components from the same fruit. The juice may also be topped up with pulp and cells obtained by proper physical means from the same fruit but typically it should contain no preservatives, sugars, artificial flavors, or any other added ingredients (BSDA, 2016; CODEX STAN 247-2005). A single juice is obtained directly from one kind of fruit or by reconstituting concentrated juice from the same fruit; however, a mixed juice is obtained by the amalgamation of more than two juices or a blend of juices and purées, from different kinds of fruit (CODEX STAN 247-2005).

In many cases, the fruit juices are the obvious result of squeezing the liquid from the whole or cut ripened fruit, but in some cases it is not so apparent. For instance, tomato, apple or orange juices are the liquid extracts that result from pressing the fruit, while the juices from certain acid fruits (e.g., lemons, limes) require the addition of water or sugar to reduce the sourness or consistency prior to consumption (Bates et al., 2001). The majority of commercially available juices are either filtered or free of pulp, but fresh pulpy orange juice is a highly popular and consumed juice worldwide. However, because of changes in lifestyles and awareness, single and mixed juices of vegetables and fruits such as mango, grapefruit, guava, tomato, pineapple, grape, and apple are gaining popularity, and thus juice manufacturers are now more focused on the opportunities arising from new product development. In recent decades there has been an increase in the consumption of exotic fruit juices and blends. Furthermore, fruit juices are also explored as a novel and appropriate medium for probiotic strains due to their nutritional composition. These new juice products are usually referred to as functional drinks which are very popular and designed for young and old people (Perricone et al., 2015). In addition, antioxidant-enriched juices made up of berries are gaining momentum and are anticipated to provide profitable growth opportunities to juice manufacturers (Transparency Market Research Report, 2015).

1.4 Juice Processing and Preservation

The perishable nature of fruit juices poses significant challenges associated with production and preservation. Unless the juice was consumed fresh, storage at chilling or freezing temperatures was the only alternative to protect the organoleptic properties of juice. The fermentation of juice soon after squeezing was the biggest challenge until preservation techniques were developed. Initially fermentation was the only choice to prolong the shelf life of juices, but juices emerged as popular drinks after the development of pasteurization techniques. Studies have shown that the amounts of nutraceuticals in fruit juices are dependent on how they are produced, processed, and preserved. Thus, there is a need not only to document the traditional ways of extracting and preserving juices, but also to explore how novel processes can help to reduce the challenges encountered by the juice industry. Traditional techniques including canning, pasteurization, concentrating, freezing, evaporation, and spray drying have resulted in significant extensions in shelf life, but at the cost of nutritional or health attributes. Thermal treatments sometimes fail to produce a quality, high-nutrition, and microbiologically stable product. In recent decades, the emphasis has been on employing novel approaches to enhance the safety and shelf life whilst retaining the nutritional quality of fruit juices. Numerous emerging technologies including high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, ultrasound, ozone processing, light-based technologies, irradiation, and nonthermal plasma have been applied for fruit juice preservation, processing, and packaging. These novel techniques are rapidly acquiring the juice market as they are efficient in shelf life extension, enzymatic activity reduction, and microorganism inactivation, while maintaining the quality of the original, fresh pressed produce (Mohamed and Eissa, 2012).

1.5 Challenges Associated With Fruit Juices Production

As fruit juices are a healthier choice among consumers, the quality and the safety of juice products are always a worry, and they are always subject to very detailed legislation ensuring all necessary information on their nutritional benefits and compositions (AIJN—European Fruit Juice Association). In Europe, the quality, composition, preparation processes, manufacture, and labeling characteristics of juice products are covered by a specific European Fruit Juice Directive (2001/112/EC) with a few amendments in 2009 (Directive 2009/106/EC) and 2012 (Directive 2012/12/EU). The legislation also advises the definition of the type of raw fruit materials as well as the content of fruit juice and/or purée in mix juices along with the authorized additives included during the preparation of fruit juices, concentrated fruit juices, dehydrated fruit juices, and fruit nectars (AIJN—European Fruit Juice Association). In addition, juices are also subject to various European food laws such as health claims, labeling, and addition of nutrients to goods regulation, pesticides residue law, and general food law regulations that regulate the safe manufacturing of these products (AIJN—European Fruit Juice Association).

Apart from strict regulations, there are some other factors that pose challenges in the production of fruit juices and inhibit the growth of the global juice market. One of the main challenges is associated with the constant supply of fruits, as most of fruits are seasonal and this affects the overall production. Other challenges include: manufacturing challenges (homogenization, extraction, filtration, processing, preservation, packaging, and storage); ingredients challenges (fruit components, sweeteners, flavors, colors, preservatives, nutraceutical ingredients, and miscellaneous additives); quality issues (color and flavor deterioration, appearance changes, packaging material, storage conditions, microbiological problems, shelf life, water quality and bottling issues); and most recent are new product development and marketing challenges (cost constraints, marketing brief, consumer assessment and complaints) (Ashurst and Hargitt, 2009). However, availability of substitutes such as carbonated soft drinks, sports and energy drinks, and other hybrid drinks pose the prime challenges to the juice industry and inhibit the growth of the global fruit juice market (Heyman and Abrams, 2017; Transparency Market Research Report, 2015).

1.6 Book Objective

The overarching objective of this book, Fruits Juices: Extraction, Composition, Quality, and Analysis, is to provide an overview of juice compositions, extraction strategies, quality and safety assessment, emerging technologies for preservation and processing, shelf life and storage, and approaches for nutritional components as well as mycotoxins and residues analysis. A key objective of the book is to critically evaluate the role of emerging technologies in shelf life extension, nutrients preservation and packaging that can be exploited industrially. Determination of trace elements, pesticides, authentication, adulteration, and traceability analysis which are primary concern of juice segment are also covered.

1.7 Book Structure

The book contains 40 chapters which are divided into six sections. Section I outlines the composition and health benefits of fruit juices, Section II summarizes conventional and novel extraction approaches of fruit juices, Section III focuses on the quality and safety of fruit juices, Section IV explores the role of emerging technologies in juice processing and preservation, Section V highlights the challenges associated with shelf life and storage of juices, while the final Section VI focuses on juice analysis, including a variety of factors that can affect overall juice quality, authenticity, and stability.

Section I comprises seven chapters wherein Chapter 2, Market Dimensions of the Fruit Juice Industry, aims to offer insight into and an overview of the trends, opportunities, and threats in the fruit juice industry, and highlight the factors affecting consumers’ food choices and innovations in fruit juice marketing. Chapter 3, Classification of Fruit Juices, gives a brief classification of fruit juices on the basis of their composition and manufacturing processes as laid down by legislative authorities. The composition and related biological activity are important quality attributes which contribute to potential health benefits of juices. Further classification according to the dispersion system, composition of fruit juices, and different product types depending on the juice preservation methods are also outlined. Chapters 4–7 provide a comprehensive overview of micro- and macronutrients, and various functional ingredients including polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, and their role in health and wellbeing. The relationship between the level and type of these compounds in juices and their effect on quality attributes and sensorial characteristics such as color, taste, and turbidity is critical for consumers’ acceptance, and can also lead to products with enhanced health benefits beyond the basic provision of their nutritional value. The composition of these metabolites is affected by environmental conditions, especially oxygen levels and endogenous enzymes, as well as their interactions with fruit matrix components such as carbohydrates and proteins during processing and storage. Therefore, these chapters focus on stability, quantification, and determination, along with bioaccessibility, bioavailability, metabolism and antioxidant activity of these beneficial compounds with in vitro and in vivo evidence.

An ever-increasing demand for fresh or minimally processed food products has built up pressure on food technologists to explore and scrutinize more efficient juice extraction/preparation technologies. Therefore, Section II of the book, which contains eight chapters all together, and mainly focuses on traditional and modern extraction approaches for juice production along with new product development based on various juice concentrates, smoothies, and probiotic beverages. To deal with the ever-increasing demands of these perishable and healthy drinks, Chapter 8, Extraction of Fruit Juice: An Overview, and Chapter 9, Novel Extraction Technologies, explain various juice extraction methodologies, briefly describe the workings of these technologies, and unfold the particulars contributing their novelty in juice production. With the intention of improving yield, shelf life, nutrients, sensory characteristics, and anticipated health benefits, the consumers, manufacturers, and researchers should have an in-depth knowledge of the various steps involved in the juice manufacturing process. In order to increase the extraction yield and production efficiency while reducing the energy costs and waste, the application of enzymes in juice production has several advantages from a commercial and environmental point of view. Chapter 10, Enzyme Assisted Extraction of Fruit Juices, and Chapter 11, Application of Enzymes for Fruit Juice Processing, summarize information on the role of enzymes and their biotechnological applications for the processing of pectic substances in fruits and their effects on the organoleptic properties of the resulting fruit juices. The enzymes used in the fruit juice industry are primarily mixtures of pectinolytic enzymes which break down complex polysaccharides of fruit tissues into simpler molecules. Thus, in order to apply the currently available enzymes, it is mandatory to have a previous knowledge of the cell wall composition of the fruits aimed to be processed and the kind of activities that the currently available enzymes can provide. Furthermore, single-strength juices, when produced are not easy to store, pack, or transport because of the colossal volume and also because they are vulnerable to nutritional and sensory deterioration. Fruit juice concentrates, on the other hand, have a longer shelf life and are easy to pack, store, or transport to geographically far regions. Although the majority of the fruit juice concentration methods are based on evaporation, scientific evidences point out the depletion of potentially beneficial moieties such as flavor and essence volatiles, vitamins, and phytonutrients. The traditional process of concentration involving high temperatures promotes significant sensory and nutritional changes in the fruit juice quality. However, modern approaches including reverse osmosis and forward osmosis are membrane-dependent processes that can be used to preconcentrate fruit juices avoiding heating resulting in minimal thermal damage, besides requiring lower capital and operating costs. Therefore, the focus of Chapter 12, Fruit Juice Concentrates, and Chapter 13, Reverse Osmosis and Forward Osmosis for the Concentration of Fruit Juices, is to describe the functioning of available concentration methodologies and to highlight the future prospects of emerging concentration practices. Fruit-based smoothies involving a range of different fruit juices, pulps, with or without vegetables or milk are also gaining importance. Production of fruit-based smoothies and their various nutritional properties are outlined in Chapter 14, Production of Fruit-Based Smoothies. More recently, the concept of probiotic drinks is prevailing in the dairy sector because of their positive effects on the intestinal microbiota composition and overall health. The use of fruit juices as vehicles for probiotic microorganisms has been increasing as an alternative for those who do not consume dairy products. Thus, Chapter 15, Turning Fruit Juice Into Probiotic Beverages, explores the main aspects of probiotic fruit processing, the principles of probiotic systems, sensory analysis, and some commercially available probiotic juices.

The paramount benefits of juices can only be enjoyed when juice manufacturing methods and instruments are benign, efficiently optimized, eco-friendly, and most importantly generate microbiologically safe products. Overall, four chapters in Section III of the book cover this subject matter by addressing several aspects of fruit juice microbiology, with an overview of various thermal and nonthermal technologies to produce safe and stable products. Chapter 16, Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms in Fruit Juice: An Overview, explores the data of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in different fruit juices, sources of contamination, spoilage caused by microorganisms, outbreaks involving foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins, along with the international guidelines required for safe juice production. Therefore, inactivation of pathogens in fruit juices is important in order to maintain safety and extend product shelf life. The juice hazard analysis and critical control points regulation requires that pasteurization processing used to prevent biological contamination must achieve at least a 5-log reduction of pathogen levels for species of concern to public health, in order to produce safe fruit juice that is free of pathogens and is of high quality, meeting consumer expectations and reducing commercial losses. Chapter 17, Thermal Pasteurization and Microbial Inactivation of Fruit Juices, demonstrates the potential and recent advances in thermal pasteurization of juice and relevance in the era of novel technologies. The chapter outlines physicochemical properties of fruit juices, inactivation mechanisms of target microorganisms and enzymes, along with the engineering aspects of thermal pasteurization during juice preservation. Though, conventional thermal pasteurization techniques have been used to achieve microbiological safety and preservation of fruit juices, the high temperatures used during pasteurization can affect sensory the characteristics and cause deterioration in nutritive values of fruit juices. Chapter 18, The Inactivation of Pathogens in Fruit Juice: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes, mainly focuses on inactivation of various microorganism using innovative nonthermal technologies applied alone or in combination with other preservation methods for effective decontamination of fruit juices. Apart from microbial-led deterioration, pesticides also worsen the quality of juice. Certainly, pesticides provide an easy, economic, and pragmatic strategy to control pests, insects, and weeds but actually, they cost a lot through adverse health and environmental effects. Amongst the pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides are the most widely used class in fruit juices. During processing, these pesticides are rapidly absorbed in fruits and vegetables through all possible routes, which can cause nerve breakdown that can lead to the death. Though the application of these chemicals cannot be voluntarily checked, reliable analysis, observable regulation, an intelligent pest management can reduce the loss percentage. Thus, Chapter 19, Techniques to Detect and Detoxify Organophosphorus Pesticides From Fruit Juices, precisely provides comprehensive information regarding identification, analysis, and removal of these contaminants from fruit juices.

Practicing novel methods to preserve fruit juices without compromising their quality is the emerging trend in juice processing. In recent years, a number of innovative technologies have been investigated, and the primary focus of these inventions is to ensure product safety, quality and acceptability, with minimal modification in nutritional properties and to reduce the energy requirements. Utilization of natural, fresh fruit juices rich in phytochemicals and antioxidants has been reported to overcome degenerative diseases that affect humans. Fruit juices and other liquid foods constitute an important source of bioactive compounds. However, the techniques used for their processing may cause alterations in their contents, and consequently they do not provide the benefits expected by the consumer. With this fact in mind, Section IV (consisting of eight chapters) of this book explores several emerging nonthermal technologies to develop safe and quality products. On these lines, Chapter 20, High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) Processing of Fruit Juices, explores both high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) processes as nonthermal, nonconventional, emerging technologies. The chapter describes the principles and equipment for both technologies, as well as their effects on microorganisms, enzymes, food constituents, juice structure, physical and technological properties, along with their industrial perspectives, commercial use, and future challenges. Chapter 21, Gamma Irradiation Usage in Fruit Juice Extraction, outlines gamma radiation as a physical method for extraction and preservation that has proved its efficacy over other thermal preservation techniques, and is known to retain the quality of fruit juices. The chapter summarizes gamma irradiation and its effect on various fruit juices with regard to the changes induced in phenols, anthocyanins, flavanoids, and antioxidants. It also includes the influence of gamma irradiation on microbial inactivation, color changes, sensory changes, and shelf life of treated juices. Furthermore, Chapter 22, Pulsed Electric Field Processing of Fruit Juices, which comprises PEF shows that PEF could be used to pasteurize fruit juices with minimal modifications of the physicochemical and nutritional properties or even a significantly higher amount of health-related phytochemicals. Ultrasound, another nonthermal technique, as a standalone process or in synergy with mild heat or pressure treatments enables achievement of the US FDA’s mandatory 5-log reduction in pathogen levels in fruit juices. Although ultrasonic processing has been in practice for a long time, its application in liquid foods such as fruit juices and milk are rather more recent. The probable adverse effects of ultrasound in fruit juices may involve changes in color, anthocyanins, cloud value, and ascorbic acid content. However, the changes are minimal and can actually be improved with mild sonication. Thus, Chapter 23, Ultrasonic for Fruit Juice Preservation, provides a comprehensive and practical knowledge of ultra-sonication in fruit juice processing and preservations. In line with other nonthermal technologies, Chapter 24, UV-C Light Inactivation of Pathogens in Fruit Juices, focuses on the application of UV-C light assisted inactivation of pathogens in fruit juices. The bactericidal mechanism of UV-C is based on the absorption of UV-C light by microbial DNA or RNA structures and the formation of pyrimidine dimers, prevents replication, makes pathogens inactive and unable to cause infection in the food products. Furthermore, authorization of ozone as a direct food additive in 2001 increased attention on ozone applications, particularly in fruit juices. Chapter 25, Ozone for Fruit Juice Preservation, reviews the progress of ozone processing in fruit juices due to its higher oxidation potential and antimicrobial properties. The chapter deals with ozone generation, destruction of microbes and mycotoxin, the effects of ozone on the quality attributes of juices, and the limitations of ozone in fruit juice applications. The last chapter (Chapter 26: Cold Plasma Processing of Fruit Juices) of this section explores one of the latest technological innovations for preservation in the food sector which is cold plasma. The chapter reviews the application of nonthermal cold plasma in fruit juice processing as an innovative approach for safety and quality retention of fruit juices with potential commercial prospects. Cold plasma has proven its efficacy in inactivating various pathogenic and spoilage organisms found in fruit juices. The simple design, low-cost, easy scale-up, flexible configuration, and environmentally friendly nature of cold plasma offers unique advantages over traditional processing technologies. However, the technology is still in its nascent form and needs further research to assess its application in a wide range of fruit juices and optimization of process variables. Chapter 27, Hurdle Technologies for Fruit Juices, discusses various hurdle approaches involving conventional and novel technologies which can be employed for improving microbial safety, quality, and nutritional profile of fruit juice.

Section V of the book deals with postproduction aspects of fruit juices which are shelf life and storage. The section is divided into five chapters (Chapters 28–32) wherein Chapter 28, Quantitative Assessment of the Shelf-Life of Fruit Juices, deals with the quantitative assessment of the shelf life of fruit juices. It revisits the definitions related to the shelf life assessment and presents a number of indicators that are relevant for the quantification and modeling of the shelf life of fruit juices. A list of some representative examples of these kinetic studies in relation to current practices in fruit juice processing and postprocessing conditions is also presented. Although the modern technologies implemented in food processing have reduced the likelihood of food-related illness, numerous serious food-safety problems associated with technological flaws or synthetic preservatives are documented. Many synthetic preservatives such as sodium benzoate, sorbates, citric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfites are common chemical preservatives in fruit juices approved by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; however, their overuse or misuse are toxic to health. Therefore, consumers are more inclined towards the usage of more natural preservatives which can provide a tremendous opportunity for advancing the field of juice preservation and safety as described in Chapter 29, Use of Natural Preservatives for Shelf life Extension of Fruit Juices. The combination of natural antimicrobial compounds with other preservation techniques could be a new trend in the preservation of fruit juices with improved microbiological safety and acceptable organoleptic properties. However, additional research is needed to optimize their applications, with great care for consumer acceptability. Temperature is one of the main parameters affecting fruit juice quality attributes over storage. Although low temperature significantly reduces the spoilage, it leads to high energy costs. To overcome these issues, hyperbaric storage has recently appeared as an alternative preservation methodology for microbial growth inhibition similar to refrigeration storage. The technology is showing a great potential for energy savings, as well as carbon footprint reduction, as it could be applied at room temperature. Chapter 30, Hyperbaric Storage of Fruit Juice and Impact on Composition, aims to gather information with a brief state-of-art summary of hyperbaric storage, showing its historical background and the results obtained as a new preservation methodology. Apart from shelf life, storage and safe transportation are other postproduction issues which can change fresh flavor and color during transportation or storage. Chapter 31, Storage in Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles, Changes and Shelf Life, and Chapter 32, Packaging Technologies for Fruit Juices, highlight the effects of packaging materials on quality and shelf life of fruit juices. In earlier times, fruit juices were packed in glass containers, but because of weight and brittleness the juice manufacturers have started exploring other packaging selections from tin plate containers to tin-free steel, chromium-coated steel plate, aluminum cans, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and Tetra pack. Storage in PET bottles is insufficient to give a satisfactory shelf life unless the product is kept at chilled temperatures. However, Tetra pack (plastic-coated paper carton) for aseptic packaging is the path-breaking development in beverages packaging. Apart from explaining the advantages and disadvantages of various packaging materials, both chapters also discuss numerous packaging parameters including gas permeability, microbial activity, sensitivity of flavor and aroma compounds, color changes, vitamin loss, and migration of toxic substances from packaging material into beverages.

The final part (Section VI) of the book deals with perhaps the most important question consumers have about juice: its authenticity—how do we measure the authenticity or check adulteration in the juice? Eight chapters in this section cover all the answers that a consumer might need. Chapter 33, Analytical Techniques for Phytochemical Estimation in Fruit Juices, aims to highlight the overarching analytical methods for the detection of bioactive compounds, phytochemicals, and contaminants in fruit juices. It systematically explains the protocols used in fruit juices for sample preparation (clean-up, extraction, and derivatization), compounds separation (using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods), and their detection and identification. Although many advanced technologies are available to date, the application of different methodologies for the analysis of a specific compound or a group of phytochemicals depends on the physicochemical properties of the analytes or their metabolites, the sample matrix, the extraction method, and chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. For instance, anthocyanins are naturally present in a wide range of fruits such as berries, plums, cherries, pomegranates, citrus fruits, among others, and are usually associated with the orange, pink, red, violet, and blue colors of fruits. This anthocyanin content can be used as a quality-control marker to check the fruit juice authenticity. The same type of juice can show a significant difference in anthocyanin content, but the profile of anthocyanins should be similar. Thus, Chapter 34, Analysis, Identification, and Quantification of Anthocyanins in Fruit Juices, focuses on high- or ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography techniques coupled with diode array detection or mass spectrometry detection for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthocyanins in fruit juices. The chapter provides an overview on the extraction, purification, and analytical methods used to determine anthocyanins in fruit juices, to evaluate the current knowledge on this subject, as well as to identify gaps and to establish potential future trends in the analysis of these compounds in fruit juices. Similarly, the nutritional value of fruit juices is also associated with the presence of macro-, micro-, and trace elements. These elements are indispensable for life maintenance, while their occurrence in excessive amounts can cause severe health hazards. The proper and reliable analysis of elemental composition of fruit juices can be significant for fruit producers, juice manufacturers, and consumers. Therefore, Chapter 35, Determination of Elements in Fruit Juices, deals with the most commonly applied flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry as well as inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectrometry for elemental analysis in fruit juices. In addition, different procedures of sample treatment of fruit juices prior to elemental analysis along with calibration methods and ways of quality assurance are surveyed. In contrast to determination of beneficial nutrients, fruit juices are also regularly checked for the presence of mycotoxins. Presence of these toxins in fruits and their processed products induce severe toxicity at low levels which are not only hazardous to human health, but also result in economic losses to fruit juice manufacturers. Chapter 36, Analysis of Mycotoxins in Fruit Juices, of this section aims to give an overview of the mycotoxins commonly present in fruits and fruit juices, methods for their analysis, and strategies for their control. Although the most widely produced juice is citrus juice, recent production of superfruit juices, from exceptional nutritional quality fruits such as pomegranate and various types of berries, have become popular due to their high levels of antioxidants, micronutrients, and polyphenols, especially anthocyanins. Because of their high value, these products are always a potential target for fraud and adulteration. Chapter 37, Authentication of Fruit Juices by Metabolomics Using UPLC-QToF MS, therefore reviews a metabolomics approach that has been applied to verify the authenticity of fruit juices. The chapter talks about a number of methods that have been developed for authenticity testing of juices, allowing estimation of the percentage of adulteration as well as prediction of geographical origin, using various statistical models. A number of studies have also been undertaken to discover potential biomarkers based on protein, metabolites, and DNA analysis for the detection of adulteration and authentication. But, DNA-marker-based methods have been adopted extensively due to stability of DNA molecules in processed food materials. In line with this, Chapter 38, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism qPCR Assay: Detection of Mandarin in Orange Juice, especially focuses on the detection of mandarin adulteration in orange juices by using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single nucleotide polymorphism approach. The chapter also discusses different techniques, their principles, advantages, disadvantages, and their utility in the assessment of mandarin adulteration in orange juice. Undoubtedly, pure and authentic juice production generates a lot of data in terms of characterization or classification, geographic origin determination, authenticity, traceability, and juice quality. Therefore, the use of chemometric analysis by creation of software to perform mathematical and statistical calculations is required. The use of chemometrics has been an important tool in dealing with a large quantity of data, thus Chapter 39, Characterizing Fruit Juices and Fermented Fruit Beverages Using Chemometrics Tools, reviews different multivariate techniques including unsupervised methods (principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)), supervised methods (such as linear discrimination analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), artificial neural networks (ANN)), and calibrations methods (such as multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR)). The use of chemometrics in the research on juices and fermented beverage fruit (wine, cider, and others) has impacted positively on scientific quality and it has generated interest in the industrial sector due to its potential application. Certainly, the paramount of juice benefits can only be enjoyed when the juice manufacturing process and instruments are efficiently optimized. The final chapter (Chapter 40: Process Analytical Technology for the Fruit Juice Industry) of the book, centering on the state-of-the-art in this discipline, reviews process analytical technique which is a concept that aims at building quality into the process. It is also known as quality by design and has an important application in the quality assurance of products. It involves real-time measurement and control of a process which assists in the production of superior-quality juice products.

To conclude, we hope that the book will be a valuable guide and platform for information relating to fruit juices. The book has been contributed to by leading national and international experts including those from world renowned institutions, and is especially designed for food scientists, technologists, food industry workers, and microbiologists. We are confident that the chapters are informative and concise, and will provide a clear thinking perspective on a subject matter that has and will continue to benefit mankind from many perspectives. It is an informative monograph that covers a wide area of fruit juice science which is well suited for academic libraries and covers the domains of food production, food processing, food technology, and fruits or food science.


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Chapter 2

Market Dimensions of the Fruit Juice Industry

Anushree Priyadarshini¹ and Akanksha Priyadarshini²,    ¹Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland,    ²University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland


The juice sector is currently demonstrating positive and dynamic growth mainly due to a change in lifestyle, the tendency of consumers to prefer healthy products, and an increase in purchasing power. Fruit juices form part of what are termed the new age beverages. In sync with growing consumer inclination toward healthier choices, manufacturers are moving over to healthier ingredients in their juices. Numerous new and innovative products are being launched globally by manufacturers to stimulate sales through innovations in flavor blends, calorie and sweetness levels, and functional benefits, very much shaped by the major lifestyle trends. This chapter aims to offer insight and overview of the trends, opportunities, and threats of the fruit juice industry and highlight the factors affecting consumers’ food choices and innovations in fruit juice marketing.


Global fruit juice market; new age beverage; consumer food choice; fruit juice marketing

2.1 Introduction

The juices market is one of the most innovative product markets in the food and drinks sector, and one of the most competitive segments in the beverage industry. Driven by increasing awareness and preference of consumers for healthy products the market is expanding with the use of high-technology in processing and packaging (Baourakis and Baltas, 2004). Fruit juices form part of what are termed as the new age beverages. Currently, natural beverages, having no additives or preservatives are ruling the fruits and vegetables juice market, and drinks made of organic ingredients are gaining popularity. In sync with growing consumer inclination toward healthier choices, manufacturers are moving over to healthier ingredients in their juices. Numerous new and innovative products are being launched globally by manufacturers to stimulate sales through innovations in flavor blends, calorie and sweetness levels, and functional benefits, very much shaped by the major lifestyle trends (Annette, 2008).

The fruit and vegetable juice market is segmented by the geography, the major ingredient used, the concentration of the juices, and the category served by the juice. The market is dependent on the geographical distribution and availability of the fruit/vegetable and the health considerations. It is expected to witness increased demand levels in both value and volume terms as the demand is also being triggered by the prevalent trend of preference for juice drinks in the majority of Asian and Latin American countries. Growing economies such as China and India present lucrative opportunities in terms of potential consumers (Annette, 2008). Reviewing the global juice market for its trends, opportunities, and threats, this chapter tracks the factors affecting consumers’ food choices and innovations in fruit juice marketing, and an outlook of the future for fruit juices market is outlined.

2.2 Market Overview

The global market for juices is expanding. In 2014 the global juices market had a total revenue of $110.8 billion, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3% between 2010 and 2014. Market consumption volume increased with a CAGR of 4% between 2010 and 2014, to reach a total of 74,271.5 million liters in 2014, and is expected to keep growing, driving the market value up to $128,741.1 million by the end of 2017. Between 2007 and 2013 the market increased with an average annual growth of 3.5% while the expansion of the industry is forecast to reach 3.7% p.a. in the coming years (Savara, 2015).

China, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States represent the largest fruit and vegetable juice markets, with China being the world leader. Its juice market is nearly twice that of the United States in market volume, with 2.3 billion of its 19.7 billion liters sold at retail in 2012 to be pure juice. The volumes in China exceeded Europe as a whole for the first time in 2014 (Mintel Report, 2013). Nonetheless, currently Latin America juice markets are among the fastest-growing regions globally. The retail value for Chile is close to 20% CAGR on retail value, with Brazil and Mexico close to 14%, and Columbia at 8.9%. In terms of forecast for the CAGR (up to 2017), the fastest growth is expected to occur in India (18.5%), Indonesia (16.0%), South Africa (8.6%), Brazil (8.4%), and Malaysia (8.3%), and the slowest-growing regions are forecast to be South Korea (−1.4%), United States (−1.4%), Italy (−1.5%), Austria (−2.6%) and Germany (−4.6%) (Fig. 2.1) (Mintel Report, 2013).

Figure 2.1 Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) in the juice market: forecast for up to year 2017. Data source: Mintel Report, 2013. Juice and juice drinks 2013 and the future. Available at: <> (accessed 14.03.16.).

While the major players in the global fruit and vegetable juice markets are: The Coca Cola Company, PepsiCo, Del Monte, Nestle, Welch’s, etc. In terms of the flavors, currently orange juice accounts for 29.1% of the global demand while the remaining market share is divided between grapefruit juice (2.1%), other citrus juice (4.5%), apple juice (27.1%), pineapple juice (3.6%), grape juice (8.5%), tomato juice (0.5%), other single fruit or vegetable juice (15.2%) and mixtures of juices (9.3%) (Fig. 2.2) (Persistence Market Research Report, 2015). Although overall, sweet is the preferred flavor globally followed by tart, herbal, and vegetable, regional variations occur in the preference of each. Research shows that while sweet is preferred most in the Middle East and Africa (MEA) region, followed by North America, Central and South America, Asia, Australia, and Europe. In the case of Tart the order of preference is Europe, Central and South America, North America, Asia, Australia, and MEA. Herbal flavors are preferred most in Asia, Australia, MEA region, followed by Central and South America, Europe, and North America, while vegetable flavors though least popular globally have regional preference in the order of North America, Asia, Australia, MEA region, Europe, and Central and South America.

Figure 2.2 Global demand for flavors. Data source: PRNewswire Report, 2015. Global Juice Report 2014-Comprehensive Analysis of Trends in the Global Juice Market Including Long-Term Forecasts. Available from: (accessed on 23.03.16).

Overall, whilst juice is a mature category, its market is expanding owing to the health trends and consumer concerns relating to the use of artificial flavors, colors, and preservatives in drinks that are leading to greater demand for healthy, natural products. Premium products such as luxury products designed for connoisseurs, nostalgic products, products that communicate provenance and a growth in indulgent drinks, particularly smoothies, are driving growth in the juices market and presenting opportunities and threats for the global fruit juice market.

2.3 Key Trends in the Juices Market

The health trend continues to dominate the beverage market, and as consumers are increasingly searching for healthier substitutes to carbonated soft drinks, juices provide a convenient and flavorsome option. However, as juice is a mature market, manufacturers battling to grow sales are keenly focusing on product differentiation and developing juices that go beyond just tasting good and providing general health benefits. Based on buyers’ changing taste and preference, drinks manufacturers are focusing on adding extra vitamins and minerals to their offerings (Research and Markets Report, 2012). Consumers are increasingly preferring natural fruit juices or which contain 100% in fruit content (concentrated juice). This 100% juice category presents substantial growth opportunities for juice-making companies, and manufacturers currently are also venturing into the ‘free from’, functional, luxury, and ethical drinks (Persistence Market Research Report, 2015). The key trends that have been prominent over the last few years include:

• functional drinks—investment in superfruits, soy drinks, omega-3, probiotics and prebiotics, added calcium, and natural energy;

• marketing to kids—creating credible healthy alternatives to carbonated drinks;

• beauty support drinks—beauty from the inside out;

• luxury juices—gourmet or experimental trend;

• ethical juices—organic juices, green packaging.

2.3.1 Functional Drinks

The market for functional drinks has advanced rapidly with the growing focus of consumers on what they eat and drink to influence their health. Superfruits are readily being incorporated into health juices owing to the presence of high levels of polyphenols present naturally in them. Ingredients such as omega-3, probiotics, prebiotics, botanicals, and isoflavones from soy are being used in juices nowadays with increasing frequency as these satisfy the consumer desire for health through natural ingredients (Annette, 2008). Added calcium

Juices are now being developed with calcium as the key functional ingredient and a range of juice products are appearing on the market that contain added calcium. Calcium is known to be very important for older female consumers as it is good for bone health. An example of one such drink targeted primarily at women worried about their calcium intake is the Osteo range of fruit juices from Osteoblast Beverages LLC. While the drink contains no artificial ingredients and is free from caffeine, it offers a fitting solution to attain a good level of calcium intake in the form of a sweet-tasting drink. It is marketed to consumers as a substitute to milk in providing calcium required for the body. Another range of calcium-enriched orange juices has been recently launched by Canada’s second largest food retailer Sobey’s Inc., and is marketed as a product specially designed as a source of calcium for people who do not drink milk. Superfruits

Fruits rich in antioxidants are referred to as superfruits because of antioxidants’ role in everything from preventing heart disease and cancer to improving the immune system and reducing the aging process. Found in the red, blue, and purple pigments that give fruits their vibrant color, antioxidants are commonly present in berries, grapes, cherries, and pomegranates all of which are regarded as superfruits.

With the advancing health trend, the popularity of superfruits has risen owing to their health credentials and manufacturers are extensively exploring them in a bid to differentiate their products. While mature markets like the United Kingdom, Japan, and the United States are driving their demand, new superfruits are progressively being identified and championed. Emerging superfruits include goji berries, açaí, acerola, mangosteen, and noni. Because these fruits are less mainstream, they tend to capture consumers’ interest, particularly of those that are keen on trying new flavors and taste sensations. An recent example of a superfruit juice is Gloji All Natural Juice, launched in the United States and marketed as the juice that makes you glow, the drink positions itself as the one that naturally rejuvenates, and restores the body inside and out. Another growing trend is the addition of an emerging superfruit to a traditional product, e.g., Lakewood Pomegranate with Goji Organic 100% Fruit Juice Blend. The drink captions pomegranate whilst introducing goji.

Both these drinks are positioned to appeal to the health-sentient consumers who are also adventurous consumers encouraged by new and exotic taste combinations. The growing trend presents opportunity for manufacturers to continue to explore and champion new superfruits to maintain interest amongst health-conscious consumers and this trend promises to sustain the momentum in the superfruit health juices market. Natural energy

Another popular trend in the fruit juice market is the development of a new breed of energy drink within the fruit juices category. Designed to raise energy levels in a more sustained manner, these energy drinks combine natural ingredients such as ginseng and guarana. While ginseng has been used for over 2000 years as a natural nutritional preparation to augment energy levels, ginsenosides is a class of molecule found within ginseng. It prevents stress by keeping cortisol and other stress hormones under control. Both of these are categorized as adaptogens that combat both physical and emotional stress. A number of energy drinks featuring adaptogens have entered the market in recent years. For example, Acute Fruit 100% Juice Energy Drink is a carbon free orange passion fruit beverage that blends pure fruit juice with antioxidants and adaptogens to enhance energy levels, promote wellbeing, and help fight stress. Other examples positioned as natural energy drinks giving good, lasting energy and real nutrition, instead of that fleeting, unhealthy caffeine high are strawberry banana, berry boost, and power punch.

Certified as organic, these drinks contain proteins, vitamin B3 and B6, açaí, and ginseng, and are being positioned in the market as healthier alternatives to energy drinks which contain high levels of caffeine and sugar. The trend is providing an opportunity for fruit juice manufacturers to capture the market of increasingly sophisticated and health-conscious consumers by delivering differentiated energy propositions that are based on natural health and vitality. Probiotics and prebiotics

Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host as defined by WHO. While prebiotics are defined as nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth of one or a limited number of bacterial species in the colon which have the potential to improve host’s health (Reid, 2016).

Probiotics have been used to ferment foods from time immemorial and are known to not only improve gut health and the immune system, but also to demonstrate a positive impact in curing allergies, obesity, acute gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and even reducing the risk of colorectal cancer (Ambalam et al., 2016; Rouxinol-Dias et al., 2016). Furthermore, these have been shown to relieve the symptoms associated with lactose intolerance. Similarly prebiotics also impact the immune system positively, and by inhibiting gut lesions such as adenomas and carcinomas, these also reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. These are found in foods such as garlic, onion, leeks, and bananas, and help with the absorption of minerals such as calcium and magnesium (Scholz-Ahrens et al., 2016; Al-Sheraji et al., 2013).

While presently being marketed as nutraceutical dairy-based products, a growing trend is incorporating these probiotics and prebiotics as a functional ingredient in fruit and vegetable juices. The naked probiotic 100% juice smoothie is an example of a probiotic juice that contains a blend of blueberry, apple, and banana, along with a probiotic strains called Bifidobacterium. This growing trend is providing the opportunity for manufacturers to capture the lactose-intolerant consumers or those that seek an alternative to dairy products owing to taste preferences. Soy and omega-3

Research shows that consumption of soy products can reduce many chronic complications linked to diabetes, reduce the risk of heart disease, and may even reduce the risk of cancer. Isoflavones found within soy are able to lower blood pressure and are considered to be favorable for bone health. Soy-juice drinks are the emerging health propositions in the market currently. For example, Coca-Cola’s Espana Minute Maid Sojaplus Fruit with Soya Protein and Grupo Leche Pascual’s fruit flavored soja drinks ViveSoy Bebidas de Zumos de Frutas con Soja.

Similarly omega-3 which is an essential fatty acid found in oily cold water fish like mackerel and salmon, dark-green leafy vegetables, flaxseed oil, and certain vegetable oils, is known to be an essential health ingredient, and is now being added to fruit juices, providing a tasty and convenient alternative to consumers to consume this ingredient in a drink format. An example of fruit juice incorporating omega-3 is Sparky Wild Açaí Berry which pairs omega-3 with a superfruit to convey an increasingly strong health positioning as it provides high levels of antioxidants with essential fatty acids in a fitting drink format.

2.3.2 Marketing to Kids

The focus on childhood obesity has grown more than ever in recent years as the number of children classed as obese is gravely increasing. Carbonated soft drinks have increasingly come under attack as a key contributing factor to the cause because of their high sugar levels and, in turn, calorie count. As such, a growing trend has been the positioning of fruit juices as a healthy alternative to soft drinks. Healthy options currently introduced by fruit juice are: 100% pure juice for kids; natural, pure juice with no artificial sweeteners, or color; carbonated fruit juices for kids.

Generally juices are considered to be very healthy, more so the 100% juices. Therefore there is a growing trend in the juice market currently to position it to kids through fun packaging and attractive flavors and to parents who are keenly concerned for finding healthy juice alternatives with their children’s health in clear focus. Examples of 100% juices for kids recently hitting the market are Calypso Juice Shots and Robinson’s Fruit Shoot. These drinks are positioned as 100% pure orange juice containing no added sugar, artificial colors, or artificial flavors, and marketed as two shots of the juice being equal to one serving of fruit for the day. The packaging is designed to fit into children’s lunchboxes and are approved by school. Convenient lunchbox-friendly packaging is another mounting trend in the market to capture the young consumers as it makes the drink even more attractive to parents looking for practical and convenient ways to make their children’s lunchbox as nutritional as possible.

2.3.3 Beauty Support Drinks

The driver of the health and wellbeing trend in the fruit juice market is not just consumers’ desire to have a healthy body but also to look great. As a result, a new trend of beauty support drinks is growing in the market with products high in vitamin content and high in polyphenols being launched. The Japanese market is the pioneer of beauty support new product developments (NPDs). Examples of products categorized as beauty support drinks launched in Japan are: Urutsuya (moisture and lustrous) which contains 500 mg vitamin C and 500 mg N-acetyl glucosamine per bottle; Suppin Zakuro (natural beauty pomegranate) which contains 10 mg of soy isoflavones and 1 mg of hyaluronic acid per pack helps skin whitening and moisturizing, along with prevention of osteoporosis and improving the physiology.

Beauty support is in principle an innovative marketing approach to promote juices as drinks that support total wellbeing. To date, functional juices have positioned themselves as being good for health and disease control. Beauty focus is fast gearing up as an extension to the functional positioning. Manufacturers are making use of the niche opportunity to attract image-conscious consumers to the juices market by developing functional drinks that focus on enhancing the healthy appearance of skin, hair, and nails.

2.3.4 Luxury Juices

As the demand for more and more sophisticated products is increasing, juice manufacturers are focusing on developing luxury juices aimed to appeal to a growing number of fruit juice connoisseurs. These include organic and 100% natural products and fruit cordials, moreover to create a sense of nostalgic indulgence these premium products are positioned by emphasizing the provenance of ingredients and the use of traditional recipes. For example, Belvoir Fruit Farms, United Kingdom use tradition and provenance to market their luxury drinks. Similarly, another British brand, Cawston Vale, promotes the fact that their products are pressed, not processed and that apples used in their drinks are picked at the very peak of the season which result in the making of a superior product. With increasing consumer curiosity in food provenance, seasonal products, and natural farming, there is a growing trend in the market for locally produced products that position themselves as genuine and aimed at connoisseurs. There is also an upcoming trend of boutique juices brands that specialize in supplying elite juices to upmarket retailers and the very premium restaurants.

Another element of the luxury trend is a gourmet or experimental trend, opposite to the natural and pure positioning this trend caters to consumers desire to try fresh and exotic flavors and unusual ingredients from far-away countries. An example being JT Miss Parlor Concordia which is a red grape juice drink and is lightly carbonated, it is positioned as a luxury drink for adults that offers a rich fruity flavor of concord red grapes and the stimulating sensation of light carbonation. Similarly Didier Goubet Organic Merlot Grape Juice is an organic alcohol-free grape juice that uses the provenance of the grapes used to endorse the premium nature of the product by marketing it as juice pressed from Merlot grapes coming from the finest organic Bordeaux vineyards. This trend is becoming increasingly popular amongst the fruit juice manufacturers to develop products that derive esteem from their region of origin. By detailing the fruit variety and the region from which the fruit is harvested, credibility is being built around the premium offerings.

2.3.5 Ethical Juices

The growing concerns of consumers regarding the potential negative impact of processing of food, the influence of pesticides on human health, and that of intensive farming on the environment, has led to an upsurge in the demand for naturally grown food products. Retailers are championing their green credentials to gain consumer approval and the pressure is mounting on manufacturers to produce more environmentally friendly products. This has resulted in a substantial increase in the number of ethical juice products brought to market recently, primarily organic fruit juices. For example, the Wild Bunch & Co Beet It is a 100% organic juice positioned as a luxury juice which has a unique classy recyclable bottle. The product focuses on attracting a niche market of juice connoisseurs. Another example is the RDA Organic Sqqquishy, an organic product with a health positioning for kids. Sold in an innovative pouch format to appeal to kids, the product has a closure valve (patented) that makes the drink virtually spill proof. Children can drink the product by squeezing the pack which makes it fun. The makers claim the packaging to be extremely lightweight thereby creating minimal waste and thus promoting a positive ethical message.

Another aspect of the ethical trend impacting the juices market and guided by government legislation and retailer and consumer demand is greener packaging as a movement for saving the environment. The growing focus on corporate social responsibility has also resulted in retailers taking the environmentally responsible or green stance which in turn is pushing the suppliers to fit their products with the retailers’ green philosophy. For example, the natural products champion, Innocent, uses 100% recycled material for four of its fruit smoothies and claims that this packaging uses 20% less material than previous forms which in turn has reduced the bottles’ carbon footprint by 55%. The trend is growing fast as it offers a win–win scenario for all, not just promotion of a positive ethical stance for the retailers and manufacturers for producing more environmentally friendly products, the reduced packaging in turn leads to reduced material and transport costs thus increasing product margins through reduced unit costs.

2.4 Opportunities and Threats

As Section 2.3 outlines some key trends and prospects that have been/can be exploited in the fruit juice industry, other trends that offer potential opportunities for the industry to thrive along with their share of challenges include:

• emerging markets growth;

• insecurity of supply/sourcing;

• bifurcation;

• volatility; and

• convergence of categories.

2.4.1 Emerging Markets Growth

As highlighted in Fig. 2.3, the CAGR of the global juice industry for the years 2011–16 has been 5.1% with the highest growth occurring in the Asia Pacific region followed by Africa and Latin America. The emerging markets are providing vast opportunities for the juice industry as these markets are keen on following mature markets’ consumer behavior patterns and buy global brands. With disposable income in these regions increasing, urbanization making fruits readily available, and people becoming more conscious of the health benefits of juices through marketing, emerging markets are providing significant opportunities in the form of increased demand of fruits by the processing industry, by opening up new markets for processors and leading brands, as well as for retailers who can sell more expensive, high-margin juices. However, the down side of the potential prospects could be in the mature markets where manufacturers may need to pay higher input prices and retailers would have to make a choice between margins and volumes.

Figure 2.3 Global markets: compound annual growth rate (CAGR) 2011–16. Data source: Sonneville, F., 2012. Opportunities and Threats in the Global Fruit Juice Markets. In: Presented at SGF Forum 2012. September 3, 2012 Bregenz, Austria.

2.4.2 Insecurity of Supply/Sourcing

Economies of scale can be achieved in the market by concentrating the production of fruits and by exporting the fruit juice concentrates. This can help the processors to spread the risk if they invest in

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