## Informazioni sul libro

# Air Conditioning System Design

## Descrizione

*Air Conditioning System Design* summarizes essential theory and then explains how the latest air conditioning technology operates. Load calculations, energy efficiency, and selection of technology are all explained in the context of air conditioning as a system, helping the reader fully consider the implications of design decisions.

Whether users need to figure out how to apply their mechanical engineering degree to an air conditioning design task or simply want to find out more about air conditioning technology for a research project, this book provides a perfect guide.

Approaches air conditioning as a system, not just a collection of machines Covers the essential theory on fluid flow and the latest in A/C technology in a very readable and easy-to-use style Explains the significance of factors, such as climate and thermal comfort as A/C design considerations Addresses design using a range of air conditioning technologies, such as evaporative cooling, VRF systems, psychromatic software, and dessicant dehumidification- Editore:
- Elsevier Science
- Pubblicato:
- Jun 15, 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780081020913
- Formato:
- Libro

## Categorie

## Anteprima del libro

### Air Conditioning System Design

Association.

**Chapter 1 **

**Properties of Humid Air **

**Abstract **

Air is the working fluid for air conditioning systems. It is therefore important for the engineer to have a thorough understanding of the properties of air, before going on to consider the processes that occur when air passes through the various plant items that make up systems. The word *psychrometry *is often used for the science that investigates the properties of humid air, and the chart that shows these properties graphically is known as the *psychrometric *chart.

**Keywords **

Adiabatic saturation temperature; Air density; Boyle's law; Charles's law; Dalton's law of partial pressures; Dew-point temperature; Dry-bulb temperature; Enthalpy; General gas law; Humid specific heat; Ideal gas laws; Moisture content; Percentage saturation; Psychrometric chart; Psychrometric equation; Relative humidity; Saturation moisture content; Specific volume; Superheated vapour; wet-bulb temperature

## Symbols

** A **psychrometric constant

** B, C **constants

** cpas** specific heat of

*humid*air

** g **moisture content

** gss** saturation moisture content

** gss⁎** adiabatic saturation moisture content

** h **specific enthalpy of

*humid*air

** hfg** latent heat of evaporation of water

** M **molecular mass

** m **mass

** p **pressure

** pat** atmospheric pressure

** pss** saturation vapour pressure

** pss′** saturation vapour pressure at wet-bulb temperature

** R **particular gas constant

** Ro** universal gas constant

** T **absolute temperature

** t **dry-bulb temperature

** t′** wet-bulb temperature, sling

** tsc′** wet-bulb temperature, screen

** t⁎** adiabatic saturation temperature

** tdp** dew-point temperature

** V **volume

** v **specific volume of humid air

** μ **percentage saturation

** ρ **air density

** φ **% relative humidity

**Subscripts **

**a** air, dry air

**s** water vapour (steam)

**Abbreviations **

**SVP** saturation vapour pressure

**%rh** percentage relative humidity

**%sat** percentage saturation

Air is the working fluid for air conditioning systems. It is therefore important for the engineer to have a thorough understanding of the properties of air, before going on to consider the processes that occur when air passes through the various plant items that make up systems. The word *psychrometry *is often used for the science that investigates the properties of humid air, and the chart that shows these properties graphically is known as the *psychrometric *chart.

In this chapter, the various air properties are defined, and the appropriate equations are given. In deriving the equations, it is usual to consider the air as consisting of two gases, dry air and water vapour. Even though one of these is strictly a vapour, both are considered to obey the ideal gas laws. Lastly, the tables and chart, from which numerical values of the air properties are obtained for practical calculations, are described and illustrated.

**Atmospheric Pressure **

At any point in the earth's atmosphere, there exists a pressure due to the mass of air above that point—the atmospheric pressure. Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1013.25 mbar (usually approximated to 1013 mbar), but due to changes in weather conditions, there are variations from this standard pressure. For example, among the minimum and maximum values recorded in London are 948.7 mbar (in 1821) and 1048.1 mbar (in 1825), respectively; those recorded for North America are 892 mbar (Long Key, Florida, in 1935) and 1074 mbar (Yukon Territory, Canada, in 1989) [**1]. **

Atmospheric pressure varies with height above sea level, and for altitudes at which mankind lives, the rate of decrease (lapse rate) for a standard atmosphere may be taken as a *reduction *of 0.13 mbar per meter of height *above *sea level and an *increase *of 0.13 mbar per meter of depth *below *sea level.

**Example 1.1 **

Determine the standard atmospheric pressure for Nairobi, which is at an altitude of 1820 m above sea level.

**Solution **

Atmospheric pressure may be measured by using a number of instruments. In the laboratory, it is usual to use a Fortin barometer, while for site work an aneroid barometer is the most usual instrument. For continuous recording, a barograph is used.

**Dry Air and Water Vapour **

Dry air consists of a number of gases but mainly of oxygen and nitrogen. It is necessary to know the molecular mass of the dry air, and this is calculated from the proportion each individual gas makes in the mixture. **Table 1.1 gives this data, together with the calculation. **

**Table 1.1 **

**Determination of molecular mass of dry air **

The sum of the molecular mass fractions is 28.97 and this is the value taken as the mean molecular mass of dry air.

Water vapour is said to be *associated *with the dry air. Its molecular mass is obtained from the masses of its chemical composition H2O, i.e.,

**Vapour Pressure **

**Saturated Vapour Pressure **

Consider the vessel shown in **Fig. 1.1. The contents are at temperature 1°C, and the atmosphere above the water contains water vapour that exerts a pressure known as saturated vapour pressure (SVP). When heat is applied to the vessel, more water evaporates, and as the temperature rises, the SVP increases. Eventually, with heat still being supplied, the water will boil, and this happens when the SVP is equal to atmospheric pressure. The variation of saturated vapour pressure against temperature is shown in Fig. 1.2. **

**Fig. 1.1 **Vessel with saturated vapour.

**Fig. 1.2 **Saturation vapour pressure versus temperature.

Values of SVP have been determined by experiment and published in the form of steam tables, selected values of which are given in **Table 1.2. **

**Table 1.2 **

**Saturation vapour pressures **

There is no simple relationship between temperature and SVP. The following equations are the relevant curve fits published by the National Engineering Laboratory [**2]: **

For water above 0°C,

where *P*ssw is the SVP in bar, over water at absolute *T *(K).

For ice below 0°C:

where *P*ssi is the SVP in bar, over ice at absolute temperature *T *(K).

These equations are suitable for use in computer programs in which air property values are required; they are not used in this text.

**Superheated Vapour **

If all the water in the vessel shown in **Fig. 1.2 evaporates before boiling point has been reached and heat continues to be applied, the water vapour becomes superheated with the vapour pressure remaining constant. Therefore, on Fig. 1.2, the superheated vapour is in the region to the right-hand side of the SVP curve. Air conditioning engineers will normally be interested only in the variations in vapour pressure in the temperature range from −20°C to 60°C. **

**Relative Humidity **

*Definition—*Relative humidity is the percentage ratio of the vapour pressure of water vapour in the air to the saturated vapour pressure at the same temperature.

From the definition, relative humidity of air at condition **A **in **Fig. 1.3 is therefore given by: **

**Fig. 1.3 **Definition of relative humidity.

**(1.1) **

100%rh corresponds to the saturated vapour pressure *P*ss.

**Example 1.2 **

Air at 20°C has a vapour pressure of 13 mbar. Determine the relative humidity.

**Solution **

From **Table 1.2, the SVP at 20°C is 23.37 mbar. Using Eq. 1.1: **

From the discussion on vapour pressure, it should be noted that atmospheric pressure only determines the boiling point of water; it has no effect on saturated vapour pressure or vapour pressure, and therefore, atmospheric pressure has no effect on relative humidity.

Relative humidity can be measured directly by a number of instruments, in particular with a thermohygrograph as illustrated in **Fig. 1.4. However, for more accurate measurements and for calibrating other humidity measuring devices, it is more usual to measure it indirectly by using dry- and wet-bulb temperature measurements. These can then be referred to tables of humid air properties or to a psychrometric chart, to determine the relative humidity. **

**Fig. 1.4 **Thermohygrograph. (Reproduced with permission of the FISCHER company.)

**Ideal Gas Laws **

The ideal gas laws are used to derive a number of humid air properties. The errors in the numerical values of the air properties due to departures from the ideal laws are very small. For a discussion on this point, see Jones [**3]. **

**Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures **

Dalton's law of partial pressures states that the pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure that each individual gas would exert by itself at the same volume and temperature.

**(1.2) **

where *P*t is total pressure of the mixture of gases and *P*1,*P*2,*P*3 are the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Dalton's law is illustrated in **Fig. 1.5; two gases A and S at pressures Pa and Ps, which individually occupy the same volume, are combined in one of the vessels to give the total pressure, Pt. **

**Fig. 1.5 **Dalton's law of partial pressures.

**Example 1.3 **

If the atmospheric pressure is 1013 mbar and the water vapour pressure is 40 mbar, determine the partial pressure of the dry air.

**Solution **

**General Gas Law **

*Boyle's law *states that, at constant temperature, the product of the pressure *p *and volume *V *of a gas remains constant, i.e.,

*Charles's law *states that the volume of a gas *V *is proportional to its absolute temperature *T*, the pressure remaining constant, i.e.,

*Boyle's *and *Charles's *laws combine to give the general gas law:

**(1.3) **

, the air dry-bulb temperature *t*a is in degrees Celsius. Individual gas constants are calculated from the universal gas constant *R*o and the molecular mass *M *of the gas, i.e.,

**(1.4) **

The value of *R*o is 8314.66 J/kmol K, and the molecular mass is expressed in kg/kmol.

**Example 1.4 **

Determine the gas constants for dry air and water vapour.

**Solution **

As determined previously, the molecular masses for dry air and water vapour are 28.97 and 18.02, respectively. The gas constants are therefore calculated as follows:

Using Eq. **(1.4): **

for dry air,

for water vapour,

**Density of Air **

The density of air can be calculated using the general gas equation, and this is illustrated by the following example.

**Example 1.5 **

Determine the density of air with a temperature 20°C (normal temperature) and at an atmospheric pressure of 1013 mbar (standard pressure).

**Solution **

The air density is given by:

The standard value of air density is usually taken as 1.20 kg/m³. Again, consideration of the general gas law shows how the air density can be corrected for atmospheric pressure and temperatures that differ from those on which the standard is based, i.e.,

**(1.5) **

**Example 1.6 **

Determine the density of air, which has a temperature of 30°C and an atmospheric pressure of 980 mbar.

**Solution **

Using Eq. **(1.5), the air density is calculated as: given by **

**Moisture Content **

*Definition—*The moisture content of humid air is the mass of water vapour present in 1 kg of dry air.

This air property is variously referred to as *humidity ratio*, *specific humidity or is calculated as absolute humidity. *

It is important to recognize at this point in the discussion on humid air that some of its properties are based on 1 kg of *dry air*, unlike the properties of most other fluid mixtures, which are based on 1 kg of the mixture.

The derivation is as follows:

Using the general gas law, Eq. **(1.3), **

*for dry air*:

*for water vapour*:

. Therefore, from the definition of moisture content given above:

From Dalton's law of partial pressures, Eq. **(1.2): **

**(1.6) **

**Example 1.7 **

Determine the moisture content for air at a temperature of 20°C and a vapour pressure of 13 mbar when the atmospheric pressure is 1013 mbar.

**Solution **

Using Eq. **(1.6): **

**Saturation Moisture Content **

If the vapour pressure *p*s in Eq. **(1.6) is at SVP pss, then the moisture content becomes the saturation moisture content. In the same way that saturated vapour pressure varies with temperature, saturation moisture content also varies with temperature. This is illustrated graphically in Fig. 1.6, the resulting curve being a prominent feature of the psychrometric chart. Some typical values of saturation moisture contents are given in Table 1.3. **

**Fig. 1.6 **Saturation moisture content vs temperature.

**Table 1.3 **

**Saturation moisture contents **

**Percentage Saturation **

*Definition—*Percentage saturation is the percentage ratio of the moisture content in the air to the moisture content at saturation at the same temperature.

The percentage saturation of air at condition **A **in **Fig. 1.7 is therefore given by: **

**Fig. 1.7 **Definition of percentage saturation.

**(1.7) **

**Example 1.8 **

Calculate the percentage saturation for the air condition described in **Example 1.7. **

**Solution **

From the solution of **Example 1.7, for the air condition specified, the moisture content is 0.00809 kg/kgda. From Table 1.3, the saturation moisture content at 20% is 0.0147 kg/kgda. **

Using Eq. **(1.7): **

Lines of constant percentage saturation appear on a psychrometric chart as shown in **Fig. 1.8. For practical purposes, values of percentage saturation are interchangeable with those of relative humidity. Percentage saturation is slightly dependent upon atmospheric pressure and accounts for the small numerical differences that exist between these two air properties and that will be noted in the tables of air properties. **

**Fig. 1.8 **Lines of constant percentage saturation.

**Specific Volume **

*Definition—*Specific volume is the volume of air containing 1 kg of dry air plus the associated moisture content. The derivation is as follows:

Using the general gas law for dry air, Eq. **(1.3): **

From the definition given above:

From Dalton's law of partial pressures:

**(1.8) **

**Example 1.9 **

Determine the specific volume for air at 20%, a vapour pressure of 14 mbar, and an atmospheric pressure of 1013 mbar.

**Solution **

Using Eq. **(1.8): **

Lines of constant specific volume are drawn on the psychrometric chart as shown in **Fig. 1.9. **

**Fig. 1.9 **Lines of constant specific volume.

**Relationship Between Air Density and Specific Volume **

Air density is defined as the mass of air per *unit *volume, whereas the specific volume is defined in terms of *unit *mass of dry air. Therefore, the relationship between the two is:

**(1.9) **

Though the difference between density and the reciprocal of specific volume is relatively small, the engineer should be aware of the difference compared with the true relationship, as given in Eq. **(1.9), when making calculations in different areas of work. Thus, it is usual to use density when measuring airflow rates through pressure drop devices such as orifice plates and to use specific volume in air conditioning load calculations. **

**Dry-bulb and Wet-bulb Temperatures **

Dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, measured together, are among the most popular methods for determining the air condition, and from these measurements, other air properties may be derived. Dry- and wet-bulb temperatures can be measured using a variety of instruments, e.g., mercury-in-glass, thermocouple, and resistance thermometers.

**Dry-bulb Temperature **

*Definition—*The dry-bulb temperature of air is the temperature obtained with a thermometer, which is freely exposed to the air but which is shielded from radiation and free from moisture. The word *dry *is used to make a distinction from the wet-bulb.

**Wet-bulb Temperature **

*Definition—*The wet-bulb temperature of air is the temperature obtained with a thermometer whose bulb is covered by a muslin sleeve that is kept moist with distilled/clean water, freely exposed to the air, and free from radiation. The reading obtained is affected by air movement over the instrument. For this reason, there are two wet-bulb temperatures—*sling *and *screen*:

(1) The sling wet-bulb is obtained in a moving air stream, preferably above 2 m/s. This is usually measured with either a sling hygrometer (**Fig. 1.10) or an Assman hygrometer. However, a sling reading may also be obtained if a wet-bulb thermometer is installed in a duct through which air is flowing at a reasonable velocity. The sling wet-bulb is considered to be more accurate than the screen wet-bulb temperature and for this reason is preferred by air conditioning **