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# Feynman Lectures Simplified 4B: The Best of Feynman

## Descrizione

Feynman Simplified 4B is an unprecedented catalog and explanation of every key principle and important equation in all of The Feynman Lectures on Physics. This book is an encyclopedia of great physics, from the lectures of one of history’s most brilliant scientists.

In addition, this book explores the major discoveries of physics in the half-century since Feynman gave these lectures.

To fit all this wonderful physics in one book, Feynman Simplified 4B is concise, with brief explanations and few derivations. For those beginning their exploration of physics, I recommend building your knowledge gradually and systematically, starting with Feynman Simplified 1A. This book is for experienced physicists and students who seek quick reminders of Boltzmann’s law, or where the minus sign goes. Everything you need is here, in one convenient source.

The topics we explore include:

Newtonian Mechanics

Quantum Mechanics

Special & General Relativity

Gravity Waves

Waves & Oscillators

Electromagnetism

Physics of Light

Conservation Laws & Symmetries

Particle Physics

Physics of Solids & Liquids

Statistical Mechanics & Thermodynamics

Essential Mathematics

If you are looking for information about a specific topic, peruse our free downloadable index to the entire Feynman Simplified series found on my website "Guide to the Cosmos . com"

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### Anteprima del libro

### Feynman Lectures Simplified 4B - Robert Piccioni

*Feynman Simplified *

*Feynman Simplified*

*4B: The Best of *

*4B: The Best of*

*Feynman *

*Feynman*

### Everyone’s Guide

### to the

### Feynman Lectures on Physics

### by

### Robert L. Piccioni, Ph.D.

*Copyright © 2017 *

*by *

*Robert L. Piccioni *

Published by

Real Science Publishing

3949 Freshwind Circle

Westlake Village, CA 91361, USA

Edited by Joan Piccioni

V170414

All rights reserved, including the right of

reproduction in whole or in part, in any form.

Visit our web site

www.guidetothecosmos.com

### Everyone’s Guide to the

### Feynman Lectures on Physics

** Feynman Simplified gives **mere mortals access to the fabled

*Feynman Lectures on Physics*.**This Book **

** Feynman Simplified 4B is **an unprecedented catalog and explanation of every key principle and important equation in all of

**This book is an encyclopedia of great physics, from the lectures of one of history’s most brilliant scientists.**

*The Feynman Lectures on Physics*.In addition, this book explores the major discoveries of physics in the half-century since Feynman gave these lectures.

To fit all this wonderful physics in one book, ** Feynman Simplified 4B is **concise, with brief explanations and few derivations. For those beginning their exploration of physics, I recommend building your knowledge gradually and systematically, starting with

**This book is for experienced physicists and students who seek quick reminders of Boltzmann’s law, or where the minus sign goes. Everything you need is here, in one convenient source.**

*Feynman Simplified 1A*.Chapter 1 summarizes the most important principles and equations, with references to further discussion in later chapters.

Chapter 15 explores Feynman’s best problem-solving tricks.

Finally, an extensive alphabetical index facilitates access to this book’s treasures.

In this book, references to in-depth discussions found elsewhere use this format: 1B§14.2 denotes Section §14.2 of ** Feynman Simplified 1B, **while 4B§14.2 refers to the same section number in this eBook. References to the

**denoted V2p12-3, for Volume 2, chapter 12, page 3.**

*Feynman Lectures*areThe topics we explore include:

Newtonian Mechanics

Quantum Mechanics

Special & General Relativity

Gravity Waves

Waves & Oscillators

Electromagnetism

Physics of Light

Conservation Laws & Symmetries

Particle Physics

Physics of Solids & Liquids

Statistical Mechanics & Thermodynamics

Essential Mathematics

To learn more about the ** Feynman Simplified series, **to receive updates, and send us your comments, click

**here.**To further ** Simplify your **adventure, learn about my

**Math for Physicists that explains the math to master Feynman physics.**Looking for information about a specific topic? Peruse our free downloadable **index to the entire Feynman Simplified series. **

If you enjoy this book, please do me the great favor of rating it on your favorite online retailer.

*Table of Contents *

*Table of Contents*

**Chapter 1: Primary Principles & Equations **

4B§1.1 Symmetry & Conservation

4B§1.2 Major Principles

4B§1.3 Primary Physical Quantities

4B§1.4 Atoms & Matter

4B§1.5 Newton’s Laws of Motion

4B§1.6 Maxwell’s Equations

4B§1.7 Einstein’s Relativity

4B§1.8 Quantum Mechanics

**Chapter 2: Physical Constants **

**Chapter 3: Essential Mathematics **

4B§3.1 Primary Symbols & Functions

4B§3.2 Calculus

4B§3.3 Complex Quantities

4B§3.4 Useful Approximations

4B§3.5 Linear Systems

4B§3.6 Fourier Analysis

4B§3.7 Gaussian Distributions

4B§3.8 Vectors in 3-D

4B§3.9 Vector Algebra

4B§3.10 Conservation Laws

4B§3.11 Coordinate Transformations

4B§3.12 Tensors

4B§3.13 And More…

**Chapter 4: Basic Newtonian Mechanics **

4B§4.1 Primary Quantities

4B§4.2 Newton’s Laws of Motion

4B§4.3 Newton’s Law of Gravity

4B§4.4 More Mechanics

**Chapter 5: Mechanics of Angular Motion **

4B§5.1 Basics of Rotation

4B§5.2 Angular Momentum

4B§5.3 Moments of Inertia

4B§5.4 Precession

**Chapter 6: Waves & Oscillators **

4B§6.1 Harmonic Oscillation

4B§6.2 Oscillators & Transients

4B§6.3 Wave Basics

4B§6.4 Sound Waves

4B§6.5 Waves in Matter

4B§6.6 Waves Without Sources

4B§6.7 Waves With Sources

4B§6.8 Combining Waves

**Chapter 7: Gravity per Newton & Einstein **

4B§7.1 Kepler’s Laws

4B§7.2 Newton’s Theory of Gravity

4B§7.3 Orbits & Forces in 1/r Potentials

4B§7.4 Einstein’s Theory of Gravity

**Chapter 8: Statistical Mechanics & Thermodynamics **

4B§8.1 Primary Gas Equations

4B§8.2 Statistical Mechanics

4B§8.3 Black Body Radiation

4B§8.4 Thermodynamic Laws

4B§8.5 Entropy

4B§8.6 Heat Flow

**Chapter 9: Special & General Relativity **

4B§9.1 Principles of Special Relativity

4B§9.2 Primary Quantities

4B§9.3 Vectors & Operators in 4-D

4B§9.4 Key Invariants

4B§9.5 Lorentz Transformation

4B§9.6 What’s Relative

4B§9.7 Illustrative Examples

4B§9.8 Gravity Waves

**Chapter 10: Physics of Light **

4B§10.1 Basic Parameters of Light

4B§10.2 Interference & Diffraction

4B§10.3 Geometric Optics

4B§10.4 Index of Refraction

4B§10.5 Polarization of Light

4B§10.6 Reflection & Refraction

4B§10.7 Radiation

4B§10.8 Relativistic Effects

**Chapter 11: Electromagnetism **

4B§11.1 Primary Quantities

4B§11.2 Primary Equations of EM

4B§11.3 E Fields from Sources

4B§11.4 Field Equations

4B§11.5 Electrical Circuits

4B§11.6 E Fields in Dielectrics

4B§11.7 B Fields from Sources

4B§11.8 Relativistic EM Fields

4B§11.9 EM Fields in Matter

4B§11.10 Magnetic Matter

**Chapter 12: Physics of Solids & Liquids **

4B§12.1 Linear Stress & Strain

4B§12.2 Shear & Torsion

4B§12.3 Stressed Beams

4B§12.4 Elasticity Tensors

4B§12.5 Non-Viscous Fluid Dynamics

4B§12.6 Viscous Fluid Dynamics

**Chapter 13: Quantum Mechanics **

4B§13.1 Quantization

4B§13.2 Particles & Waves

4B§13.3 States & Basis States

4B§13.4 Quantum Probability

4B§13.5 Operators & Matrices

4B§13.6 Schrödinger’s Equation

4B§13.7 Electrons in Atoms

4B§13.8 Light & Matter

4B§13.9 Electrons in Crystals

4B§13.10 QM in Magnetic Fields

4B§13.11 QM at Low Temperatures

4B§13.12 The Meaning of Reality

**Chapter 14: Particle Physics **

4B§14.1 The Particle Zoo

4B§14.2 Particle Conservation Laws

4B§14.3 Force as Particle Exchange

4B§14.4 Particles in Fields

4B§14.5 Neutral Kaons

**Chapter 15**: **Problem-Solving Tricks & Caveats **

4B§15.1 Reductionism & Holism

4B§15.2 Where to Start

4B§15.3 Simplify, Simplify, Simplify

4B§15.4 Separation of Variables

4B§15.5 Algebraic Tricks

4B§15.6 Linear Is Simpler

4B§15.7 Infinity is Limitless

4B§15.8 Trig Tricks

4B§15.9 Calculus Tricks

4B§15.10 Summing Series

4B§15.11 Caveats

**Chapter 16**: **Index **

*Chapter 1 *

*Chapter 1*

*Primary *

*Primary*

*Principles & Equations *

*Principles & Equations*

### 4B§1.1 Symmetry & Conservation

In this section, we explore the symmetries of natural laws, rather than the symmetries of individual objects. For example, a natural law is symmetric in time if the equation representing that law is unchanged by substituting –t for t. Time-symmetry means nature acts according to the same principles if time runs forward or backward.

The absence of a preferred direction in space means nature is symmetric under rotation. Similarly, the absence of a preferred velocity means the speed of light is the same in all reference frames.

* * * * * * * * *

1D§49.8 **Noether’s theorem **relates the symmetry properties of natural laws to conservation principles. It says:

Each Symmetry Implies a Conservation Law

Below is a list of the most important symmetry properties, each with their corresponding conserved quantity.

Symmetry ←→ Conserved Quantity

Translation in Time ←→ Energy

Translation in Space ←→ Linear Momentum

Rotation ←→ Angular Momentum

Velocity ←→ Constancy of Light Speed

Quantum Phase ←→ Electric Charge

* * * * * * * * *

4B§3.10 Special relativity mandates that all conservation laws that are valid **globally **must also be valid **locally**, meaning they must apply to each point in space and moment in time.

### 4B§1.2 Major Principles

4B§1.4 **Atomic Hypothesis**: everything we see is made of atoms

4B§13.2 **Particle-Wave Duality**: every entity has both particle and wave properties

4B§13.2 **Uncertainty Principle**: limits determination of complementary variables

4B§14.2 **Conservation of Quarks and of Leptons **in all interactions

4B§14.2 **Conservation of Fermions **of each type, except in Weak interactions

4B§8.5 **Entropy Increases **in all macroscopic processes

4B§3.5 **Linear Superposition**: sums of solutions are also solutions

4B§3.1 **Principle of Least Action**: nature minimizes kinetic minus potential energy

### 4B§1.3 Primary Physical Quantities

### (Non-Relativistic)

4B§4.1 **Position r = **(x, y, z)

4B§4.1 **Velocity v = **d

*r*/dt4B§4.1 **Acceleration a = **d

*v*/dt4B§4.1 **Inertial Mass **m = *F */ *a *

4B§4.1 **Linear Momentum**: ** p = **m

*v*4B§4.1 **Angular momentum**: *L *= *r *× *p *

4B§4.1 **Force**: ** F = **d

*p*/dt4B§4.1 **Kinetic Energy **T or Ŧ = m v**² **/ 2

4B§4.2 **Work **= – *F *• *Δr *

4B§4.2 **Power **= – *F *• *v *

4B§4.2 **Potential Energy **U: dU/dx = – F**x **

### 4B§1.4 Atoms & Matter

1A§1.6 The **Atomic Hypothesis **— everything we see is made of atoms — is the most important idea in science according to Feynman. Many decades after the ** Feynman Lectures, **we now know that only 4.9% of all the energy in the universe is in the form of normal matter, matter comprised of atoms or the particles that make atoms. About 26% of all energy is in a form called

**dark matter**, and about 69% is in a form called

**dark energy**. These

**dark**entities seem largely inert; they interact only gravitationally. Only normal matter and its atoms are capable of creating vibrant structures, such as galaxies, stars, planets, trees, and people.

Four primary **States of Matter **or Phases exist, plus some others that are more exotic.

1A§1.9 **Solid Phase**: tightly bound matter that maintains its own shape.

1A§1.7 **Liquid Phase**: less-tightly bound matter, whose shape conforms to its container, and whose volume varies only modestly with pressure.

1A§1.8 **Gas Phase**: loosely-bound, low-density matter that expands to fill any container, and whose volume is strongly dependent on temperature and pressure.

2C§34.3 **Plasma Phase**: matter comprised of free electrons and ionized atoms. Due to its free charges, plasma responds vigorously to external fields, and can independently generate its own electromagnetic fields. Stars and interstellar gas are primarily comprised of plasma, making it the most prevalent form of normal matter.

### 4B§1.5 Newton’s Laws of Motion

Newton’s laws of motion and gravity are valid only in **inertial reference frames**, those moving at constant velocity ** v. **As velocities approach c or when gravity is extremely strong, Newton’s equations require relativistic modification.

4B§4.2 **First Law**: absent forces, velocities are constant

4B§4.2 **Second Law**: ** F = **m

*a*4B§4.2 **Third Law**: Reaction = – Action

4B§4.3 **Law of Universal Gravity**: F = G M m / r**² **

### 4B§1.6 Maxwell’s Equations

Maxwell’s equations are valid in the following form only in **inertial reference frames**, those moving at constant velocity *v*.

The **Vector Operator Ď is **defined throughout this eBook as:

** Ď = **(∂/∂x, ∂/∂y, ∂/∂z)

I use ** Ď because **the standard notation for this vector operator, an inverted Δ, is not supported by all ereaders.

4B§11.2 Maxwell’s field equations for electric field ** E, **magnetic field

**charge density ρ, current density**

*B*,**and constant ε**

*j*,**0**are:

** Ď • E = **ρ / ε

**0**

** Ď × E = **– ∂

*B*/∂t** Ď • B = **0

c**² Ď × B = **∂E/∂t +

**ε**

*j*/**0**

### 4B§1.7 Einstein’s Relativity

Special relativity is valid only in **inertial reference frames**, those moving at constant velocity ** v. **General relativity is valid in all reference frames.

* * * * * * * * *

4B§9.1 **Principles of Special Relativity**:

• The speed of light, c, is the same in all reference frames.

• Absolute velocity has no physical meaning; only relative velocities are significant.

For velocity v, we define:

β = v / c

γ = 1 / √ (1 – β**² **)

* * * * * * * * *

In what follows, E is energy (kinetic plus mass), p is momentum, m**rel **is relativistic mass, and m is rest mass.

4B§9.6 E = m**rel **c²

4B§9.6 E² = m² c⁴ + p² c²

In a frame moving with velocity v relative to our stationary

frame, we observe time interval t, mass m**rel**, and length L (along the v-direction) to be different from the corresponding t**0**, m, and L**0 **in our frame, according to:

4B§9.6 **Time Dilation**: t = t**0 **/ γ

4B§9.6 **Length Contraction**: L = L**0 **/ γ

4B§9.6 **Mass Increase**: m**rel **= m γ

4B§9.7 The **Equivalence Principle **of general relativity states:

Uniform gravitational acceleration

is indistinguishable from constant

mechanical acceleration

4B§9.7 **Einstein’s Field Equations **of general relativity are:

G**μσ **= 8π T**μσ **

Here, G**μσ **is the Einstein tensor that describes the curvature of spacetime, and T**μσ **is the stress-energy tensor that describes the density of mass, energy, and stress. John Wheeler said this equation states: mass and energy tell space and time how to curve, while space and time tell mass and energy how to move.

### 4B§1.8 Quantum Mechanics

In this section, h is Planck’s constant, and p is momentum. Quantum mechanics is valid only in **inertial reference frames**, those moving at constant velocity *v*.

* * * * * * * * *

4B§13.1 **Quantization **is the simple notion that many things in nature come in integer quantities. For example, in any physical entity, the number of electrons is always an integer. On a ramp, elevation is **continuous**, but on a staircase, elevation is **quantized**.

* * * * * * * * *

4B§13.2 **Particle-Wave Duality**: Every physical entity simultaneously has both particle and wave properties.

* * * * * * * * *

4B§13.2 **de Broglie Wavelength: **every particle has a wavelength λ given by:

λ = h / p

* * * * * * * * *

4B§13.2 **Heisenberg Uncertainty Equations**:

Δx • Δp**x **= ħ / 2

Δy • Δp**y **= ħ / 2

Δz • Δp**z **= ħ / 2

Δt • ΔE = ħ / 2

where = ħ = h / 2π

* * * * * * * * *

4B§13.6 **Schrödinger’s equation **is:

iħ dψ/dt = – (ħ**²**/2m) Ď**² **ψ + V ψ

Here, ψ is the wavefunction of a particle with mass m in energy potential V. This equation is for a particle whose velocity is non-relativistic.

*Chapter 2 *

*Chapter 2*

*Physical Constants *

*Physical Constants*

c: speed of light = 299,792,458 m/s by definition

G: gravitational constant = 6.6741×10**–11 **m**³ **/ kg-sec**² **

g = 32.174 feet/sec**² **= 9.806,65 m/s**² **

q**p**: proton’s charge = 1.602,176,565×10**–19 **coulomb

1 eV (electron-volt) = 1.602,176,565×10**–19 **joules

e**² **= q**p² **/ 4π ε**0 **= 1.439,964,5 eV-nm (nanometer)

ε0 = 8.854,1878×10**–12 **coulomb**² **/ newton m**² **

1 / 4πε0 = 10**–7 **c**²**, by definition

1 / 4πε0 = 8.987,55×10**⁹ **newton m**² **/ coulomb**² **

N**A**: Avogadro’s number = 6.022×10**²³ **

= number of C**¹² **atoms in 12 grams

k: Boltzmann’s constant

= 1.386,49×10**–23 **joules per Kelvin

kT = (1 / 40) eV at 63ºF (17ºC)

h: Planck’s constant = 6.626,0700×10**–34 **joule-sec

or h = 4.135,667,56×10**–15 **eV-sec

ħ (h-bar

) = h / 2π =1.054,5718×10**–34 **joule-sec

or ħ = 6.582,1195×10**–16 **eV-sec

ħc = 197.326,97 MeV-fermi

α: Fine Structure constant = 1 / 137.035,999,14

a**0 **or r**B**: Bohr radius = ħ**² **/ m e**² **= 0.0529 nm

R**y**: Rydberg = 13.61 eV, hydrogen ground state binding energy

*Chapter 3 *

*Chapter 3*

*Essential Mathematics *

*Essential Mathematics*

** Feynman Simplified 4A provides **a comprehensive explanation of all the mathematics that physicists need — it’s a physicist’s survival guide. This chapter describes the essentials.

### 4B§3.1 Primary Symbols & Functions

The **Proportionality Symbol **~ denotes two variables X and Y are proportional to one another, as in:

X ~ Y

This means the ratio X / Y is a constant.

**Equality **and **Inequality **Signs:

x = y, x equals y

x < y, x is less than y

x > y, x is greater than y

x >= y, x is greater than or equal to y

x =< y, x is less than or equal to y

x << y, x is much less than y

x >> y, x is much greater than y

The **Factorial **is written:

n! = 1 × 2 × 3 … × n

The **Square Root **is defined by:

if y**² **= x, then y = √(x)

Note that +y and –y are equally valid square roots.

The **Absolute Value **of a real number x and of a complex number z are given by:

| x | = + √(x**²**)

| z | = + √(z z*)

for: z = x + iy

z’s **complex conjugate **is z* = x – iy

The **Summation Symbol **Σ (capital Greek sigma) denotes a sum, as in:

G = Σ**j=1j=n **{ f(j) }

Here, G is the sum from j=1 to j=n of the quantity f(j).

* * * * * * * * *

Figure 3-1 A Right Triangle

The **Trigonometric Functions **of angle θ (see the right triangle above) are:

sin(θ) = y / r

cos(θ) = x / r

tan(θ) = y / x = sin(θ) / cos(θ)

sin**²**(θ) + cos**²**(θ) = 1

In physics equations, **angles are expressed in radians**, where:

1 radian = 360º / 2π = 57.295,780º

* * * * * * * * *

The **Exponential Function **of x is:

exp{ x } = e**x **= Σ**n **x**n **/n!

While e**x **is the standard notation, I use exp{x} in eBooks for better clarity.

* * * * * * * * *

The **Hyperbolic Trigonometric Functions **of x are:

sinh(x) = ( exp{+x} – exp{–x} ) / 2

cosh(x) = ( exp{+x} + exp{–x} ) / 2

tanh(x) = sinh(x) / cosh(x)

sinh**²**(x) + 1 = cosh**²**(x)

* * * * * * * * *

Two types of **Logarithms **are employed in physics: the traditional base-10 logarithm, and the natural logarithm. The latter is much more common in physics equations (nature doesn’t have ten fingers). Logarithms and exponentials are inverse operations. The two logarithms are defined by:

**Natural Logarithm**: ln( exp{x} ) = x

**Base-10 Logarithm**: log( 10**x **) = x

Before everyone had calculators and computers, logarithms facilitated the arithmetic of many physics calculations by replacing multiplication and division with addition and subtraction, as in:

A B / C = exp{ ln(A) + ln(B) – ln(C) }

Feynman once told me that he memorized the logarithms of key constants like ħ rather than their actual values. He could then do his calculations much faster. To make this work, he also memorized logarithm tables and interpolated between the listed values. I bought a calculator.

### 4B§3.2 Calculus

Calculus defines two principle operations that are complimentary: differentiation and integration. Derivatives provide the slope of a function, while integrals provide the area under its curve,