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US Heavy Cruisers 1943–75: Wartime and Post-war Classes

US Heavy Cruisers 1943–75: Wartime and Post-war Classes

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US Heavy Cruisers 1943–75: Wartime and Post-war Classes

valutazioni:
3.5/5 (3 valutazioni)
Lunghezza:
99 pagine
43 minuti
Pubblicato:
Sep 20, 2014
ISBN:
9781782006343
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

This title follows on from a companion book covering the US heavy cruisers that were built prior to the war, together forming the definitive guide to the US's heavy cruiser classes. Versatile warships, the heavy cruisers of the Baltimore class, and their successors in the Oregon City and Des Moines classes, commonly acted as carrier escorts throughout World War II, but also performed bombardment duties in support of amphibious landings. Post-World War II, the heavy cruisers continued to see service, chiefly in Korea and Vietnam. Even after the heyday of the heavy cruiser had passed, the ships continued to serve – several were converted into the earliest examples of guided missile cruisers, and created an enduring legacy in the US Navy. From an established expert on the US and Pacific naval history, this is an invaluable resource richly illustrated with artwork and photographs.
Pubblicato:
Sep 20, 2014
ISBN:
9781782006343
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore

Mark Stille (Commander, United States Navy, retired) received his BA in History from the University of Maryland and also holds an MA from the Naval War College. He recently concluded a nearly 40-year career in the intelligence community including tours on the faculty of the Naval War College, on the Joint Staff and on US Navy ships. He is the author of numerous Osprey titles focusing on naval history in the Pacific.

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US Heavy Cruisers 1943–75 - Mark Stille

BIBLIOGRAPHY

US HEAVY CRUISERS 1943–75

WARTIME AND POST-WAR CLASSES

INTRODUCTION

This book examines all the US Navy heavy cruisers built during and after World War II. This includes the largest class of heavy cruisers ever built, the 14-ship Baltimore class. Of these, only seven were commissioned in time to see service during World War II, but the entire class saw service during the Cold War and several went on to have distinguished combat careers during the Korean War and even the Vietnam War. Two ships of this class were extensively modified into the world’s first missile cruisers, before returning to serve as conventional gun cruisers, and another two finished their careers as missile cruisers after being rebuilt.

Closely related to the Baltimore class was the Oregon City class, which was comprised of three ships built to a modified design. These had virtually the same capabilities as the Baltimore class but were different enough to carry a new class name. The most powerful and largest heavy cruisers ever built were the three ships of the Des Moines class. These were designed around a rapid-fire 8in gun. One of these ships was not decommissioned until 1975, thus making it the last heavy cruiser to be active in any of the world’s navies.

The Baltimore-class heavy cruisers were the most powerful ships of their type in the world when they began to reach fleet service in mid-1943. This July 1, 1943, view of the lead ship gives an impression of its capabilities, showing its powerful main battery, bristling antiaircraft battery, and full electronics suite. (US Navy via Real War Photos)

The US Navy’s extensive wartime cruiser construction program also included provisions for a number of large cruisers to counter any super-cruisers thought to be under construction by the Axis powers. Two of these ships were completed and saw service during the war. As predicted by many at the time, these proved to be white elephants.

Baltimore seen from the carrier Yorktown on April 14, 1944, just before operations to support the landing on Hollandia on New Guinea. With their high speed, great endurance, and heavy antiaircraft fit, Baltimore and her sisters were ideally suited for carrier-protection duties. (US Navy via Real War Photos)

Readers interested in the heavy cruisers built prior to World War II are referred to New Vanguard 210 US Heavy Cruisers 1941–45: Prewar Classes, which details the construction and history of US Navy Treaty heavy cruisers.

THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE HEAVY CRUISER

With an early war deficit of capital ships, the US Navy was forced to use heavy cruisers as its principal surface units in the fierce battles around Guadalcanal in 1942. During this grinding six-month battle of attrition, American heavy cruisers suffered heavily; of the 11 committed to surface engagements, all were sunk or damaged by the end of the campaign. In 1943 and for the remainder of the war, surviving and new heavy cruisers were limited to two major roles. The first was shore bombardment, for which their 8in guns were well suited, and the other was antiaircraft screening of carrier forces. Given their speed, modern radar, and antiaircraft fits, the new Baltimore-class heavy cruisers were always assigned to carrier-screening duties. On no occasion did they have the opportunity to engage Japanese naval units. Only one Baltimore-class unit saw action in the Atlantic theater, assigned to conduct shore bombardment in support of amphibious landings. At this point in the war, the air threat posed by the Germans was limited.

After the end of the war, the heavy cruiser found itself without a natural enemy. The main threats to the US Navy going into the Cold War came from Soviet submarines and air attack in the form of air-launched guided missiles. However, this is not to say that the heavy cruiser did not have a viable mission during the Cold War. While its main battery of 8in guns was designed primarily as an antisurface weapon, it was also ideally suited for shore bombardment. This lesson was once again learned during the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and with battleships almost extinct, heavy cruisers were usually the heaviest weapons available for shore bombardment. In this role they proved highly effective, since they operated against minimal opposition and had the range and firepower to engage a variety of targets.

On March 19, 1945, Pittsburgh came to the assistance of the heavily damaged carrier Franklin when the latter was bombed of the coast of Kyushu. Pittsburgh rescued many crewmembers who had jumped into the water to escape the smoke and fire, and then successfully passed a towline to the carrier. She slowly pulled Franklin out of danger and twice beat of Japanese air attacks in the process. (US Navy via Real War Photos)

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