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Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries

Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries

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Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries

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969 pagine
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Apr 9, 2013
ISBN:
9780857098924
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Cereals are a staple of the human diet and have a significant effect on health. As a result, they are of major significance to the food industry. Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries provides a comprehensive overview of all of the important cereal and pseudo-cereal species, from their composition to their use in food products.

The book reviews the major cereal species, starting with wheat and triticale before covering rye, barley and oats. It goes on to discuss other major species such as rice, maize, sorghum and millet, as well as pseudo-cereals such as buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth. Each chapter reviews grain structure, chemical composition (including carbohydrate and protein content), processing and applications in food and beverage products.

Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries is an essential reference for academic researchers interested in the area of cereal grains and products. It is also an invaluable reference for professionals in the food and beverage industry working with cereal products, including ingredient manufacturers, food technologists, nutritionists, as well as policy-makers and health care professionals.
  • A comprehensive overview of all of the important cereal and pseudo-cereal species
  • Chapters review each of the following species: Wheat, Maize, Rice, Barley, Triticale, Rye, Oats, Sorghum, Millet, Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth
  • Reviews grain structure, chemical composition, processing and applications in food and beverage products for each of the considered grains
Pubblicato:
Apr 9, 2013
ISBN:
9780857098924
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore

Elke Arendt is Professor in the School of Food and Nutritional Sciences at University College Cork (UCC), Ireland.


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Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries - Elke K Arendt

Davis

Preface

This book represents a comprehensive collection of material relating to cereal grains, ranging from the economic impact of the grains to their food and beverage products, whilst also providing an in-depth investigation of grain morphology, grain constituents and food processing.

Through use of a comprehensive review process, every effort has been made by the authors to ensure that the Cereal grains for the Food and Beverages Industries book covers this wide array of topics and is accurate, readable, and best represents currently known data. The work is also extensively cross-referenced and indexed to ensure that the reader is easily able to locate information as needed.

This book will be a useful resource for ingredient manufacturers, cereal scientists, food technologists, marketing personnel, nutritionists, food chemists, policy-makers and health care professionals, as well as those interested in grain sciences and working in the food and beverage industries. This book should also be relevant to Food Science departments in Research Institutes and teaching Universities to aid with academic training and scientific exploration of cereal science and technology.

We would like to thank our research team at the School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, UCC, Cork for their support, in particular Dr Deborah M. Waters, for her encouragement and helpful suggestions throughout the preparation of the book and additionally for offering valuable criticism during the proofing process. We wish to thank Dr Giulia Cinti who has supplied hand drawn images, and also the authors, editors and publishers who have allowed reproduction of some of the illustrations and tables included in the book.

Finally, we would also like to thank the editorial and production team at Woodhead Publishing for their time, effort, advice and expertise. We hope that this book will be enjoyed, and that it will serve as a long-term source of knowledge and enlightenment for the reader.

Elke K. Arendt and Emanuele Zannini

1

Wheat and other Triticum grains

Abstract:

Wheat is an annual grass belonging to the Poaceae (Gramineae) family, and represents one of the world’s most important field crops. In contrast to the other cereal grains, wheat possess the unique gluten proteins capable of forming the fully visco-elastic dough required to produce pasta, noodles and leavened baked products, especially bread. Additionally, wheat and wheat derivatives such as wheat malt, flour and starch are commonly used as adjuncts in the brewing industry. Wheat also provides essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals, beneficial phytochemicals and dietary fibre components to the human diet, particularly when whole-grain products are consumed. Despite their important role in the human diet, wheat-based foods present health problems for a minority of people due in particular to wheat intolerance and allergy as coeliac disease and baker’s asthma, respectively. To meet the predicted future demand for wheat, improvements in wheat productivity through an efficient wheat breeding plan and crop management innovations are required.

Key words

wheat

chemical composition

wheat utilization in food and beverages

1.1 Introduction

Wheat is one of the major grains in the diet of a vast proportion of the world’s population. It has therefore a great impact on the nutritional quality of the meals consumed by a large number of people and consequently on their health. Although wheat’s ability to produce high yields under a wide range of conditions is one reason for its popularity compared to other cereals, the most important factor is the capability of wheat gluten proteins to form a visco-elastic dough, which is required to bake leavened bread in particular. These gluten proteins are necessary for the production of the great variety of foods associated with wheat around the world. This unique property is the reason why in 2009 the total world harvest was about 680 million tonnes (metric tons, t) with cultivation extending to all continents except Antarctica and reaching about 217 million hectares (world harvest area expressed in hectare) (FAO/UN, 2012). During the last 40 years, wheat productivity has risen steadily, moving from 1.49 tonnes/ha in 1970 to 3 tonnes/ha in 2010, through the availability of better varieties, agriculture practices and markets and management (Dixon, 2007).

The key characteristic which has given wheat an advantage over other temperate crops is the unique properties of wheat dough that allow it to be processed into a range of foodstuffs (Quail, 1996). These properties depend on the structures and interactions of the grain storage proteins, which together form the ‘gluten’ protein fraction. Items of confectionery and snack bars can contain a high proportion of wheat, although its presence may not be obvious to the consumer. Whole-wheat is also an important ingredient in breakfast cereals in their many different forms (Fast and Caldwell, 2000). Further forms of wheat-based foods are burghul (bulgur) and couscous, for which complete milling of the grain is not required, as pearled or kibbled wheat is used instead. In the case of burghul, fragmented wheat is parboiled or steamed and is used in dishes likes tabbouleh, kofta and kibbeh (Bayram, 2000).

1.1.1 History, production, price, yield and area

The genus Triticum (wheat) originated in the area that stretches from Syria to Kashmir, and southwards to Ethiopia. In the very distant past, wheats gradually evolved in this region from wild plants. Since the early 1900s, it has been known that the wheat species and indeed all members of the Triticeae tribe have a basic chromosome number of n = 7.

T. aestivum probably generated spontaneously somewhere in the Iranian highlands or nearby areas. Archaeological finds indicate that this took place some 6000 years BC (Belderok, 2000). The unique milling and baking properties of common bread wheat are not found among the diploid and tetraploid wheats. The desirable quality characteristics of bread wheats have been attributed preponderantly to the presence of the D genome component (Belderok, 2000; Tonk et al., 2010). The first evidence for wheat utilization comes from the Ohalo II site on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Israel, where barley (Hordeum vulgare) and brittle, wild tetraploid wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum), dated as 19000 years old, were found, suggesting the initial steps towards settled and cereal agriculture (Kislev et al., 1992). Wheat and barley were among the earliest domesticated crop plants, domestication taking place 10000 years ago in the Pre-pottery Neolithic Near East (Lev-Yadun et al., 2000). The accumulation of surplus food supplies enabled large settlements to be established, resulting in the emergence of Western civilization. The earliest cultivated forms of wheat were essentially landraces selected by farmers from wild populations because of their superior yield and other characteristics. However, domestication was also associated with the selection of genetic traits that separated them from their wild relatives. Two of the most important traits pursued during the domestication were loss of shattering of the spike at maturity, which results in seed loss at harvesting, and presence of kernels in the free-threshing (naked) form (Shewry, 2009). In 2010, the production of wheat approached that of rice (Table 1.1) with 653.7 × 10⁶ t (FAO/UN, 2012) produced worldwide. Depending on the climate, soil condition, variety, agricultural practices and other conditions, wheat yields can range from 2.7 to 3.0 tonnes/ha (FAO/ UN, 2012). Nowadays, wheat yields worldwide tend to be higher than 2.8 tonnes/ha on average (FAO/UN, 2012) (Table 1.1). Wheat is cultivated in 123 countries and China is currently the world’s leading wheat producer. Table 1.2 lists the top 10 wheat-producing countries, over the five-year period 2006–2010.

Table 1.1

Wheat and total cereal grain production and producer price in the world from 2000–2010

Source: Data from FAO/UN (2012).

aTotal cereal production includes corn, rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, millet, oat, rye, mixed grain.

Table 1.2

Wheat production estimates in the 10 leading producing countries; five-year average 2006–2010

aAverage of wheat yield among the 10 leading-producing countries.

Source: Data from FAO/UN (2012).

Among the top 10 wheat-producing countries, China contributed, during the period 2006–2010, 13.7 % of the world’s wheat production from 8.6 % of the world’s wheat-growing area, while India contributed 9.8 % of the production from 10.7 % of the area. China produces a larger amount of wheat than India (89.0 compared to 63.6 million tonnes per year, 2006–2010) but from 4 % less wheat cultivation area (18.9 compared to 23.5 million hectares per year, 2006–2010). This is mainly due to the high wheat yield registered in China (4.7 tonnes/ha), second only to Germany and France with 6.7 and 7.0 tonnes/ha, respectively (FAO/UN, 2012) (Table 1.2).Throughout the last 10 years, wheat production has gradually increased by approximately 10%, growing from 585.7 × 10⁶ to 653.7 × 10⁶ tonnes, mainly due to an improved yield that has been increased by ≈ 10%(Table 1.1).

As reported in Table 1.1, the last 10 years have seen wheat producer prices increase by 36.5%, moving from 179.7 US $/tonnes to 283.3 US $/tonnes in 2010. Among the top 10 producer countries, Turkey and Russian Federation showed the highest (328.4 US $/tonnes) and the lowest (134.4 US $/tonnes) producer price, respectively. For the leading producing country China, the producer price for 2009 was equal to 270.9 US $/tonnes (FAO/UN, 2012).

1.1.2 Phytology, classification and cultivation

Wheat is an annual grass belonging to the Poaceae (Gramineae) family, tribe Triticae (Zohary, 2000).The wheats currently cultivated are the diploid T. monococcum (Einkorn wheat; 2n = 14, genetically described as AA plants), the tetraploids T. dicoccum (emmer wheat) and T. durum (pasta wheat or hard wheat) (2n = 28, genetically described as AABB plants), and the hexaploids T. aestivum (soft wheat or bread wheat) and T. spelta (spelt) (2n = 42, genetically described as AABBDD plants). Currently, about 95 % of the wheat grown worldwide is bread wheat, with most of the remaining 5 % being pasta wheat. The latter is more adapted to the dry Mediterranean climate than bread wheat. Small amounts of other wheat species (einkorn, emmer, spelt) are still grown in some regions including Spain, Turkey, the Balkans and the Indian subcontinent. In Italy, these hulled wheats are together called farro (Szabó and Hammer, 1995), while spelt continues to be grown in Europe, particularly in Alpine areas (Fossati and Ingold, 2001).

Wheat for the purpose of trading is classified into distinct categories according to grain hardness (soft, medium-hard and hard) and colour (red, white and amber). It may be further subdivided into subclasses based on growing habit (spring or winter). Each wheat subclass may also be grouped into grades, which are generally used to adjust the basic price of a wheat stock by applying premiums or penalties. Wheat grades are indicators of the purity of a wheat class or subclass, the effects of external factors on grain soundness (rain, heat, frost, insect and mould damage) and the cleanliness (dockage and foreign material) of the wheat lot. Today, wheat is a major component of most diets of the world because of its high agronomic adaptability, nutritional quality, the fact that it can be stored effectively indefinitely before consumption (provided the water content is below about 15 % dry weight and pests are controlled) and the ability of its flour to produce a variety of satisfying, interesting and palatable foods.

1.2 Structure of wheat grain

The description that follows is based on bread wheat (T. aestivum). This species shares many morphological and chemical characteristics with other wheat species that are used commercially. This section, therefore, may be considered a useful guide but not an exhaustive description of species other than T. aestivum. Figure 1.1 shows a caryopsis, or kernel, of wheat in both longitudinal and cross-sections.The wheat kernel averages ~ 2.5–3.0 mm in thickness (or height as it stands on its base), 3.0–3.5 mm in width and 6.0–7.0 mm in length. Wheat kernels average ~ 30–40 mg in weight (Delcour and Hoseney, 2010). Wheat grains contains 2–3 % germ, 13–17 % bran and 80–85 % mealy endosperm (all constituents converted to a dry matter basis) (Anonymous, 2000).

Fig. 1.1 Longitudinal and cross-sections of wheat kernel.

The main morphological characteristics of the wheat kernel are its oval shape, the embryo at one end and the tuft of hair constituting the brush at the other. The wheat kernel has a longitudinal crease (an elongated re-entrant region parallel to its long axis) on its ventral side (opposite the embryo) and is rounded on the dorsal side (the same side as the embryo) (Fig. 1.1).The two cheeks formed by the crease, not only form a hiding place for insects, microorganisms and dust but also make it difficult for the miller to separate the bran from the endosperm with a good yield. The colour of the kernel varies from light buff or yellow to red brown according to the presence or absence of red pigmentation in the seed coat. Purple and even black seeds are known but are not common. The type and presence of pigments are controlled by three separate genetic loci and thus can be manipulated by the plant breeder (Freed et al., 1976).

The pericarp, which surrounds the whole seed, is composed of several layers (Delcour and Hoseney, 2010a), including the outer epidermis (cuticule), hypodermis, cross cells, tube cells, seed coat (testa) and nucellar tissue (Delcour and Hoseney, 2010a; Khan and Shewry, 2009) (Fig. 1.1). The outer pericarp is easily detached and, because of its pale membranous appearance, is known to millers as ‘beeswing’. Its removal also aids movements of water into the kernel. The outer epidermis of the pericarp is 15–20 μm thick and is composed of long narrow cells (80–300 μm long and 25–48 μm wide with walls 3–9.5 μm thick) (Bradbury et al., 1956b).The mature hypodermis lies below the epidermis and forms, together with the epidermis and remnants of the thin-walled parenchyma, the outer pericarp. The inner pericarp is constituted of intermediate cells, cross cells and tube cells. Neither the intermediate nor the tube cells completely cover the kernel. The cross cells measure 100–150 μm long by 15–20 μm wide and 10–15 μm thick and have their long axis perpendicular to the long axis of the kernel (Delcour and Hoseney, 2010a). The tube cells (elongated and knobby in outline, 120–130 μm length, 12–15 μm wide, 5–10 μm thick) (Bradbury et al., 1956b) which form an incomplete layer represent the inner epidermis of the pericarp and are confined to a narrow band on the dorsal side, spreading to provide complete coverage over the embryo and brush ends. The long axis of the tube cells runs parallel to the axis of the kernel. The tube cells are not packed tightly and thus have many intercellular spaces. The total pericarp has been reported to comprise about 5 % of the kernel and consists of approximately 6 % protein, 2.0 % ash, 20 % cellulose and 0.5 % fat, with the remainder being non-starch polysaccharides.

The seed coat and the pigment strand are not the same tissue but, together, they provide a complete covering around the seed. They control the water relations between the enclosed seeds and its surroundings at the maturity stage (Delcour and Hoseney, 2010a). The seed coat is composed of cells which are 100–191 μm long, 9–20 μm wide and 5–8 μm thick (Bradbury et al., 1956b). The seed coat consists of three layers: a thick outer cuticle, a layer that contains pigments and an inner thin cuticle. The seed coat consists of two compressed cell layers of cellulose containing little or no pigment. The nucellar epidermis is about 7 μm thick and tightly bound to both the seed coat and the aleurone layer.

The endosperm consists of two tissues: the aleurone layer and the mass of mealy or starchy endosperm within in. The aleurone cells, which enclose the starchy endosperm and, in modified form, the embryo, occur in one or more (according to species) continuous layers at maturity. The aleurone cells are heavy-walled and essentially cube-shaped. They can vary in thickness from 30 to 70 mm within a single kernel, have thick (6–8 mm), double-layered cellulosic walls and are free of starch at maturity (Bradbury et al., 1956a) (See Plate I in the colour section between pages 230 and 231). The aleurone layer, which is generally one cell thick in wheat, completely surrounds the kernel, covering both the starchy endosperm and the germ, except for that adjacent to the scutellum. Although the aleurone layer is anatomically a part of the endosperm, the miller regards the aleurone as the innermost layer of the bran. Aleurone cells contain a large nucleus and a large number of aleurone granules. They are relatively high in ash, protein, total phosphor, phytate phosphorus, fat and niacin. In addition, concentrations of thiamine and riboflavin are higher in the aleurone than in the other parts of the bran. Furthermore, the aleurone layer is particularly rich in enzymes, which play a vital role in the germination process (Anonymous, 2000). Over the embryo, the aleurone cells are modified, becoming thin-walled cells, and may not contain aleurone granules (Delcour and Hoseney, 2010a). The aleurone cells are also common as a storage reserve for lipid droplets. Most of the aleurone layer is removed as part of the bran during roller milling (Dexter and Wood, 1996).

Plate I Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) micrograph of the aleurone layer and endosperm of wheat kernel, stained with three fluorescence dyes: red: proteins, yellow: cell walls, green: starch granules; magnification = 40×.

Plate II Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) micrograph section of the maize kernel showing starch storage granules stained with fluorescein isothiocya-nate (FITC) for starch (green) and rhodamin B for protein (red).

The wheat embryo, also called germ by millers, makes up 2.5–3.5 % of the kernel and lies on the lower dorsal side of the caryopsis. At grain maturity, it comprises an embryonic axis (shoot or epicotyls, mesocotyl and radical) and a scutellum, which is considered to be homologous with a cotyledon (Khan and Shewry, 2009). The scutellum lies between the embryonic axis and endosperm, and its name derives from its shield-like shape. The germ is relatively high in protein (25%), sugar (18%) mainly sucrose and raffinose, and ash (5%). It also has the highest concentration of lipids (16%) and hence lipid-soluble vitamins E of all the components of the wheat kernel, with levels of up to 500 ppm (Delcour and Hoseney, 2010a). It also has the highest moisture content among constituents of the mature grain (Song et al., 1998), but not all water-soluble vitamins are found in their highest concentrations here (Michael, 2009). Nevertheless, the use of wheat germ is still challenging because of its poor stability and the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as: (i) raffinose which is not digested by pancreatic enzymes but metabolized by gas-producing bacteria of the large intestine, thus causing disorders such as flatulence (Rizzello et al., 2010); (ii) phytic acid which markedly decreases the mineral bioavailability (Febles et al., 2002); and (iii) wheat germ aggluti-nin (WGA) which is responsible for the hyperplastic and hypertrophie growth of the small bowel and pancreas (Matucci et al., 2004).

The starchy endosperm occurs as a solid mass occupying the centre of the kernel and represents the largest morphological component in all cereals, and it is also the component with the greatest value (Evers and Millar, 2002). It is composed of three types of cells that vary in shape, size and location in the kernel (Greer et al., 1951). Peripheral or subaleurone cells are the first row of cells inside the aleurone layer, which they resemble in size (60 μm in diameter). Next are several rows of prismatic starchy endosperm cells (130–200 μm long, 40–60 μm wide). They extended inward to about the centre of the cheeks. Central cells (2.6 μm thick, 72–144 μm long, 70–120 μm wide) occur in the centre of the cheeks (Bradbury et al., 1956b; Michael, 2009) and they are more irregular in shape and size than the other cells. The endosperm cell walls comprise about 75 % polysaccha-ride, the latter comprising about 70 % arabinoxylans, 20%(1–3)(1–4)ß-D-glucans, 7%ß-glucomannan and 2 % cellulose (Bacic and Stone, 1980). Proteins are also presents at a level of about 15%. Starch and proteins, two major storage reserves, make up the bulk of the endosperm. In the starchy endosperm, starch granules are surrounded by the matrix protein (Plate I). The protein is mostly gluten, the storage protein of wheat. The latter, in mature cells appears as a continuous matrix rather than specific individual bodies in which form it develops. The concentration of starch and matrix proteins also varies according to cell position.

The peripheral cells have the lowest starch content, while the protein percentage is highest in these cells. The increasing starch content found towards the centre of the cheeks causes progressive dilution of other components as well as protein (Evers, 1970).

1.3 Wheat carbohydrate composition and properties

1.3.1 Wheat composition: an introduction

Wheat is one of the major grains in the diets of about a half of the world’s population and therefore has an important impact on their nutritional quality. Like other typical cereal grains, the wheat kernel contains three main anatomical parts – the embryo, the endosperm and the pericarp, which covers the endosperm. The outermost bran layers, representing the pericarp, are fibre rich. Starch and proteins are concentrated in the endosperm, while the germ is high in fat. The bran and germ fractions are also high in vitamins and minerals. The nutritional role of wheat constituents needs particularly to be taken into account when designing a process to transform wheat into bakery products. Table 1.3 indicates fairly typical chemical constituent distributions in the wheat kernel. It must be realized, however, that these values are indicative, and that the actual composition may vary above or below these figures depending on the genotype (variety) (Hinton, 1953; MacMasters et al., 1971; Morrison, 1978; Belitz et al., 2009), and the milling process used, an evolution of which is illustrated in with a further description in Section 1.6.1 (Historical background).

Table 1.3

Chemical constituent distributions as % in kernel fractions of wheat

aData from MacMasters et al. (1971).

bData from Belitz et al. (2009).

cData from Hinton (1953) and MacMasters et al. (1971).

dData from Morrison (1978).

At maturity, the wheat kernel consists of 85 % (w/w) carbohydrates (of which about 80 % is starch) found only in the starchy endosperm. Wheat also contains mono-, di- and oligosaccharides at a level of 7 %, mainly concentrated in the aleurone layer. Fructans are also presents in the starchy endosperm and embryonic axis, while 12 % of the wheat kernel consists of cell wall polysaccharides, which are found in all kernel tissues (Henry and Saini, 1989; Knudsen, 1997; Bruce and Matthew, 2009). Wheat carbohydrates have been studied extensively over the years in terms of structure and functionality as related to particular end-products like bread and bread-type products.

1.3.2 Starch

Starch is formed out of carbon dioxide and water by the process of photosynthesis and is deposited in plant cells as microscopic particles of varying size and conformation. In wheat and other higher plants, starch is formed in amyloplasts, each of which contains one starch granule. Wheat has two types and sizes of starch granules. The large lenticular (lens-shaped) granules are 25–40 μm in the long dimension; the small, spherical granules are 5–10 μm in diameter. Figure 1.2 shows a confocal laser scanning electron micrograph (CLSM) of starchy endosperm in which it is possible to observe the two types of wheat starch granules. Wheat starch granules comprise 25 % amylose (Zeng et al., 1997) and 75 % amylopectin. In addition to amylose and amylopectine, wheat starch granules usually contain small amounts of proteins and lipids. Amylose is composed of a glucopyranose unit linked through α-d-(1 → 4) glycosidic linkages and shows many of the properties of a linear polymer. It has historically been considered to be a linear polymer (average chain length of 270 units) (Takeda et al., 1987) with a degree of polymerization of approximately 3000 or less (Fig. 1.3), however, it is now known that amylose contains a limited amount of branching involving α-d-(1- → 6)-glucosidic linkages at the branch points (0.2–0.8 % of linkages). The second component, amylopectin, is a branched polymer containing about 4–6 % of α-d-(1- → 6)-glucosidic linkages as the branch points. The average chain length is 20–25 units with an average degree of polymerization in the thousands, and molecular weight in the millions (Fig. 1.4). Amylopectin molecules are radially orientated in the granules and are constructed of unit chains containing 18–25 (1 → 4)-linked a-D-glucopyranosyl unit per chain. Hundred of these units are linked together by α-(1 → 6)-linkages to form

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