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Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation

Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation

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Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation

valutazioni:
4/5 (1 valutazione)
Lunghezza:
1,134 pagine
14 ore
Pubblicato:
Jul 28, 2010
ISBN:
9780080556239
Formato:
Libro

Descrizione

Post harvest biology and technology of citrus fruits is gaining importance as the therapeutic value of citrus fruits is realized and supported by the increase in health awareness among the general public.

This book is the most comprehensive reference on citrus fruit biology, biotechnology and quality. Basic and applied scientific information is interwoven to serve the researcher, marketer, scientist, nutritionist, or dietician. With discussions of fruit morphology, anatomy, physiology and biochemistry and chapters on growth phases, maturity standards, grades and physical and mechanical characteristics of citrus trees, this book provides the foundation for understanding growth, harvest and post harvest aspects of these important plants. Insect-pests and diseases, irrigation, nutrition and rootstocks are also addressed.

* Provides practical tips for post harvest management.
* Includes all aspects of citrus fruit biology, technology and quality evaluation.
* Discusses biotechnological applications and potential fresh citrus fruit quality improvement
* Evaluates medicinal and therapeutic applications and recent clinical findings
* Exhaustive glossary included
Pubblicato:
Jul 28, 2010
ISBN:
9780080556239
Formato:
Libro

Informazioni sull'autore

Principal Scientist at Dev-Gandhar Citrus Fruit Research Center


Correlato a Citrus Fruit

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Anteprima del libro

Citrus Fruit - Milind Ladanyia

India

1

INTRODUCTION

Publisher Summary

This chapter describes citrus fruit production and prospects in the postharvest context. Efforts are continuing worldwide to develop methods, technologies, and gadgets to preserve the quality of freshly harvested citrus fruit while it is taken from orchard to market shelves at distant places. For postharvest technologies to be effective, trials and evaluations are necessary on a commercial scale. Successful fruit-quality management requires a combined effort from producers, marketing and handling personnel, transporters, and researchers. Sustainable and increased citrus production is possible with sound postharvest management and marketing. Grade standards, international quality criteria, packaging needs, food safety norms, and sanitary and phytosanitary requirements have acquired greater significance in the post-WTO scenario. These challenges need to be met for the healthy growth of the international fresh citrus fruit trade.

I CITRUS FRUIT PRODUCTION AND PROSPECTS

II POSTHARVEST OVERVIEW

III CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

I CITRUS FRUIT PRODUCTION AND PROSPECTS

The role of citrus fruits in providing nutrients and medicinal value has been recognized since ancient times. Citrus fruits, belonging to the genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae, are well known for their refreshing fragrance, thirst-quenching ability, and providing adequate vitamin C as per recommended dietary allowance (RDA). In addition to ascorbic acid, these fruits contain several phytochemicals, which play the role of neutraceuticals, such as carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene), limonoids, flavanones (naringins and rutinoside), and vitamin-B complex and related nutrients (thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid/niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, biotin, choline, and inositol). The flavonoids from citrus juices, particularly those from oranges and grapefruit, are effective in improving blood circulation and possess antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, and antiviral properties (Filatova and Kolesnova, 1999). Fresh grapefruits, pummelos, and oranges also provide fiber and pectin, which are known to reduce the risk of heart attacks if taken daily in the diet. Fresh citrus fruit consumption is important because the nutrients and health-promoting factors (especially antioxidants) from these sources are immediately available to the body and the loss of nutrients is negligible compared with processed juices.

Citrus is the most widely produced fruit, as a group of several species, and it is grown in more than 80 countries (Chang, 1992). Citrus cultivation not only is remunerative, but it also generates employment, and as stated previously, fruits have nutritive and therapeutic value. Citrus stands first among fruit crops in the world with respect to production leaving behind grapes, apples, and banana. World citrus production increased at the rate of 4.5 percent every year during the 1990s, which resulted in an output of 98.35 million tons during 2001–02, and that figure crossed the 100 million tons mark during 2003–04 (FAO, 2006). Almost half of this production was in the Americas (North and South), and about 10–12 percent was in Europe (Mediterranean). Production trends indicate that oranges constitute about 60 percent of the total citrus output, followed by mandarins, clementines, satsumas, and tangerines, which comprise about 20 percent of the output. The group of lemons and limes constitute 11–12 percent, and grapefruit and pummelos comprise roughly 5–6 percent. Since the 1970s production increased and doubled by 2004–05, and this increase was mainly due to increased orange production (Tables 1.1 and 1.2). Nearly 68.16 million tons of citrus fruits have been consumed as fresh produce (either domestically or by exports), while 26.63 million tons were utilized for processing out of 94.79 million total tons produced worldwide during 2004–05 (FAO, 2006). This trend clearly indicates importance of preserving the natural qualities of fresh citrus fruits after harvest for either domestic markets or export. World population is slated to be nearly 10 billion by 2050, therefore, projected citrus production has to increase at a suitable growth rate to meet this increasing demand.

TABLE 1.1

Citrus Output of Some Major Producing Countries and the World (million tons)

Source: FAO (2003), FAO (2006).

TABLE 1.2

Sweet Orange Production Vis-à-Vis Other Citrus Produced in Major Citrus Growing Countries of the World (million tons)

Source: FAO (2003), FAO (2006).

Brazil leads in citrus production, with more than 18.90 million metric tons of fruit produced during 2004–05, followed by the United States and China. Brazilian citrus production is oriented toward processing, while U.S. citrus production is focused toward processing and the fresh fruit market. China’s citrus production is growing steadily, with 1.3 million ha under citrus in 2001 (Xin, 2001) and new plantations yet to bear fruit. Total citrus production is expected to exceed 18.2 million tons in coming years in this country. China leads in tangerine/mandarin production, with more than 8.6 million-ton output. Production of high-quality navels and Ponkan will increase, with pummelos maintaining its proportion of production. Mandarins include satsumas (early) and Ponkan, and account for 55–60 percent, followed by oranges at 30 percent. Seedless pummelos, kumquats, and other citrus constitute 10 percent. About 95 percent of fruit is consumed fresh in China.

In the United States, Florida is the major orange-producing state (Table 1.3), and most of that produce is used for juice processing. Citrus fruits from California, Arizona, and Texas are sold for fresh consumption due to their excellent quality. Florida is a major grapefruit producing state, followed by California and Texas, and a considerable quantity of the produce is exported. Florida also leads in the production of tangerines, tangelos, Temples, and acid limes.

TABLE 1.3

Production of Citrus in the U.S. during 2001–02 (‘000 boxes)

Source: USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (2003).

Citrus production in India is 4.575 million tons from 0.488 million ha under this crop (Anonymous, 2004). The production of citrus fruits is 10.39 percent of the total fruit production in the country. About 31000 tons of fresh citrus were exported (APEDA, 2002–03), worth Rs. 34.07 crore (340 million rupees). The most important citrus fruits grown on a commercial scale in India are mandarins such as ‘Nagpur,’ ‘Coorg,’ ‘Khasi,’ ‘Darjeeling’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and ‘Kinnow’ (King × Willow leaf). Sweet oranges, such as ‘Sathgudi,’ ‘Mosambi,’ ‘Jaffa,’ ‘Blood-Red,’ and ‘Valencia Late’ (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), are the second most important citrus fruit in the country. Acid limes, such as ‘Kagzi’ (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle), and lemons, such as ‘Assam lemon’ and ‘Galgal,’ or Hill, lemon (Citrus limon [L]) Burm E, are important acid fruits. Grapefruits and pummelos are grown in small plantations and homestead gardens only. Fruits are mostly hand-picked, as more than 95 percent produce is sent to fresh fruit market.

Mediterranean countries produce huge amounts of citrus fruits destined for the fresh fruit market. Clementine mandarin and related fruit from Morocco and Spain dominate the easy-peelers category. The Mediterranean region exported 2.24 million tons of tangerines/mandarins/satsumas out of total exports of 3.13 million tons of these types of citrus in the world during 2004–05 (FAO, 2006).

Satsumas of Japan and red-fleshed grapefruits from South Africa, the United States, and Israel also have a strong presence in world trade. The Washington Navel with its clones, and Valencia are the major sweet-orange varieties worldwide. Navels from California and Spain, blood-red oranges from Italy, ‘Shamouti’ from Israel, ‘Pera,’ and ‘Natal’ from Brazil, and ‘Jincheng’ from China are popular with consumers.

Due to economic developments and the changing lifestyle of people in many cultures, fresh fruit consumption is increasing in the category of easy-peelers, such as tangerines/mandarins. These fruits are preferred for convenience in eating as they are seedless and small. Consumption of fresh oranges grew at the rate of 2.9 percent from 1986–88 to 1996–98. China is fast developing economy and with increasing income of the people, fruit consumption is also increasing. In populous areas, such as China, India, African regions, and most other Asian countries, citrus fruits are consumed fresh and are supplied by local citrus industries. In Central and Latin America, large segments of the population still prefer and can afford to consume only fresh citrus. Most of the increases in the consumption of domestic production are in India, Pakistan, China, Mexico, and Brazil. Although production of citrus fruits is increasing at the rate of 2–5 percent annually, the per capita annual consumption varies from 40 kg in Europe to 4 kg in Asian and African countries.

The 2010 orange production is projected at 64 million metric tons, and 35.7 million metric tons of that is expected to be consumed fresh. Production in Spain and South Africa would continue to grow. World tangerine/mandarin production is projected to be more than 20 million metric tons by 2010. Major producers of tangerines are China, Spain, India, Japan, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Argentina, and Pakistan. Spain alone accounts for more than 50 percent of the world’s export of fresh tangerines. Tangerine production is expected to expand in Spain, China, Morocco, Brazil, and Argentina. Efforts are being made to produce clementines in California. Israel, the United States, South Africa, Spain, Australia, and Cuba are important suppliers of grapefruit. As grapefruit production is better suited to tropical climate, its production is scattered in countries near the equator in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Projected grapefruit production in 2010 is more than 5.5 million metric tons (Spreen, 2001), and it is expected to increase in Cuba, Mexico, Argentina, and South Africa.

Lemons are widely produced in the cooler climate of southern California, which is free of frosts, and also in Spain, Italy, and Argentina. Lemons are adapted to the dryer climates of Egypt and Iran, while limes are grown mainly in Mexico, India, Brazil, the United States (Florida), and other countries with a tropical climate. With the present world production of 11.68 million metric tons of lemons and limes, the future production of these fruits is projected at 12 million metric tons by 2010. Lemon and limes do not face the same competition from other fruits (grapes, apples, bananas, etc.), because these are used primarily for salad garnishing and processing purposes and not as dessert fruits, like oranges and tangerines.

Citrus farming is being initiated in new areas as production in the old areas is decreasing due to rapid urbanization, diseases, and the abandonment of plantations injudiciously farmed (i.e., plantations on which water and soil resources were not conserved). Frost damage is a major threat for fruit production in cooler subtropical areas. As the costs of land, labor, and fuel rise, new technologies will have to be developed to increase the productivity of land for fruit to be competitive in the world market. Even in domestic markets, citrus fruit quality and price have to be competitive with other fruits. Increasing labor problems will lead to the development of better abscission chemicals and of robotic harvesting machinery, particularly in America and Mediterranean countries.

The prime concern in increasing production of all citrus fruits is the obstacles posed by biotic and non-biotic (environmental) stresses. The second concern is reducing dependence on agrochemicals during production through eco-friendly good agricultural practices (GAP). Nonhazardous postharvest management practices would result in safe food, and efforts are on to develop these methods.

New tools of biotechnology are being used extensively to develop varieties of fruit that can tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses in the field and still produce higher yields of better-quality fruit. Considering consumers’ preferences worldwide, important objectives in fresh citrus fruit improvement programs are the production of seedless fruits with optimal size and shape, an easily removable peel, new organoleptic characteristics (flavor), and early or late ripening. Modern biotechnologies based on in-vitro cell, protoplast, tissue and organ culture, and gene introduction, in addition to conventional breeding methods, such as selecting clones from natural or induced mutations, nucellar selection, and hybridization, are being tried to improve the quality of existing cultivars and to produce new varieties. The modern tools of molecular biology should throw more light on the functions of enzymes, their pathways, and the genes controlling them. Using genetic engineering techniques, metabolic pathways can be modified with certain enzymes, forming desired metabolites and eliminating problems related to the flavor and eating quality of fruits. Studies to understand the molecular mechanisms and changes underlying resistance to chilling injury in some citrus fruits after certain treatments may lead to developing genetically engineered, low temperature-resistant cultivars (Sanchez-Bellesta et al., 2001). Similarly, the study of molecular changes and the mechanisms of maturation and senescence may lead to developing genetically modified cultivars that age slowly.

Citrus production faces varying problems in different regions of the world, and fruit quality varies with agro-climatic conditions. In subtropical regions, under arid conditions with low humidity, fruit quality is excellent, with very few blemishes on the fruit’s surface, and pack-out can be as high as 95 percent if fruit meets the size requirements. In tropical climates with high humidity, however, pack-out can be less (50 percent of the produce harvested) because of blemishes on the fruit’s surfaces. This is evident from the differences in the produce of Florida and California, two well-known citrus-growing regions, and of some areas of Israel, Spain, Italy, South Africa, and Australia. In tropical areas of India and many other Southeast Asian countries and Brazil, the incidence of fruit surface blemishes is high, and fruit rind color remains green even when the fruit is internally mature. In the cool climates (subtropical) and arid conditions of northwestern India, fruit quality is excellent with respect to color, size, and taste. Due to variation in fruit quality, fruit grades and internal standards differ among the domestic markets of many countries. The draft codex standards of Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) are being evolved through discussions and consensus for world trade. Similarly, rules and regulations under sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) treaties have been finalized and are being discussed under the new World Trade Organization (WTO) regime.

II POSTHARVEST OVERVIEW

With increase in production, the increase in availability of the fruit and its supply involves preservation in terms of quality (external and internal including nutritional) and quantity. Breeding programs are leading to better color, unique flavors, and other enhancements, such as juiciness and TSS:acid ratio, but the real challenge for fresh fruit handlers and postharvest technologists is to retain or even enhance the ‘garden-fresh’ characteristics of the fruit.

Postharvest management starts in the orchard. Cultural practices must be carefully monitored to produce optimum results (i.e., required quality fruit). Careful harvesting and handling hold the key to getting desired results from postharvest treatments. Fruit’s postharvest quality and shelf life are becoming increasingly important aspects, as consumers expect quality fruit to be available throughout the year. The need for proper postharvest management increases further in case the supply is short in some seasons and produce has to be utilized and distributed prudently, without losses. Losses during fresh fruit handling range from 5 to 10 percent in most developed countries, but from 25 to 30 percent or more in developing and underdeveloped countries. Although citrus fruits have a relatively long postharvest life compared with other tropical and subtropical fruits, the losses of these fruits are higher in most developing countries because the fruits are handled, marketed, and stored under ambient conditions with insufficient refrigeration. In developed countries, after harvesting and postharvest treatments, fruits enter into cool-chain and remain at lower temperature until they are consumed.

Handling methods, storage facilities, and marketing structures vary greatly among the citrus producing countries. Since the early twentieth century, packinghouse operations in many developed countries have included degreening, mechanized sorting, washing, waxing, and size grading. In many developing countries, however, conventional handling practices are still in effect, with only gradual changes toward mechanization and modernization. The concept of packinghouse methodologies, including degreening using ethylene gas and packing wax-coated fruit on a packing line, was introduced in Indian citriculture during late 1980s and early 1990s (Ladaniya et al., 1994). Many packinghouses in the country now process ‘Kinnow’ and ‘Nagpur’ mandarins. Nonetheless, the bulk of produce is handled with conventional procedures: Fruit is transported unpacked (loose) in trucks to distant markets for economic reasons. Acid limes are packed in gunny bags, each holding 500–600 fruits, and sent to distant markets by rail and road transport. The road transport is predominant in the postharvest handling of citrus. Refrigerated cool storage of mandarins and oranges is used for commercial storage in India’s metropolitan cities. The evaporative cool-storage structures are being popularized for small scale, short storage at the farm level. The required infrastructure of mechanical handling and refrigerated transport is being developed for domestic and export marketing. Similar developments have recently been seen in many developing countries, including China.

Research and development in the field of postharvest management requires knowledge of the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical aspects of citrus fruits. This information helps researchers predict fruit’s postharvest behavior, acceptability, and palatability, and is critical when fruit is harvested, packed, and transported for consumers in a large-scale commercial ventures that involve huge sums of money. Storage is the most important part of the marketing process, and all production operations, including harvesting, pre- or postharvest treatments, packaging, transportation, and temperature and humidity management during handling, influence the storage life of fruits.

Fruit senescence, physiological disorders, and diseases are the major causes of postharvest losses. The biochemical bases of physiological disorders and senescence are continuously studied. Similarly, the biochemical basis of chilling injury (CI) also is examined in depth. Recent findings indicate that membrane lipids and oxidative stress are related to chilling injury. These findings may lead to the development of suitable treatments to minimize this disorder in the coming years.

Although citrus fruits are non-climacteric and have a relatively long shelf life compared to mangos, bananas, and other tropical fruits, the dry, hot climate in most parts of the tropical world render fruit unsuitable for marketing if not properly handled and stored. Ethylene has a role in the ripening and abscission of citrus and needs to be used wisely to benefit consumers and handlers. Removing ethylene from the fruit storage environment is challenging, however, its removal extends shelf life. Other plant-growth regulating substances, such as cytokinins, auxins, gibberellins, and polyamines, also profoundly affect fruit quality. Understanding the mechanism of action and key processes regulated by the plant regulators and bio-regulators may lead to generate strategies for modifying fruit characteristics to improve quality and delay senescence. An ethylene inhibitor, 1-methyl cyclopropane (1-MCP), that apparently binds to the cellular ethylene receptor has been found to reduce chilling injury, stem-end rot, and volatile off-flavor in ‘Shamouti’ sweet oranges. This nontoxic, odorless compound also delays color development, so it has been recommended for use in green citrus fruits (Porat et al., 1999).

Wax coating, in different forms, has been practiced for centuries to extend the storage life of citrus fruits. Aqueous waxes, solvent waxes, wax solutions of different compositions reduce water loss and give fruit sheen. Fruit flavor is the critical parameter to be monitored after coating application. Alternative coatings known as edible coatings, which utilize sucrose esters, lipids, proteins, and cellulose, have been developed to enable packers to avoid the use of hazardous chemicals (Krochta et al., 1994; Khanrui, 1999).

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)/wrapping and air-tight sealing have shown great promise in extending fruit’s shelf life and can serve as an alternative to refrigeration. When fruit is sealed in plastic film, a modified atmosphere is created by respiration (evolution of CO2, utilization of O2) and transpiration (water vapor causes saturated atmosphere). If the fruit is in equilibrium with its environment, the rate of gas exchange is the same in both directions. MAP also changes the concentration of respiratory gases inside the fruit. The thickness and type of film, the type of fruit, the fruit’s weight, the fruit’s maturity, the surrounding temperature, and microbial infection affect the modified atmosphere. When the optimization of various influencing factors is achieved for a particular citrus fruit, the shelf life can be reasonably extended without quality loss. Most plastic films are made from petroleum byproducts, but biodegradable films are being developed and hold great promise (Anonymous, 1998).

Pathogenic infection is a serious problem for fruit packers, because it results in off flavors and decay, rendering fresh fruit unsuitable for consumption and causing heavy economic losses. Unfortunately, the fungicides, insecticides, and other chemicals used to control various rots and insect-pests are toxic to human beings and pollute the environment. Many of these chemicals are in the process of being withdrawn by their manufacturers. Methyl bromide and some fungicides have already been withdrawn from postharvest use. Understanding the biological mechanism regulating plant–microbe interaction and interaction between the microbes is likely to provide means to develop control measures. The development of biocontrol agents and effectiveness of ozone has opened new avenues for eco-friendly, nontoxic, postharvest disease-control measures. High-temperature and ultraviolet-light therapy have great potential in inducing natural resistance in harvested citrus fruit. The future of eco-friendly treatments against biotic stresses lies in understanding the mechanisms of microbes, exploring new fungistatic compounds from plants, understanding the biochemical bases of changes in host tissue, and understanding host-pathogen interaction.

The prevention and cure of fruit-fly infestation is the major challenge in expanding the export of citrus fruits. Low-temperature treatment and ionizing radiation are effective in the disinfestation of crops. Irradiation at the dose of 300 Gy is lethal to all stages of Ceratitis capitata but does not alter the chemical composition of oranges (Adamo et al., 1996). The advantage of this treatment is the deep and uniform penetration of energy into the tissue, which guarantees disinfestation even in the center of the fruit without producing any undesirable effects. The treatment is effective in wrapped fruit also thereby preventing recontamination. In Florida, an irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and found effective for controlling the Caribbean fruit fly in grapefruit shipments to Japan and Europe. The vapor heat treatment (2h at 38°C) reduces the severity and incidence of peel injury by 50 percent in fruit irradiated by 0.5–1.0kGy (Miller and McDonald, 1998). Thermotherapy (the use of very low and/or high temperatures) is useful in conditioning fruit for irradiation. Thermotherapy also is lethal to microbes and insect-pests, so it can be used to reduce decay and insect infestation.

Technological innovations in computer applications and robotics, and the development of various kinds of sensors for fruit handling, analysis, and quality control revolutionized postharvest management, making it a much more precise process than previously. Although most of the world’s citrus fruit destined for fresh fruit market is harvested manually, continuing research on mechanical harvesting is leading to development of systems that cause the least damage to fruit at a lower picking cost. Various mechanical methods are being tried, including the use of shakers and robotic arms with machine vision.

Fresh citrus fruits, whether used as desserts or snack food, must compete with other products, such as dairy products and industrial baked goods, that exhibit a high consistency of quality. Thus, the high quality of fresh fruit must be made more consistent. The first step in the effort to increase quality assurance is developing sensors that are able to control product quality. These sensors could monitor external and internal quality. External quality includes fruit’s size, shape, color, and surface defects. Cameras are being used more and more commonly to evaluate these characteristics. The aspects of internal quality include maturity and the absence of defects/disorder, rots, insects, and seeds, and these are being studied using X-ray transmission and tomography, sound waves, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging (Chen et al., 1989). The detection of degree of maturity as determined by sugar and acidity contents can be achieved with the use of near-infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS). All of these techniques involve measuring changes in transmitted electromagnetic waves according to the effect. Internal defects are by far the most damaging to a brand’s reputation. In order to ensure internal quality with respect to desired total soluble solids (sugars) and acidity in satsuma mandarins, for example, a nondestructive online measurement technique utilizing near-infra-red spectroscopy in the transmittance mode is already being widely used in packing houses in Japan (Miyamoto et al., 1996).

Sensors also are being developed to monitor the quality of citrus fruits by measuring the relationship between the emission of volatile substances and the loss of quality during transportation (Conesa et al., 1994). The most frequent causes of quality deterioration during transportation are decay caused by pathogens and damage from handling. The volatiles emitted by disease pathogens (Penicillium digitatum, Botrytis cinerea, and Geotrichum candidum) are being studied in order to develop sensors capable of detecting them. Characteristic emissions from decay caused by Penicillium digitatum, for example, are ethanol and ethyl acetate. Research also is being done on sensors for limonene, alcohols, aldehydes (caused by aging), and ethyl acetate (Conesa et al., 1994). Two kinds of chemical sensors (tin dioxide gas sensors and polypirrol) and a biochemical sensor (enzymes) have been developed. The prototypes of these devices, called Fruit Box and Fruit Sniffers, have been reported by Bellon (1994). The Fruit Box is made up of sensors (for temperature, humidity, and volatiles), signal circuits, and a microcontroller to record and store the data output from the sensors, thus enabling continuous monitoring of fruit condition during a shipment. Any physical damage or quality degradation in the fruit caused during transport can be identified with this device. Fruit Sniffers are reported to be able to check individual pallets and boxes for damaged and moldy fruit.

III CONCLUSION

Efforts are continuing worldwide to develop methods, technologies, and gadgets to preserve the qualities of freshly harvested citrus fruit while it is taken from orchard to market shelves at distant places. For postharvest technologies to be effective, however, trials and evaluations are necessary on a commercial scale. Successful fruit-quality management requires a combined effort from producers, marketing and handling personnel, transporters, and researchers. Successful, sustainable, and increased citrus production is possible with sound postharvest management and marketing. Grade standards, international quality criteria, packaging needs, food safety norms, and sanitary and phytosanitary requirements have acquired greater significance in the post-WTO scenario, and these challenges need to be met for the healthy growth of the international fresh citrus fruit trade.

REFERENCES

Adamo, M., D’llio, V., Gionfriddo, F., The technique of ionization of orange fruits infested with Ceratitis capitata. Informat. Agrar. (Italy), 1996;52(4):73–75

Anonymous. Biodegradable plastic films. Indian Fd. Industry May–June. 1998; 17(4):35–38.

Anonymous. Survey of Indian agriculture. Hindu Publ.. 2004; 122–123.

APEDA. Export statistics for agro and food products-India, 2002–03. Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority, New Delhi. 2003; 250–256.

Valencia, Spain. Bellon, V., Tools for fruit and vegetable quality control: A review of current trends and perspectivesJuste F., ed. Post-harvesting operations and quality sensing. Proc. IV Int. Symp. Fruit and Vegetable Product Engineering; Vol. 2, 1994:1–12.

Chang, K., The evaluation of citrus demand and supply. Proc. Int. Soc. Citric., Italy; Vol. 3, 1992:1153–1155.

Chen, P., McCarthy, M. J., Kauten, R. NMR for internal evaluation of fruits and vegetables. Trans. ASAE. 1989; 32(5):1747–1753.

Valencia, Spain. Conesa, E., Hoddells, P. J., Emmanopoules, G., Citrus fruit life tracking systemsJuste F., ed. Postharvesting operations and quality sensing. Proc. IV Int. Symp. Fruit and Vegetable Product Engineering; Vol. 2, 1994:165–217.

FAO. Citrus fruit-fresh and processed, annual statistics, 2003. Rome: Commodities and Trade Division, FAO of the UN; 2003.

FAO. Citrus fruit-fresh and processed, annual statistics, 2006. Rome: Commodities and Trade Division, FAO of the UN; 2006.

Filatova, I. A., Kolesnova, Y. The significance of flavonoids from citrus juices in disease prevention. Pischevaya Promyshlennost. 1999; 8:62–63.

Khanrui, K. Edible packaging: an eco-friendly alternative to the plastics. Indi. Food Indust.. 1999; 18(1):34–38.

Krochta, J. M., Baldwin, E. A., Nisperos-Carrido, M. O. Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Lancaster, PA, USA: Technomic Publication Co.; 1994.

Ladaniya, M. S., Naqvi, S. A.M. H., Dass, H. C. Packing line operations and storage of ‘Nagpur’ mandarin. Indian J. Hort.. 1994; 51(3):215–221.

Miller, W. R., McDonald, R. E. Amelioration of irradiation injury to Florida grapefruit by pre-treatment with vapour heat or fungicides. Hort Sci.. 1998; 33(1):100–102.

Miyamoto, K., Kitano, Y., Yamashita, S., Honda, H., Nakarishi, Y., Fruit quality control of Satsuma mandarin in packing houses with non-destructive measurement by Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). Proc. Int. Soc. Citric. International Socety of Citriculture VIII Int. Citrus Congress, S. Africa, May 12–17, 1996; Vol. 2, 1996:1126–1128.

Porat, R., Weiss, B., Cohen, L., Daus, A., Goren, R., Droby, S. Effects of ethylene and 1-methyl cyclopropane on the postharvest qualities of Shamouti oranges. Postharvest Biol. Technol.. 1999; 15:155–163.

Sanchez-Ballesta, M. T., Lafuente, M. T., Granell, A., Zacarias, I. Isolation and expression of a citrus cDNA related to peel damage caused by postharvest stress conditions. Acta. Hort.. 2001; 553:293–295.

Spreen, T. H., Projection of world production and consumption of citrus up to 2010. Proc. China-FAO Citrus Symp., May 2001, 2001:137–142.

USDA, Agricultural statistics. National Agricultural Statistical Service, Utilized Production, 2003. http://www.usda.gov/nass

Xin Lu, L., China’s citrus production: retrospect, present situation and future prospects. Proc. China-FAO Citrus Symp., May 2001, 2001:151–165.

2

COMMERCIAL FRESH CITRUS CULTIVARS AND PRODUCING COUNTRIES

Publisher Summary

The different types of citrus fruit are divided into cultivar groups because of their origin, characteristics, and ripening times. Each cultivar group has a unique climatic requirement that is dependent on temperature, heat units, day length, and humidity. This chapter discusses the citrus cultivars for the fresh fruit market: Sweet Orange, Mandarin, Grapefruit, Pummelo or Shaddock, hybrids of Pummelo and Grapefruit, Lemon, Acid Lime, Sweet Lime, Citron, Calamondin, Natsudaidai, Hassaku, Kumquat, and Bael. Citrus fruits are grown in most of the countries of the world, but roughly 20 of them contribute to 90 percent or more of the total world production and trade. Important citrus-producing regions of the world and some major countries are discussed. Two major regions of the world differentiated by climatic conditions, the northern and southern hemispheres, are further divided into geographic regions and countries to describe varieties grown, climate, and harvesting seasons, keeping in view the similarities in countries that are in geographical proximity to each other. With the onset of spring in the northern hemisphere, in March or April, citrus trees flower and fruit harvesting starts in October–November. The southern hemisphere is characterized by winter during March–October and summer during November–February. Hence, countries of the southern hemisphere that produce citrus can market fresh citrus fruits during March–October.

I CITRUS CULTIVARS FOR FRESH FRUIT MARKET

A Sweet Orange

B Mandarin

C Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

D Pummelo or Shaddock (C. grandis or C. maxima)

E Hybrids of Pummelo and Grapefruit

F Lemon (Citrus limon)

G Acid Lime

H Sweet Lime (Citrus limettioides Tanaka)

I Citron (Citrus medica Lin.)

J Calamondin (Citrus madurensis Loureiro)

K Natsudaidai (Citrus natsudaidai Hayata)

L Hassaku (Citrus hassaku Tanaka)

M Kumquat (Fortunella spp.)

N Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa.)

II COUNTRIES, VARIETIES GROWN, AND HARVESTING SEASONS

A Northern Hemisphere

B Southern Hemisphere

REFERENCES

I CITRUS CULTIVARS FOR FRESH FRUIT MARKET

A Sweet Orange

1 Non-blood or Non-pigmented Orange

Fruits in this group are spherical, globose, or ovate. The important commercial cultivars in this group are as follows: • Hamlin: Fruits are almost spherical, commercially seedless (fewer than 9 seeds), ovule sterility, smooth and thin peel, juice content low (about 36–40 percent); TSS about 8–9 percent, flesh do not develop orange color, early (September–October) and can be harvested up to December, marketed fresh in Florida, Brazil, South Africa and many other countries, prolific yielder (60–80 metric tons per ha), fruits hold on the tree well. • Ambersweet: Hybrid between mandarin and orange, early in maturity and preferred by the people in place of early Hamlin in Florida. It has already taken some of the share of Hamlin. • Valencia: Bears its name from where it has spread, that is Valencia, Spain (it is thought to be of Chinese origin), most widely grown sweet orange in the world but most of the produce is processed, late maturing (February–October in Northern hemisphere), prolific bearer (up to 50–60 metric tons per ha). In Southern hemisphere it matures in summer, that is, September to March, holds well on the tree but regreening problem occurs, fruit with excellent quality orange color of rind and yellow-orange color of flesh, juicy, seedless (Fig 2.1, see also Plate 2.1).

FIGURE 2.1 Valencia Orange – Widely Grown Late Maturing Orange World Over.

PLATE 2.1 Valencia Orange – Widely Grown Late Maturing Orange World Over.

Late maturing selections/bud sports of Valencia orange such as Olinda, Campbell, Frost, Midknight, and Delta are widely grown due to suitability of harvesting time and quality for fresh fruit markets around the world. Problems of creasing and splitting occur due to holding of fruit on the tree. In Argentina a variation, ‘Lue Gim Gong,’ is grown, which is quite similar to Valencia Late. Pera: Sweet orange grown in Brazil and some other Latin American countries, export cultivar mid to late season orange for fresh fruit market but also processed; fruit medium-sized with eight or fewer seeds, TSS content lower than Valencia, oval to ellipsoid fruit, medium thin skin, smooth surface finely pitted, light orange peel at maturity, holds well on the tree (Romano and Donadio, 1981). • Shamouti: Excellent fresh fruit market cultivar from Israel, exported by many Mediterranean countries to EC, similar to Jaffa orange, fruit with very good orange color on peel and inside, ovate in shape, seedless, flat area at stem-end, rind can be removed by hand, maturity mid-season. • Pineapple: Mid-season orange grown in USA, Mexico, South Africa, Brazil, and India. Excellent quality due to high juice content, but seedy, develops orange color with relatively high TSS. • Mosambi: Widely grown cultivar in India, medium to large fruit, thin peeled, juicy nucellar selections available, acidity about 0.35–0.5 percent when fully mature and hence sweet to flat taste when stored, slightly acidic fruit with higher acidity and greenish-yellow color rind are better, early maturity (Fig 2.2, see also Plate 2.2).

FIGURE 2.2 Mosambi Orange-Widely Grown Early Maturing Orange in India.

PLATE 2.2 Mosambi Orange-Widely Grown Early Maturing Orange in India.

• Sathgudi: Globose fruit, medium to large-sized, juicy, orange colored flesh; moderately seedy, pale orange at maturity, finely pitted smooth peel, mid-season, good flavored, medium thick rind, extensively grown in South India, especially Andhra Pradesh. • Malta: Seeded, mid-season variety, juicy, well adapted to arid hot climate with irrigation facility. • Hongjiang: Seedless (seeds 1–2 per fruit) very popular sweet orange in Guangdong province of China, fruit color is dark orange to reddish, flesh red, juicy, flavor pleasant. • Qianyang seedless Dahong: Medium-sized fruit, weight 162 g, bright orange to red peel when fully mature, juicy, seedless, good eating quality, good storage ability. •Beipei seedless Jincheng: Commercially seedless (5–6 seeds per fruit), Mutant 2-2 is self incompatible, seedless, round-shaped, thin and bright orange colored-peel, juicy selection from Jincheng orange, pleasant sweet-acidic flavor, weight 180–190 g, storage ability good, one of the main orange cv of China. • Jiaogan Seedless 85-2: It is obtained from Tankan, matures in mid-January, medium large fruit, skin orange red, flesh soft, juicy, fruit stores well. • Marrs: This cultivar is popular in Texas (USA), early and heavy bearing, medium to large fruit size, bears fruits in clusters, round to oblate fruit without navel; juicy pale orange flesh, moderately seedy depending on cross pollination, medium thick finely pitted smooth peel, holds well on tree. • Bonanza: Early ripening, round-shaped fruit, deep orange colored thin rind, juicy, rich flavored; seedless, peel separates easily, sweet eating quality (Singh et al., 2003). • Salustiana: Early, orange-fleshed, seedless, commercial cultivar in Spain, harvested for 6 months, similar to Cadenera, medium large fruit, sub-globose to spherical, juicy, sweet, fruits hold on the tree. • Cadenera: Grown mainly in Spain, fruit seedless, mid-season, with excellent flavor. • Belladonna: Widely grown in Italy, fruit oblong, medium-sized, pleasantly flavored, seeds few to none, deep orange colored, juicy flesh, early to mid-season variety. • Beledi: Seeded mid-season variety, grown in Egypt and Mediterranean countries. • Jaffa: Seedless mid-season variety, adapted to dry, irrigated areas, fruit juicy. • Natal: Brazilian orange variety of late maturity, resembles Valencia orange, medium-sized fruit, globose in shape, seeds few, flesh pale yellow colored, rind finely pebbled and yellow-orange in color. • Lamb’s Summer: Medium small ellipsoidal to ovoid fruit, seeds few, late in maturity, holds on the tree; grown mainly in Florida. • Diller: Sweet orange cultivar grown in Arizona (USA), also known as Arizona Sweet due to very sweet taste, seeded, early to mid-season, round shaped, smooth rind, yellow-orange colored at peak maturity. • Comune: Comune or Criolla is medium to large-sized seeded orange, spherical to elliptical, pale orange colored, slightly thick skin, juicy.

2 Blood or Pigmented Oranges

These are so called because of light to deep blood-red colored anthocyanin pigments in rind and flesh of the fruit. Red color develops with warm days and cool nights that is the main feature of the Mediterranean climate. Even in other subtropical regions, this type of climate during fruit maturation result in red flesh color development although not as deep as in the Mediterranean region. In blood oranges, Doblefina group fruit are grown mainly in Spain, medium small, oval to oblong, seedless, smooth surface with yellowish-orange peel, flesh firm, red blood flecks scattered in flesh, moderately juicy, distinct flavor, mid-season. It has given rise to Entrefina and Amelioree.

The common blood-oranges are • Malta Blood Red: Seedy, light blood but good flavor, rind thin, adherent, smooth. • Moro: Sub-globose to round fruit, medium to large size, juicy, deep red flesh, excellent flavor, peel orange colored medium thick and smooth, seedless, mid-season to late maturing. • Tarocco: Large fruited, deep red fleshed, seeds few to none, obovate to globose shape, collar at base, medium thick finely pebbled rind, red blush at maturity, mid-season in maturity, ships and stores well. • Sanguinello Moschato: Deep blood colored, seedless, juicy, holds on the tree, mid-season. • Sanguinelli: Nearly seedless, intense red flesh, oval fruit shape, thick leathery peel, late, harvested February– June in Spain. • Sanguinello: Fruits are round to slightly oblong with slightly loose rind, red fleshed, seedless, mid to late season.

3 Navel Oranges

Navel orange fruits are ovate to oblong in shape. This is an important group of fresh fruit orange varieties due to excellent quality. Fruits differ from round shaped oranges either blood or non-blood in that these bear a small navel at the stylar-end, which is in fact a small fruit within the fruit, and hence the fruit is somewhat oblong (Fig 2.3). This very small fruit, which is somewhat protruded at stylar-end, can be seen without cutting the fruit, and hence it is called the navel of the fruit.

FIGURE 2.3 Navel Orange-One of the Fine Orange Fruit for Table Purpose.

Fruits are seedless due to pollen sterility and ovule sterility. Fruits are large, weighing up to 300 g or more. • Washington navel: So called because it has spread from Washington DC (USA) to other areas after having been received in Washington DC from Brazil. It is the most widely grown navel cultivar in the world. Fruits are juicy, aromatic flesh, seedless, orange colored, excellent for fresh fruit market but do not keep well on the tree, not adapted to hot arid climate. Limb sports of Washington navel orange reported, tree smaller than Washington navel, fruit excellent quality, holds on the tree. • Navelate: Late maturing bud-sport of Washington navel selected in Spain, good yielder. • Newhall, Atwood, Fisher: These cvs are grouped in one since they originated from Washington navel at California. These are quite early in maturity. • Baianinha: Most widely grown navel orange in Brazil, fruit is smaller than Washington navel, can be grown in hot and arid conditions also. • Lanelate and Leng: These originated in Australia from the Washington navel. Lanelate is a selection, whereas Leng is a limb-sport. Leng fruit is smaller, whereas Lanelate is similar to the Washington navel orange. Lanelate is a late cultivar and is widely grown in Australia. Fruit has thin skin (5 mm), juicy (45 percent), high TSS (16.5 percent) and 1.23 percent acid, giving a palatable TSS/acid ratio of 14. • Palmer: Originated as a nucellar seedling of the Washington navel in South Africa. It holds on the tree well and is a heavy yielder.

B Mandarin

Commercial citrus fruits included in this group belong to separate species, hybrids (either human made or natural), selections, and mutants. It is the most important group in fresh citrus marketing because premiums are paid on these fruits due to attractive appearance, pleasant taste, and convenience due to seedlessness and easy peeling characteristics. The terms tangerine and mandarin are used interchangeably and indicate easy-peelers only. The difference is that tangerines have deep orange to reddish-orange color and are smaller in size than standard mandarins (Citrus reticulata, Blanco).

1 Common Mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco)

•Ponkan: This is the most important mandarin (Citrus reticulata, Blanco) cv grown in China, India, and many other south Asian and southeast Asian countries with different names, Very good eating quality, seeded. In a tropical climate, fruits do not develop orange color and puffs when over-mature. Fruit also develops collars under certain conditions. Fruit quality improves and rind gets thinner as the trees grow old as observed in ‘Nagpur’ mandarins. ‘Nagpur’ mandarins or Nagpur santra is similar to Ponkan grown in China; acidity decreases as fruit maturity advances on the tree or in storage. At harvest fruits are prone to plugging or buttonhole injury due to brittleness of peel, hence they need to be clipped. Most of the time the fruit can be snap harvested by twisting and pulling as the abscission zone develops, and fruits separates easily. Quality varies considerably with soil type and climate. In the light type of sandy loam soil, excellent quality fruit can be produced in sub-tropical climates. In humid tropical climates and under clay soils, fruits do not develop color and may get puffy early. Fruit matures within 8–9 months in Central India. Fruit is obovate with a long neck or collar in humid and warm conditions while ovate to globose in cool dry climates (Fig 2.4, see also Plate 2.3).

FIGURE 2.4 ‘Nagpur’ Mandarin – the Leading Mandarin Cultivar of Very Fine Taste.

PLATE 2.3 ‘Nagpur’ Mandarin – the Leading Mandarin Cultivar of Very Fine Taste.

TSS is 9–11 percent, and acidity is 0.7–0.9 percent in crops that mature in November–December. Quality is far better in crops that mature in February–March with fruit having 12–14 percent TSS and 0.6–0.8 percent acidity. Trees need support to avoid breaking of branches. It is a heavy bearer (1500–2000 fruit/tree) with alternate bearing as a common feature. • Khasi: The name of this mandarin is derived from Khasi hills of Meghalaya, India, where it is grown extensively; quality is excellent in that region. Fruit is deep orange colored, juicy, 13–14° Brix, 0.6–0.8 percent acidity, weighs 90–100 g, seeded. Fruits grown at higher ranges (1000–1500 m elevation) develop deep orange color and are more acidic, whereas at lower elevations, they remain yellowish-green (Fig 2.5, see also Plate 2.4).

FIGURE 2.5 ‘Khasi’ Mandarin – Widely Grown Mandarin in North-Eastern India.

PLATE 2.4 ‘Khasi’ Mandarin – Widely Grown Mandarin in North-Eastern India.

•Darjeeling and Sikkim mandarin: These are similar to the Khasi mandarin, but the TSS is lower. Most other fruit characteristics are similar. • Coorg mandarin: Grown in the Coorg district of Karnataka state. Fruit is similar to that of ‘Nagpur’ mandarins but smaller in size. • Emperor: Early to mid-season, grown mostly in Australia, seeded, orange colored smooth skin, fruit weight 90–100 g. • Clementine: It is of Chinese origin and resembles the Canton mandarin.

It derived its name from Father Clement Rodier who worked in Oran, Algeria (Hodgson, 1967). Various clones of Clementine are commercially very important because the export trade of Spain and many other Mediterranean and North African countries is based mainly on clementines. Fruits are seedless except Monreals, but size is small. Clementines have not performed well in humid tropical climates. Trees are different than common mandarin trees in that they are densely foliated and cover the fruit, whereas Ponkan or Nagpur santra trees are upright with an open canopy, and fruit on the top of the canopy may get sunburned. Selections such as Marisol and Oroval are early maturing, whereas Nules (de Nules) or Clemenules are late in maturity. Nules hold on the tree well. Monreal is self-fruitful and produces none or very few seeds. Seedy when pollinizers used. The Fina group of Clementines are mid-season in maturity with excellent quality and very important in Spain. • Dancy: This is an important cultivar in Florida and a true tangerine with adequate orange-red peel color even in tropical humid areas. Best color develops in full sunlight, shaded fruit does not develop color, and fruit has a higher heat-summation requirement for maturity. It derived its name from Colonel Dancy, who discovered the tree near Orange Mill, Florida in 1857 (Davies and Albrigo, 1998). Like many other mandarins, it does not hold on the tree – juice sacs dry out, and the fruit must be spot-picked. Fruit size is small (80–90 g) due to heavy bearing, and branches may break if not supported. • Tardivo di Ciaculli: Italian commercially important variety, bud mutant of Avana mandarin, matures in February–March, juicy with fragrant flavor. • Murcott Afourer: Popular in California, late maturing, holds well on the tree, seeded (few seeds), easy-peeler with excellent flavor, attractive orange rind.

2 Mediterranean Mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore)

It actually originated in China but derived its name as Mediterranean because it is widely grown in that region. It is also called Willow leaf mandarin in the USA due to lanceolate leaves like a willow tree. Trees are densely foliated and fairly tolerant to freezes. Fruits are seeded, moderate size, thin rind, loosely adherent, oblate in shape, mid-season maturity, very pleasant flavor. Trees have alternate bearing habit. Clementine mandarin has replaced this mandarin in most places. • Comun de Concordia: Grown in Argentina. Fruit medium sized, flattened at base (stylar end) with a smooth or slightly pitted fine skin, juicy, sweet taste, seedy, yellow-orange color, mainly grown in Entre Rios region.

3 King Mandarin (Citrus nobilis Loureiro)

It is considered to have originated in the Indo-China region (Malaya, Vietnam, Cambodia). Fruit is large, seeded, with thick orange colored peel that is rough to sometimes warty (Hodgson, 1967). Fruit is moderately juicy with rich flavor, late in maturity, stores well on the tree.

4 Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshu Marc.)

The most important and widely cultivated mandarin of Japan; later on it spread to China, the Mediterranean region, and other parts of the world where it has adapted. There is a very wide range of mutants and selections of Satsumas those are early, mid-season, and late and varying in quality attributes. Satsuma is considered to have originated in Japan from material that came from China. It grows well in cool sub-tropical to temperate regions of Japan, central China, Spain, and many other countries. It is very cold-hardy and withstands temperature as low as –9°C. It is also grown in South Africa. Trees have drooping and spreading habit with dense foliage, and fruit requires lower heat-summation to mature than other mandarins. Fruits are seedless, medium to large, and oblate to obovate in shape, without neck, firmly fleshed, with characteristic of peel puffing. • Miyagawa and Okitsu Wase: Wase in Japanese means early maturing; matures in September when field grown, and in polyhouses with controlled conditions, fruit matures June and July. Miyagawa Wase is popular in Japan, Italy, and Spain. Miyagawa fruit is larger with smooth and thin bright colored peel, juicy, excellent quality. • Owari Satsuma: Widely planted in Japan. In Spain it matures mid-season (October–November). Owari fruits are medium in size, flattened surface, orange colored, and sweet (11–12 percent TSS and 0.7–0.8 percent acidity). Clausellina is an early maturing bud-mutant of Owari and commercially important in Spain. • Sugiyama Unshu: It is mid to late maturing (November), large fruited, oblate-shaped, thin-skinned, excellent quality Satsuma. • Hayashi unshu: Very good keeping quality.

5 Natural Mandarin Hybrids

• Temple: It is the most widely grown natural mandarin hybrid (tangerine x tangor) in Florida and South Africa. Fruits have many seeds but high TSS and very good flavor and deep orange rind color because it is a hybrid with sweet orange blood in it. Unlike mandarins, fruits are not easy to peel. It matures from January to March in Florida along with Murcott, which is also a natural mandarin hybrid. • Murcott: It is also known as Honey or Honey Murcott or Smith. Fruits are medium in size, seeded (seeds few), oblate in shape, peel deep orange to reddish in color, easy to peel, flesh orange colored, juicy, excellent flavor, fruit ships well. Murcott bears heavy crop and is prone to alternate bearing. Crop is held for late marketing (February). • Imperial: Chance hybrid of Mediterranean mandarin, medium sized (fruit weight 80–90 g) oblate fruit with short collar or neck, few seeds, rind thin, orange color, matures early (April) in Australia. • Ellendale: Considered as natural tangor and grown mainly in Australia; fruits are medium to large, slight neck or rounded, apex slightly depressed, seeded, juicy (fruit weight 100–135 g), bright orange to red peel, smooth, hollow axis, do not store well on tree. • Tankan: Natural hybrid of orange and mandarin. It looks and tastes like a sweet orange but is easily peelable. • Ortanique: Natural tangor with smooth adherant orange colored peel, speciality fruit, sweet, juicy but seeded, ships well. • Topaz: Tangor, large fruit, seeded, adherant skin, good flavor.

6 Hybrids Developed in Cross Breeding Programs

Orlando and Minneola (C. reticulata × C. paradisi) Cross of Dancy × Duncan grapefruit. These are seedless when not pollinized. Robinson, Lee, Osceola and Nova: These are the hybrids of Orlando tangelos and Clementine mandarins developed in Orlando, Florida. • Robinson: Fruits are small, oblate, seedless when set parthenocarpically, easy-peeler, deep orange color, separating segments, hollow core, matures in October–December in Florida. • Nova: Matures late November to late February in Israel, medium large fruit, oblate to subglobose, apex flat and sub-globose, reddish orange peel color. • Page: Minneola ×Clementine hybrid developed in Florida, resembles sweet orange. • Orah: Temple × Dancy, developed in Israel, seeded, easy peeler, medium size, sweet, bright orange red, matures December–January, holds well on the tree. • Kinnow: Hybrid of King × Willowleaf mandarin, oblate shaped fruit flattened at base and apex, adherent and smooth peel, develops deep orange color, seeded, juicy, highly flavored, mid-season variety, holds well on the tree, very good shipping and storage quality Sibling of Wilking, which is also a hybrid of King × Willowleaf mandarin. • Sunburst: Tangerine developed through cross of Robinson and Osceola, fruits are deep orange to reddish colored, thin peeled, and medium-sized, oblate, flat at stem-end, mature during October and November, ships better than Robinson or Dancy, develop seeds when cross pollinated with Temple, Orlando, or Nova. • Fallglo: Cross between Bower × Temple, slightly earlier than Sunburst and Robinson, oblate shaped, seedy depending on cross pollination, deep orange colored, easily peelable. • Ambersweet: Cross between Clementine × Orlando, mandarin hybrid × mid-season sweet orange (15–3), early season maturity (early October), medium in size, similar to temple in shape, dark orange in color, seedless to seedy depending on degree of cross pollination, taste and aroma like sweet orange (characteristic of one of its parents). • Mapo and Cami: Hybrids are also grown in Italy. Cami [(C. clementina Comun × C. deliciosa Avana) × Mapo tangelo], ripens in late December to mid-March, seedless, size 6–7 cm diameter and about 120–150 g weight. • Fortune: Clementine × Dancy, medium to large and oblate fruit, reddish orange color, peelable rind, fruit seeded, late maturing, chilling sensitive, unsuitable for long-term storage.

C Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen)

Grapefruit derived its name as fruits are borne in clusters like grapes. Among citrus fruits grown in the tropics, grapefruits have the highest quality and are the best with the commercial possibilities as fresh fruits. This may be attributed to origin of this fruit in the tropics. This is one of the large citrus fruits (although smaller than pummelos) with diameters of 10–15 cm. Grapefruit is considered to have originated in the West Indies and has many characters similar to Pummelos (C. maxima). This is a typically tropical fruit with a high heat-summation requirement. Fruits grown in tropical areas develop high juice content, thinner peel, and lower acidity. People in North America, Europe, and Japan prefer fresh grapefruit. Grapefruit can hold on the tree very long from September to the following July in the northern hemisphere. However, holding too long on the tree is not desirable because granulation may take place and seeds may germinate within the fruit, although acidity decreases. There are red-fleshed and white-fleshed cvs. Red flesh is due to lycopene and carotenoid pigments.

1 Red-Fleshed Grapefruit

Most of today’s commercial cultivars are selections or mutations from earlier ones, which were replaced gradually with newer ones. Consumers prefer red-fleshed seedless fruits, so white grapefruits are slowly being replaced. • Red Blush and Ruby Red: The rind develops red blush on fruits. These are mutations (limb sports) of Thompson pink, which is a limb-sport of Marsh (seedless grapefruit). Red Blush and Ruby Red are red-fleshed grapefruit with almost identical fruit and tree characters and selected in Texas. • Ruby Jaguey: Originated from Ruby Red, these are grown widely in Cuba. It is high yielding, has fewer seeds, a thinner rind, and a higher TSS. • Henderson, Ray Ruby, and Rio Red: Henderson has deeper red flesh and peel color than Ruby Red. Ray Ruby has even deeper red flesh than Henderson. Ray Ruby is a mutation of Ruby Red. Rio Red is a seedling selection from Ruby Red. Flesh color of Rio Red is deeper than Ray Ruby with higher yields. In South Africa, Rio Red matures when most other grapefruits are harvested. • Flame: Originated from Henderson as a seedling. Peel color is similar to Ray Ruby and internal color is similar to Star Ruby. In Ray Ruby, Flame, and Rio Red, deep red color of flesh persists longer, hence marketing can be extended. Fruits of these cvs develop red color on rind and flesh even in tropical warm areas. • Star Ruby: Fruits very deep red fleshed with reddish blush on peel. Smaller fruit size, seedless, matures 6 weeks before Marsh seedless. Fruit has good flavor, but this cv. is sensitive to cold. Fruits are borne inside canopies, so there is less damage due to frost.

2 White-Fleshed Grapefruit

• Marsh: Most popular grapefruit due to seedlessness and good holding characteristic on the tree thus extending the marketing season from September to March in the northern hemisphere. • Duncan: Fruit large, oblate, seeded, pale yellow colored, peel medium thick, smooth, juicy, rich flavored, early maturity. • Foster: Seeded, globose to oblate fruit, pale yellow colored smooth peel, flesh juicy, flavor good. • Saharanpur Special: It is grown in Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal states of northern India. Fruits are white fleshed, matures from November to February, seedless, light yellow pulp, vesicles are juicy.

D Pummelo or Shaddock (C. grandis or C. maxima)

Originated in southern China. It is found growing wildly in China, many north-eastern states of India, and also in the Malay region of southeast Asia. Fruits and flowers of pummelo are the largest among commercially grown citrus in the world. Fruits that are 20–25 cm in diameter are common; even up to 30 cm in diameter can be seen. Fruits are liked in China and southeast Asia very much. The major difference between grapefruit and pummelo is that pummelo fruits are much bigger with thick peels and are less juicy. Flesh of the pummelo is firm with crisp carpellary membranes and juice sacs. Commercial pummelos do not exhibit traces of bitterness as exhibited in grapefruit on eating. Fruits are obovoid to pyriform in shape and seeded. Chandler, a Thai variety, and an Indonesian variety, Djeroek Deleema Kopjar, are pink-fleshed. Chinese varieties Goliath, Mato, and Shatinyu are white fleshed. Israel produces Goliath, Chandler, and Tahiti varieties for domestic and export markets. • Chandler: Hybrid of Siamese pink and Siamese sweet, pink fleshed, early ripening fresh fruit, maturing in December–April, globose, seeded, medium oblate to globose, smooth peel, stores well (Singh et al., 2003). •Kao Ponne and Kao Phueng: These are white fleshed, seeded Thai cultivars. Kao Phueng fruits are pyriform with distinct necks, whereas Kao Ponne fruit is globose. Kao Ponne matures earlier than Kao Phueng, good flavored juicy pulp. • Banpeiyu: It is a Malaysian cultivar widely grown in that country, high-quality fruit, large size sub-globose in shape, seeded, light-yellow fleshed. • Wendan and Chumen Wendan: Early, flesh white, soft, juicy, peel thin, widely grown in Fujian province of China. • Pingshan: Major variety of pummelo in Fujian, China. Large oblate fruit weighing 1 kg or more, matures mid-September, seedless, pale red albedo, superior eating quality (TSS 11–12 percent, acids 6.3–6.4 percent), edible part 55–60 percent, good storage ability. • Anjiangxiang: It is a pummelo of the Hunan province of China, seeded, tolerant to cold and drought, matures in late September to early October, flesh is juicy and fragrant. • Diangjiang: Pummelo grown in Sichuan province of China, fruit oval, large, juicy, few seeds, sweet, fragrant, matures early November. • Shatinyu: Grown in Guangxi province of China, 0.6–1.5 kg fruit weight, pyriform fruit, light-yellow flesh, crisp, sweet, late maturing (October–December), fruit can be stored until the following April (Chen and Lai,

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