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# Problems in Quantum Mechanics

Di V.I. Kogan e V.M. Galitskiy

## Descrizione

The mathematics employed in the proofs of the problems—asymptotic expansions of functions, Green's functions, use of different representation spaces, and simple limiting cases—are detailed and comprehensive. Virtually no space is devoted to the physical statements underlying the problems, since this is usually covered in books on quantum mechanics. Teachers and students will find this volume particularly valuable in terms of its advanced mathematics and detailed presentations, its coverage of scattering theory, and its helpful graphs and explanatory figures.

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## Anteprima del libro

### Problems in Quantum Mechanics - V.I. Kogan

[27].

### SOLUTIONS

### CHAPTER I

*Operators. Constants of Motion *

*Operators. Constants of Motion*

1.

, or, in more compact form,

, identity (**1) can be transformed to **

where we have redefined the operators to preserve the order of the letters *A*, *B *and *C*.

We emphasize the resemblance of these equations [in particular (**in (2)] is identical in all the terms **

2.

which is what we had to prove.

. Then, we have:

By carrying out an obvious transformation on the basis of the results of **respectively, we obtain the required differentiation rule: **

4. In the equation

we know that the denominator is positive. Thus, it is necessary to show that the numerator is positive.

, we obtain:

, we have

2) It is not Hermitian.

, the condition

must be satisfied.

However, in our case, we have

i.e., condition (**1) does not hold. **

3) The operator which is the complex conjugate of a complex conjugate operator is equal to the latter (in other words, the operator is real).

Indeed,

Hence,

Denoting *ψ** by *φ*, we have

i.e.,

(The complex conjugate operator changes *i *to - *i*, while the operator which is its complex conjugate changes - *i *to *i*, which is one and the same thing.)

6. We write the required expansion in the form of a series

*n *are operators which must be determined.

Thus,

we obtain

By equating the coefficients of identical powers of *λ *in the left and right members of this equation, we obtain

whence,

Thus, we have

For the case where *A *and *B *are numbers, this expression becomes the usual series

7. By writing the Hamiltonian in the form

(*x*, *y*, *z*) along the same axis commute, i.e., that

= 0). The velocity operator is found from the Hamiltonian

by using the rule for differentiating operators with respect to time

The vector potential ** A is **a function of the coordinates (

*x*,

*y*,

*z*). By using commutation relations of the type

= rot ** A, **we find

These commutation relations can be represented symbolically in vector form

.

Indeed, on the one hand, the commutative property of operators is not, strictly speaking, a necessary condition for the corresponding quantities to have definite values at the same time. Thus, in motion in a centrally symmetric field, in states in which the square of the magnitude of the angular moment is equal to zero, all three components of the angular momentum have definite values simultaneously (zero), although no two of these operators ever commute with each other.

(first case) is not sufficient to prevent some of their eigenvalues from occurring simultaneously.

(second case), it is impossible, generally speaking, to conclude that the quality *B *has a definite value in the state Ψ*A*.

is sufficient only for the existence of a complete set of states with simultaneous definite values *A *and *B *(we denote the wave functions of these states by Ψ*AB*). It is not a sufficient condition for any arbitrarily selected wave function Ψ*A *to belong to the set of functions Ψ*AB*. This is connected with the phenomenon of degeneracy, in which a number of values of *B *correspond to a single value of *A*. Thus, in the general case, the wave function Ψ*A *will be a linear superposition of functions Ψ*AB *in the form

This reduces to Ψ*AB *only for a certain set of coefficients (*cB′ *= δ*B*′*. B*).

We give two simple examples:

1) When a system of particles moves in a centrally symmetric field, in a state where the square of the magnitude of the total angular momentum*M*² has a definite value, the component *Mz *may or may not have a definite value.

Indeed, all the values of *M*² ≠ 0 are degenerate, corresponding to different values of *Mz **x **y**z*). Therefore, Ψ*M*2 is a superposition

In particular, we can indicate states Ψ*M*2 in which we know that *Mz **z *². Instances of this are states with definite values of *Mx *or *My *(except the state *M*² = 0, where *Mx *= *My *= *Mz *=