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Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues

Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues

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Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues

467 pagine
7 ore
Jul 26, 2004


This book examines the economic, social and environmental impacts and issues associated with the development of sport tourism globally, including the lack of research and coordination between industry and government. The book suggests the need for a more balanced analysis of the impacts and issues associated with future sport tourism development.

Jul 26, 2004

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Sport Tourism - Channel View Publications


Preface and Acknowledgements

Despite the growth of attention devoted to sport tourism from reseachers, policy makers and providers, more research and study is required in this field. Daryl and I firmly believe that an interdisciplinary perspective is a key to enhance our understanding of this varied topic area. We believe that a better understanding of sport tourism can occur if inter or multi-disciplinary research occurs or if researchers apply or adapt theories, concepts or models from different disciplines to examine the interrelationships, impacts, and issues associated with sport tourism. This is illustrated by the variety of contributors to this book. Some are from the disciplines of anthropology, history, leisure studies, sport management and tourism management. Several of the authors apply concepts from other disciplines within their various chapters. We also believe that this kind of research can better equip university graduates who work in the sport tourism field, as well as providing more insights into complex problems like the development of sport tourism policy, planning and leveraging strategies. It is hoped that this book, in some small way, contributes to the development and increasing maturity of the field of sport tourism by promoting an interdisciplinary perspective to the understanding of sport tourism. It is particularly important that students, industry and government are aware of the impacts and issues associated with the development of sport tourism segments and consider some of the ways to more effectively plan and manage sport tourism for the benefit of the sport and tourism industry and local communities. We hope that this book has made some small contribution to understanding some of these impacts, issues and debates.

We would like to acknowledge the support and assistance of various individuals and organisations who have helped turn the idea of this book into reality. First, we would like to thank the book series editors, Chris Cooper, C. Michael Hall and Dallen Timothy, for providing the opportunity to write this book and for their constructive comments on the manuscript. Thanks should also go to the Tourism Program and the Centre for Sports Studies at the University of Canberra and the CRC for Sustainable Tourism who supported the hosting of the ‘Sport-Generated Tourism’ symposium in October 2000.

Brent and Daryl would also like to thank a number of people for their support and encouragement in completing the book. Thanks go to staff or former staff at the University of Canberra including Trevor Mules, Josette Wells, Niki Macionis, Brock Cambourne and Helen Ayres. University of Brighton colleagues and staff such as Paul Frost, Steven Goss-Turner, Nigel Jarvis, Graham Shephard, Peter Burns, Cathy Palmer, Thrine Hely, Jo-anne Lester, Harvey Ells and Chris Dutton have also been very supportive and encouraging.

A big thank you also goes out to all of the individual contributors who have written chapters from all parts of the globe. Thank you for your patience! We should also acknowledge the support of the publishing team at Channel View for their assistance and hospitality throughout this process. Finally, thanks to both our families and partners for their love and support.

Brent W. Ritchie,

Lindfield, West Sussex,


Daryl Adair,



Chapter 1

Sport Tourism: An Introduction

and Overview



The concept of sport-related tourism has become more prominent in the last few years as both an academic field of study and an increasingly popular tourism product (Gibson, 1998). This Chapter 1provides an introduction to the concept and practice of sport tourism. It also provides an overview of how the book explores the interrelationships, impacts and issues associated with sport tourism. However, in terms of the development of the field of sport tourism, readers are directed to the extensive analysis provided by Hinch and Higham (2003). In the present study, Chapter 1 begins by defining key terms such as sport, tourism and sport tourism before outlining various types of sport tourism that comprise a basis for various chapters within this book. The chapter notes the growing academic and industry interest in the field of sport tourism. It concludes by highlighting the main themes from specific chapters of the book and explains how readers might best use the book. To begin with, we outline a brief history of sport tourism, illustrating that the interrelationship between sport and tourism is not a new phenomenon.

Learning outcomes

On completion of this chapter readers should:

(1) Understand the increase in sport tourism and the growing attention of industry, government and research in this field.

(2) Be able to define and understand the concepts of sport, tourism and sport tourism.

(3) Be able to highlight the major segments of sport tourism including active, event and nostalgia sport tourism, as well as the capacity to provide specific examples of each.

(4) Understand how interdisciplinary research can advance the understanding of sport tourism as an academic sub-discipline and an industry sector.

Current Interest in Sport Tourism

Researchers have recognised that people have been travelling to participate or watch sport for centuries (see Delpy, 1998; Gibson, 1998). Today sport and tourism are among the ‘developed’ world's most sought after leisure experiences. Just as significantly, these popular social practices have also become very important economic activities. Recent research has indicated that the contribution sport makes to the gross domestic product (GDP) of industrialised nations is between 1–2%, while the contribution of tourism is between 4–6% (WTO, 2001). Research conducted on sport tourism has been undertaken at international and national levels by researchers, government and non-governmental organisations, thus illustrating the growing importance and recognition of sport tourism as an industry sector.

At the international level the World Tourism Organization (WTO, 2001) concluded that German tourists accounted for 32,000,000 sport-orientated trips a year, or 55% of all outbound travel, while 52% (7,000,000) of all trips made by Dutch tourists included a sport component. French tourists were less motivated by sport holidays, although 23% or 3.5,000,000 trips still included a sport component. Across the English Channel, the British Tourist Board and the English Tourism Council (formerly the English Tourism Board) claim that as many as 20% of tourist trips are directly related to sports participation, while 50% of holidays contain some form of incidental sports participation (DISR, 2000). However, this development is not simply a European trend. Research conducted in Canada during 1998 demonstrated that 37.3% of the 73,7000,000 domestic recreational journeys were undertaken for attendance at a sports event. In 1996 a Canadian Sports Tourism Initiative programme was developed to increase the tourism potential of sports events in Canada (Canada Tourism, 2000). Similarly, in South Africa, 4% of the domestic tourism market comprises sport tourism, and the potential to develop the international sport tourism market can be best seen by the recent inauguration of South Africa Sports Tourism (SAST). This is a joint initiative by the Ministry of Environmental Affairs and Tourism and the Ministry of Sport and Recreation in South Africa. In Australia, the Bureau of Tourism Research (2000) has shown that a total of 12,900,000 domestic trips were undertaken by residents to either participate in, watch, or organise a sporting event in Australia during 1999. However, they note that only 3,5000,000 trips were overnight trips compared with 9,400,000 day trips, this illustrating that some tourism benefits from sport are not commercially maximised, with many visitors not staying overnight in hotel accommodation or visiting additional tourist attractions before or after a sporting event.

It is no surprise that sport and tourism have both received interest from academics and industry practitioners over recent decades. Curiously, though, the links and relationships between sport and tourism have largely been overlooked by scholars. Indeed, the genre of ‘sport tourism’ (of sport generating tourism activity or tourism generating sporting activity) is a recent research development. Despite growing interest there is still the need for a better understanding of the nature, impacts and management issues concerning the different segments of sport tourism.

The Nature of Sport Tourism

Sport definitions

Even among ‘experts’ there is considerable controversy over efforts to define sport. Some critics insist that an all-embracing definition is impossible because sport is a socially constructed activity that has varied across historical eras, societies and cultures. Others hold that sport has specific and timeless characteristics, such as being goal-oriented, competitive and a forum for the creation of winners and losers (Goodman, 1976; Paddick, 1975; Rader 1979). The term ‘sport’ has been applied to numerous and different types of activities, but this eclecticism has been a sore point for some. Critics of bullfighting, for instance, contend that it is not a sport; among their arguments is the point that the bull is deliberately weakened for the spectacle, so it is not a ‘sporting contest’ at all (Marvin, 1986). Moreover, while some historians are comfortable with the term sport for gladiator fights in ancient Rome, others emphasise the inherent inequality between those contestants and the absence of consent to rules (Plass, 1995). On this score sport, like beauty, seems culturally relative and conceptually elusive.

Yet there is some common ground about the notion of sport among ‘western’ scholars. Jay Coakley's definition is a typical example of the attempt to classify sport. He cites four major factors:

Physical conditions

• Use of physical prowess, physical skill or physical exertion.

Complex physical skills

• Coordination, balance, quickness, or accuracy; speed, strength and endurance.

• Excludes non-physical activities such as chess and cards.

• Includes human use of equipment and machines, i.e. motor car racing.

Institutionalised and competitive

• Rules are standardised.

• Rule enforcement is overseen by official regulatory agencies.

• Organisation and technical aspects of the activity are important.

• Learning of playing skills becomes formalised.

Individual participation is motivated by a combination of intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors

• Intrinsic rewards through involvement (dynamics of the activity – play, fun, etc.)

• Extrinsic rewards through (salary, prize money, medals, fame).

• If the orientation tips toward intrinsic, the activity is more play like,

• If the orientation tips toward extrinsic the activity is more game like.

Coakley also provides a fairly typical working definition of organised sport: ‘Sport is an institutionalised competitive activity that involves vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex skills by individuals whose participation is motivated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors’ (Coakley, 2001: 8).

Historian Alan Guttmann, seeking to acknowledge the changing nature of sport, has attempted to pinpoint characteristics of modern, as compared with pre-modern, sporting activities (Guttmann, 1974). He identifies these seven features that, in his view, are necessary preconditions for a sport to be accepted as part of modern societies:

(1) Secularism (absence of the religious element from sport; i.e. not competing to ‘please the Gods’).

(2) Equality (participation open to all, with competitors facing the same set of competitive conditions).

(3) Specialisation (attuning athletic skills to specific positions and roles).

(4) Rationalisation (sports governed by specific rules, playing conditions, types of equipment, etc.).

(5) Bureaucratisation (sports competitions regulated by organisations, which contain hierarchies of power and responsibility).

(6) Quantification (predilection for precise measurement of athletic performance).

(7) Records (provide archive of performance achievements of athletes over time, under certain conditions, etc.).

Notwithstanding these definitions, it needs to be pointed that sporting activities may be either formal or recreational. The key, it is argued, is that there should be at least three persons (two taking part and a third to act as referee or judge), and they must be engaged in competition to establish a winner (Coakley, 2001). Over and above that, modern sport is generally considered to be highly organised and structured, with contests taking place at common times and places, and records kept of performances. This view may, however, be unnecessarily rigid – particularly in terms of recreational sporting activities. Two people can play a game of tennis informally without the need for an umpire, and can easily keep score. Moreover, golf can be played by counting strokes or, it seems, without counting at all. Purists may contend that such practices deviate and distort the ‘true’ meaning of sport. But it defies common sense for an observer to conclude that the aforementioned activities, though ad hoc and semiserious, are not a form of sport. They are, arguably, sport-as-play, whereas tightly structured and goal-oriented tennis matches and golf tournaments are sport-as-competition (Gruneau, 1980). In terms of sport tourism, sport-as-play is normally associated with active tourist behaviour (taking part in sport), while sport-as-competition is usually associated with passive tourist behaviour (witnessing sport) – though in the latter case sports tourists can also be competitors, such as with young tennis players following the satellite circuit in Europe, playing to win but sight-seeing between matches. We might conclude, therefore, that both sport-as-competition and sport-as-play are legitimate ways of conceptualising the physical activities we take for granted as ‘sport’. Crone, none the less, reminds us that there are key aspects to competitive sport that mark it as different to playful sporting activity:

(1) the degree of emphasis on winning;

(2) the degree of emphasis on extrinsic rewards (e.g. money, power, and prestige);

(3) the amount of bureaucratization (Crone 1999).

Sport has, of course, long been part of the educational curriculum, though now associated more than ever with the health and life sciences. More noticeable, of course, is how elite-level sport has been influenced by commercialisation and professionalism – so much so that the amateur ideals once taught in school sports appear somewhat irrelevant. Sport is consumed widely – by patrons at stadia, viewers in front of television, listeners within earshot of radio, readers of newspapers and magazines. It is also, now more than ever, a tourism product – as this book goes on to attest.

Tourism Definitions

The growth of tourism has been fuelled by general improvements in leisure time combined by increased discretionary income for many people. This has helped to fuel a desire to escape from work routine and engage in holidays, whether domestically or internationally. Definitions of tourism vary with respect to whether the term is applied from a supply side (industry) perspective or a demand side (consumer) perspective. As Smith (1988: 181) has noted, ‘there are many different legitimate definitions of tourism that serve many different, legitimate needs’. Moreover, many of the tourism definitions vary due to organisations or individuals trying to define their own motives for tourism activities and opportunities. However, there is common ground covered by many of the definitions.

An early definition of tourism stated that a minimum of a 24-hour stay at a site was required for an individual to be considered a ‘tourist’. However, this has been modified to an overnight stay which, according to Weaver and Oppermann (2000: 28) ‘is a significant improvement over the former criterion of a 24-hour stay, which proved to be both arbitrary and extremely difficult to apply’. If a person's trip does not incorporate at least one overnight stay, then the term excursionist is usually applied (Weaver & Oppermann, 2000). This definition can be applied to both international and domestic travellers. For example, international stayovers (or tourists) are those who stay in a destination outside their usual country of residence for at least one night, while international excursionists (or same-day visitors) are those who stay in an international location without residing overnight. Furthermore, a domestic stayover (or tourist) is someone who stays overnight in a destination that is within their own country of residence but outside of their usual home environment (usually specified by a distance of some kind). Domestic excursionists (or same day visitors) undertake a similar trip but do not stay overnight.

Smith (1988) believes that it is difficult to determine the precise magnitude of the tourism industry due to an absence of an accepted operational definition of tourism. Nevertheless, the tourism industry has been defined in principle as a sector that ‘encompasses all activities which supply, directly or indirectly, goods and services purchased by tourists’ (Hollander et al., 1982: 2). Hall (1995: 9) believes that three factors tend to emerge when examining various definitions about the tourism industry:

• the tourism industry is regarded as essentially a service industry;

• the inclusion of business, pleasure, and leisure activities emphasises ‘the nature of the goods a traveller requires to make the trip more successful, easier, or enjoyable’ (Smith 1988: 183); and,

• the notion of a ‘home environment’, refers to the arbitrary delineation of a distance threshold or period of overnight stay.

However, McIntosh et al. (1995: 10) take a more systems based approach when defining tourism as ‘the sum of phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments, and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors’. This definition includes the potential impacts that tourists may have upon the host community, which until recently was a neglected component of the definition process.

The above discussion illustrates that there are many different components to defining tourism, which range from tourists themselves, the tourism industry and even the host community or destination. A number of authors therefore view tourism as an integrated system of components (Gunn, 1988; Leiper, 1989; Mathieson & Wall, 1982; Mill & Morrison, 1985; Murphy, 1985; Pearce, 1989) that generally contain a number of interrelated factors:

• a demand side consisting of the tourist market and their characteristics (motives, perceptions, socio-demographics);

• a supply side consisting of the tourism industry (transport, attractions, services, information) which combine to form a tourist destination area;

• a tourism impact side whereby the consequences of tourism can have either direct or indirect positive and negative impacts upon a destination area and tourists themselves;

• an origin-destination approach that illustrates the interdependence of generating and receiving destinations and transit destinations (on route) and their demand, supply and impacts.

According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO, 1999) tourism is predicted to increase with future tourist arrivals growing to 1.6 billion by the year 2020 at an average growth rate of 4.3%. Despite the effect of external variables, such as the Asian Economic Crisis in the late 1990s and the 11 September incident in 2001, tourism growth appears to be assured. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC, 2001) tourism currently generates 6% of global gross national product (GNP) and employs 1 in 15 workers worldwide. It is predicted that by 2011 it will directly and indirectly support one in 11.2 workers and contribute 9% of gross national product worldwide (WTTC, 2001).

Sport tourism definitions and segments

Alongside the rising academic attention devoted toward sport and tourism has appeared a growing interest in the interrelationships between two of the most conspicuous aspects of sport-related tourist activity. Sport tourism includes travel to participate in a passive (e.g. sports events and sports museums) sport holiday or and active sport holiday (e.g. scuba diving, cycling, golf), and it may involve instances where either sport or tourism are the dominant activity or reason for travel. Standevan and De Knop (1999: 12) therefore define sport tourism as ‘all forms of active and passive involvement in sporting activity, participated in casually or in an organised way for non-commercial or business/commercial reasons that necessitate travel away from home and work locality’.

Gammon and Robinson (1997) have a similar approach to defining ‘sport tourists’, though they prefer to classify them as either ‘hard’ or ‘soft’ participants. A ‘hard’ sport tourist is a person who travels for either active or passive involvement in competitive sport, hence their prime motivation for travel is sport. The ‘soft’ sport tourist is someone who is primarily involved in recreation or leisure moreso than competitive activity (Gammon & Robinson, 1997: 3). Kurtzman (2000) increases the complexity of sport tourism by suggesting that there are five main sport tourism categories (or supply side elements of sport tourism). Among them we find activities as diverse as:

• sport tourism attractions;

• sport tourism resorts;

• sport tourism cruises;

• sport tourism tours;

• sport events tourism;

• sport adventure tourism (see Table 1.1).

Additionally, Pitts (1999: 31) believes that from a sport marketing and management perspective, sport tourism consists of two broad product categories:

• sports participation travel (travel for the purpose of participating in a sports, recreation, leisure or fitness activity); and,

• sports spectatorial travel (travel for the purpose of watching sports, recreation, leisure or fitness activities and events).

However, Gibson (2002) suggest three categories of research in the field, including:

• active sport tourism;

• event sport tourism; and

• nostalgia sport tourism.

Many of these sport tourism categories are covered by the various chapters of this book. The remaining part of the introductory section will now consider key issues associated with active, event and nostalgia sport tourism, and will outline where specific chapters in this book examine these three main categories of sport tourism.

Active sport tourism

Active sport tourism consists of several activities, including:

• skiing (see Gilbert & Hudson 2000; Hudson 2000);

• bicycle touring (Ritchie, 1998; Ritchie & Hall, 1999);

• adventure tourism (Fluker & Turner, 2000); and,

• active participation events, such as Masters Games (Ritchie, 1996) or other sporting tournaments (Green & Chalip, 1998).

According to Standeven and De Knop (1999) this segment of the travelling population comprises approximately 10–30% of the total market. The WTO (2001) noted that favourite physical activities on active holidays ranged from skiing and snowboarding in winter, to hiking, mountaineering, climbing, water sports (scuba diving, snorkelling, swimming) and cycling in summer. Active sport tourism overlaps with Pitt's (1999) concept of sports participation travel, and also elements of Gammon and Robinson's (1997) active components of ‘hard’ sport tourism and ‘soft’ sport tourism (cycle touring and skiing in a non-competitive way). Furthermore, the settings in which active sport tourism can take place include attractions (such as indoor summer ski arenas), resorts (for skiing, golf and fitness activities), cruises (for snorkelling and sports facilities) and adventure tourism (such as hiking and snowboarding).

Some critics have questioned whether recreational or adventure tourism activities are actually ‘sport’, and whether non-competitive physical activities or informal sport really constitute sport tourism. This book accepts a broad definition of sport tourism to include and embrace both active and informal sport tourism. Active sport tourism is covered in the chapters concerning winter sport tourism in North America by Hudson (Chapter 4), adventure tourism in the French Alps by Bourdeau et al. (Chapter 5) and golf tourism in the developing world (Chapter 6).

Table 1.1 Sport tourism: The breadth of sport tourism categories and activities

Event sport tourism

Event sport tourism has provided the vast majority of research and scholarship in the field of sport tourism. Higham and Hinch (2002) note that the majority of research conducted in the field of sport tourism examines sport events tourism (or event sport tourism) and within this category mainly large scale ‘mega’ or ‘hallmark’ events such as the Olympic Games and other major sporting tournaments. Higham (1999) notes that small-scale events can be just as important for developing the national or regional sport tourism industry, as well as providing marketing and economic development to small destination areas or regions. Ritchie, in Chapter 7, notes a lack of research in the field of smallscale sport events and discusses the potential of such events as sport tourism products. Ritchie focuses on rugby union and illustrates the potential, and untapped potential, of local event sport tourism through the case of Super 12 Rugby Union in Canberra, Australia.

Questions have been posed by authors such as Hall (1992), Hiller (1998) and Olds (1998) about who actually benefits from the development of large sporting events. Some of these questions are considered and addressed by Hall in Chapter 10 concerning sport tourism and regeneration, whereas Chalip in Chapter 12 goes beyond the traditional discussion of the economic impacts of sporting events and suggests the concept of ‘leveraging’ as an area of consideration for practitioners and researchers. Chalip believes that leveraging strategies can be used by sport event organisers and destinations to maximise the benefits of event sport tourism at national, regional and local levels. Chalip provides specific insights and strategies for sport tourism managers and planners with the aim to fully leverage the economic and commercial benefits of sport event tourism.

Little research has been conducted about the social impacts of sport tourism, and in particular crime as an element of event sport tourism. Barker, in Chapter 9, provides a unique insight into crime at a ‘hallmark’ sporting event – the 1999/2000 America's Cup in New Zealand. Furthermore, Fredline in Chapter 8 discusses the importance of learning and understanding host community attitudes toward the staging of sporting events – in this case why residents either support or oppose the development of a motorsport event. Fedline's research highlights that the application of theory and literature relating to the social impacts of tourism can provide valuable insights into the attitudes of those affected by event and sport tourism. This, in turn, can have practical significance as organisers and government endeavour to balance the needs of sports competitors, sports fans, and local residents. Quality of event is therefore related to issues about quality of life and the rights of various stakeholders.

From a management perspective, few studies have been conducted on crisis management within event sport tourism, despite the susceptibility of both sport and tourism to external crises and disasters. Chapter 11 by Miller and Ritchie examines the impact of the foot and mouth outbreak in the UK on event sport tourism, with the authors concluding that destinations should not simply reply on sporting events to bolster their income. External factors, such as unforeseen crises or disasters, can have a major impact upon the staging of particular sporting events, and therefore elements of the tourism industry itself. Just as significantly, while crises may not be predictable, the skills and resources to implement crisis management strategies can reduce the severity of their impacts.

Nostalgia sport tourism

Both Gibson (2002) and Gammon (2002) consider nostalgia sport tourism as a separate category of sport tourism. Yet thus far it has received less scholarly attention than other categories of sport tourism. Examples of nostalgia sport tourism cut across the various sport tourism categories to include:

• sport halls of fame and museums;

• sport tourism tours to famous sporting stadia or facilities (such as Twickenham for rugby union, Lords for cricket); and,

• sport theme vacations on cruise ships or at resorts with sporting professionals (sometimes referred to as fantasy camps. See Gammon 2001 for a discussion of this concept).

Here concepts of worship, heritage, pilgrimage and even religion may be associated with the sporting fanship that motivates tourists to visit such destinations and attractions. Research in this particular field of sport tourism is limited, apart from a small number of pathbreaking studies (see in particular Bale, 1988; Redmond 1988; Synder, 1991). Gibson (2002) notes that broader development of literature and theory in the sport and tourism field can improve our understanding of nostalgia sport tourism: it is a topic suitable for anthropologists, sociologists and historians alike. Once again this illustrates possibilities for multidisciplinary research in the field of sport tourism.

This book consists of two chapters that explore the concept of nostalgia sport tourism. Gammon, in Chapter 2, presents an interesting case, drawing on tourism attractions, nostalgia and religious tourism, likening travel to sport tourism attractions as a secular form of pilgrimage. Adair, in Chapter 3, also discusses sport tourism attractions but focuses specifically on the Olympic Museum in Lausanne. His chapter argues that the museum is as much about image-building as entertainment or education: celebratory displays of historical artifacts and art works convey a triumphal sense of progress at the very time the Olympic Games have abandoned their nineteenth-century idealist roots – becoming highly commercialised and accepting of professionalism. Adair contends that the museum serves a twofold ideological purpose, which at first appears contradictory. It presents nostalgic images of an arcadian Olympic past while, concurrently, venerating a brave new world of Olympic capitalism.

Improved Understanding of Sport Tourism

To date, there is precious little literature that analyses specific links between sport and tourism, as well as the socio-economic impacts and management issues related to tourism and sport. However, an emerging scholarly interest in sport tourism reflects, to some degree, a growing awareness within the leisure industry that sport and tourism products have complementary features (Gibson, 1998).

However, as Gibson (1998: 65) notes in her review of the literature of sport tourism: ‘there is a lack of integration in three domains: (1) policy development and implementation… (2) in academe, a lack of interdisciplinary research… (3) in the education of future sport tourism professionals’. This lack of integration between sport and tourism policy makers, the sport and tourism industry, as well as sport and tourism researchers and educators is discussed in what follows.

Policy development and implementation

Better integration between the two policy arenas and industry are crucial if the development of sport tourism is to be more effective and efficient, and benefits for both industry sectors are maximised. Several authors note the need for integration between the two domains, and for greater cooperation between sport and tourism providers (Glyptis, 1991; Gibson, 2002; Ritchie & Adair, 2002; Weed, 1999). Swart (1998) notes that despite the desire for South Africa to develop sport tourism as a key component of its tourism strategy, little planning, coordination and financial investment has taken place to assist its development.

Gibson (2002) points to a greater amount of government-funded research into sport tourism (some of which was discussed in the previous section). The development of sports commissions and organisations to attract sporting events has taken place in many Western countries, but a lack of coordination still exists between sport and tourism bodies at national, regional and local levels. In part, this is because the role of sports organisers is to promote and develop their sport, not tourism per se. Similarly, tourism agencies and the industry often overlook sport as an important contributor to destination attractiveness and a key reason for tourist visitation.

The linkages between sport tourism and other sectors of tourism such as heritage, culture, arts are often ignored by agencies or tourism authorities (Beresford, 1999). In Australia, the national government Department of Industry, Science and Resources has produced a national sport tourism strategy, in which they note coordination and policy development as essential elements in improving sport tourism around Australia. They suggest the development of clusters at a regional level may be useful to bring together sport and tourism agencies and organisations to work together collaboratively to package, market and develop sport tourism at a regional level.

Ritchie, in Chapter 7, notes that in the case of Canberra in Australia, sport providers in rugby union could be working more closely with local tourism authorities and industry to leverage

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