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General Relativity 2: Spacetime Curvature

General Relativity 2: Spacetime Curvature

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General Relativity 2: Spacetime Curvature

2/5 (1 valutazione)
55 pagine
44 minuti
Nov 26, 2013


This book continues our exploration of the most profound theory of science, Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.

We examine more carefully the properties of spacetime, the unity of space and time.

We explore the major features of curvature, how to measure it, and how to reduce its complexity to finding distances between nearby points.

We find a simple expression, 2M/r, which proves remarkably helpful as we explore the Schwarzchild metric, black holes, time dilation, and the expansion of the universe.

Nov 26, 2013

Informazioni sull'autore

Dr Robert Piccioni is a physicist, public speaker, educator and expert on cosmology and Einstein's theories. His "Everyone's Guide Series" e-books makes the frontiers of science accessible to all. With short books focused on specific topics, readers can easily mix and match, satisfying their individual interests. Each self-contained book tells its own story. The Series may be read in any order or combination. Robert has a B.S. in Physics from Caltech, a Ph.D. in High Energy Physics from Stanford University, was a faculty member at Harvard University and did research at the Stanford Linear Accelerator in Palo Alto, Calif. He has studied with and done research with numerous Nobel Laureates. At Caltech, one of his professors was Richard Feynman, one of the most famous physicists of the 20th century, and a good family friend. Dr. Piccioni has introduced cutting-edge science to numerous non-scientific audiences, including school children and civic groups. He was guest lecturer on a National Geographic/Lindblad cruise, and has given invited talks at Harvard, Caltech, UCLA, and Stanford University.

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General Relativity 2 - Robert Piccioni


Chapter 1


Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity exposed the underlying unity between space and time.

Newton viewed space and time as unrelated, unchanging, absolute, universal reference standards. The motion and evolution of objects and energy were measured relative to those unchanging standards. Any competent person who measured the length of a yardstick or the duration of a day would get the one and only right answer.

Einstein said all of that was wrong. He said space and time are continually changing and are relative — different for different observers. The length of a yardstick and duration of a day has no single right answer. Each observer’s measurements are correct in their own reference frame, while being different from those of other observers. Furthermore, Einstein said space and time are intimately related, two different aspects of one combined entity: spacetime. Furthermore, what one observer measured as a time difference between two events, another might measure as a difference of location.

In Newton’s vision, space and time are like a Shakespearean stage. They provide unchanging references for the positions and pace of a cosmic drama played out by the actors — mass and energy.

In Einstein’s vision, spacetime is like Cirque du Soleil’s stage. Spacetime continually changes, controlling actors’ motions, and playing an essential role in the cosmic drama. He showed that the laws of nature are best expressed in 4-dimensional

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