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# General Relativity 2: Spacetime Curvature

## Descrizione

This book continues our exploration of the most profound theory of science, Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.

We examine more carefully the properties of spacetime, the unity of space and time.

We explore the major features of curvature, how to measure it, and how to reduce its complexity to finding distances between nearby points.

We find a simple expression, 2M/r, which proves remarkably helpful as we explore the Schwarzchild metric, black holes, time dilation, and the expansion of the universe.

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### General Relativity 2 - Robert Piccioni

text.

*Chapter 1 *

*Chapter 1*

### Spacetime

Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity exposed the underlying unity between space and time.

Newton viewed space and time as unrelated, unchanging, absolute, universal reference standards. The motion and evolution of objects and energy were measured relative to those unchanging standards. Any competent person who measured the length of a yardstick or the duration of a day would get the one and only right

answer.

Einstein said all of that was wrong. He said space and time are continually changing and are relative — different for different observers. The length of a yardstick and duration of a day has no single right

answer. Each observer’s measurements are correct in their own reference frame, while being different from those of other observers. Furthermore, Einstein said space and time are intimately related, two different aspects of one combined entity: *spacetime*. Furthermore, what one observer measured as a time difference between two events, another might measure as a difference of location.

In Newton’s vision, space and time are like a Shakespearean stage. They provide unchanging references for the positions and pace of a cosmic drama played out by the actors — mass and energy.

In Einstein’s vision, spacetime is like Cirque du Soleil’s stage. Spacetime continually changes, controlling actors’ motions, and playing an essential role in the cosmic drama. He showed that the laws of nature are best expressed in 4-dimensional