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A Simple Guide to Sleep Disorders

A Simple Guide to Sleep Disorders

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A Simple Guide to Sleep Disorders

5/5 (1 valutazione)
33 pagine
16 minuti
Nov 12, 2012


Sleep is something which every one of us need.

It helps to rest the mind and allows the body to rest and rejuvenate itself.

Sleep is described as a state of consciousness or dynamic activity which gives the body time to rest and build up strength while the brains continue to work.

Sleep has four phases.

During the first stage N1, sleep is light and a person can be easily awakened.

At this stage, the muscle activity and eyes move very slowly.

Alpha waves of 8-13 Hz (awake stage) begin to change to the theta waves of 4-7 Hz on the EEG.

Often when a person is awakened, sudden muscle contractions occur as if you are falling off the bed.

At stage 2 or N2, eye movements stop and brain waves become slower with intermittent burst of rapid waves known as “sleep spindles”.

Muscle activity as measured by EMG decreases, and conscious awareness of the external environment disappears.

This stage occupies 45–55% of total sleep in adults.

In stage 3 or N3, delta waves of 0.5 to 2 Hz start to appear.

These are extremely slow brain waves interspersed with smaller, faster waves.

They can be described as slow wave type of sleep.

Sleep at stages 3 is considered deep sleep where there is no more eye movement or muscle activity.

It is difficult to wake up some one who is in stage 3.

People who are awakened during deep sleep experience temporary disorientation.

It is also during deep sleep stage that children experience bedwetting, night terrors, or sleepwalking.

REM sleep is the last stage where breathing becomes faster, shallow and irregular.

The eyes jerk rapidly in different directions with the limb muscles getting paralyzed for a short period of time.

During this stage, the heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, and penile erections occur among men.

Dreams are experienced during REM sleep stage.

These stages repeat in a cycle.

A complete sleep cycle takes about 90 to 110 minutes on average.

The first sleep cycle each night is characterized by short REM periods and long periods of deep sleep.

But as the night goes by, REM sleep periods become longer while deep sleep periods get shorter.

In the morning, people spend their sleep time in stages 1, 2, and REM sleep stages.

According to research, people spend 50% of their sleep time in stage 2 sleep, about 20% in REM sleep, and 30% in other sleep stages.

In comparison, infants spend half of their sleep time in REM sleep.

Sleep and being awake are affected by different neurotransmitter signals in the brain.

When food and medicine change the balance of these signals, a person begins to feel alert or sluggish.

It also affects the way a person sleeps.

Coffee and other caffeinated drinks as well as weight loss diet pills can cause insomnia by stimulating some parts of the brain.

Others resort to alcohol which only leads to light sleep, but deprive them of REM and deeper, more restorative stages of sleep.

Researchers at the Warwick and London have found that insufficient sleep can more than double the risk of death from cardiovascular disease but also that too much sleep can also be associated with a doubling of the risk of death, though not from cardiovascular disease


Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3
Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Chapter 4

Nov 12, 2012

Informazioni sull'autore

Medical doctor since 1972.Started Kee Clinic in 1974 at 15 Holland Dr #03-102, relocated to 36 Holland Dr #01-10 in 2009.Did my M.Sc (Health Management ) in 1991 and Ph.D (Healthcare Administration) in 1993.Dr Kenneth Kee is still working as a family doctor at the age of 70.However he has reduced his consultation hours to 3 hours in the morning and 2 hours inthe afternoon.He first started writing free blogs on medical disorders seen in the clinic in 2007 on purpose in writing these simple guides was for the health education of his patients which is also his dissertation for his Ph.D (Healthcare Administration). He then wrote an autobiography account of his journey as a medical student to family doctor on his other blog http://afamilydoctorstale.blogspot.comThis autobiography account “A Family Doctor’s Tale” was combined with his early “A Simple Guide to Medical Disorders” into a new Wordpress Blog “A Family Doctor’s Tale” on which many free articles from the blog was taken and put together into 1000 eBooks.He apologized for typos and spelling mistakes in his earlier books.He will endeavor to improve the writing in futures.Some people have complained that the simple guides are too simple.For their information they are made simple in order to educate the patients.The later books go into more details of medical disorders.He has published 1000 eBooks on various subjects on health, 1 autobiography of his medical journey, another on the autobiography of a Cancer survivor, 2 children stories and one how to study for his nephew and grand-daughter.The purpose of these simple guides is to educate patient on health disorders and not meant as textbooks.He does not do any night duty since 2000 ever since Dr Tan had his second stroke.His clinic is now relocated to the Buona Vista Community Centre.The 2 units of his original clinic are being demolished to make way for a new Shopping Mall.He is now doing some blogging and internet surfing (bulletin boards since the 1980's) startingwith the Apple computer and going to PC.The entire PC is upgraded by himself from XT to the present Pentium duo core.The present Intel i7 CPU is out of reach at the moment because the CPU is still expensive.He is also into DIY changing his own toilet cistern and other electric appliance.His hunger for knowledge has not abated and he is a lifelong learner.The children have all grown up and there are 2 grandchildren who are even more technically advanced than the grandfather where mobile phones are concerned.This book is taken from some of the many articles in his blog (now with 740 posts) A Family Doctor’s Tale.Dr Kee is the author of:"A Family Doctor's Tale""Life Lessons Learned From The Study And Practice Of Medicine""Case Notes From A Family Doctor"

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A Simple Guide to Sleep Disorders - Kenneth Kee








Dr Kenneth Kee

M.B.,B.S. (Singapore)

Ph.D (Healthcare Administration)

Copyright Kenneth Kee 2012 Smashwords Edition

Published By Kenneth Kee at


This book is dedicated

to my wife Dorothy

and my children

Carolyn, Grace

and Kelvin

This book describes the Sleep Disorders such as Insomnia, Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring which are seen in some of my patients in my Family Clinic.

This eBook is licensed for your personal enjoyment only. This eBook may not be re-sold or given away to other people. If you would like to share this book with another person, please purchase an additional copy for each reader.

If you’re reading this book and did not purchase it, or it was not purchased for your use only, then please return to and purchase your own copy.

Thank you for respecting the hard work of this author.

Chapter 1


What is Sleep?

Sleep is something which every one

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