In this era of GPS satellites and smartphone apps, it’s easy to forget about the navigational technology that preceded these modern conveniences. Early magnetic compasses first saw use in the 11th century, but these were only temporarily magnetized using a lodestone and were far too large to be considered portable. The pocket-sized, liquid-filled, mass-produced compasses we know today have been around for less than 100 years.

So, how did our forefathers figure out where they were going in the days before GPS and reliable magnetic compasses? They used celestial navigation — techniques for determining position based on the location of the sun, moon, planets, and stars.

You may think that these techniques are obsolete today, but every prepared individual knows that it’s wise to develop knowledge of alternative navigation methods in case Plan A (or B, or C) isn’t an option. In a SHTF scenario, celestial navigation can be a very

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