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DISTILLATION

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

Distillation is defined as:

  • a process in which a liquid or vapour mixture of two or more substances is separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat.

  • Distillation is based on the fact that the vapour of a boiling mixture will be richer in the components that have lower boiling points.

  • Therefore, when this vapour is cooled and condensed, the condensate will contain more volatile components. At the same time, the original mixture will contain

more of the less volatile material.

  • Distillation columns are designed to achieve this separation efficiently.

Although many people have a fair idea what

"distillation” means, the important aspects that

seem to be missed from the manufacturing point of view are that:

  • distillation is the most common separation technique

  • it consumes enormous amounts of energy, both in terms of cooling and heating requirements

  • it can contribute to more than 50% of plant operating costs

  • The best way to reduce operating costs of existing units, is to improve their efficiency and operation via process optimization and control. To achieve this improvement, a thorough

understanding of distillation principles and how

distillation systems are designed is essential.

HISTORY

HISTORY
HISTORY

History and Taxonomy of

Distilled Spirits

  • For nearly 3,000 years people have been making potent spirits for medicinal and

recreational purposes. In recent history, worldwide distribution has made it possible for

us to taste beverages from around the world.

What follows is a surface-level overview of the evolution and classification these products.

PROCESESS

How to make distilled water

  • Distilled water is very easy to make, and there

are several methods used to make it at home.

When you remove the minerals and chemicals from the water, you make distilled water.

People make distilled water for a variety of

uses, including drinking, watering plants and

filling humidifiers, steam irons and even fish

tanks and aquariums.

  • 1

  • Fill a 5-gallon (18.927 L) stainless steel pot about halfway full with tap water.

 1  Fill a 5-gallon (18 .927 L) stainless steel pot about halfway full with

Fill a 5- gallon

  • Place a glass bowl in the water. Be sure it floats. The bowl should not touch the bottom of

the pot.

 Place a glass bowl in the water . Be sure it floats. The bowl should

If the bowl doesn't float, remove

it from the water and set a round

baking rack on the bottom of the pot. Then place the bowl back in

the water

Place a glass bowl in the

water

  • Watch the water collecting in the bowl. This water should be hot but should not boil. If the water begins to boil, turn down the heat on the stove.

Watch the

water collecting in the bowl.

 Watch the water collecting in the bowl . This water should be hot but should
  • Create a condensation effect with a hot/cold barrier. You can do this by inverting the pot's lid and filling it with ice. When hot steam hits the cold lid, it will create condensation.

 Create a condensation effect with a hot/cold barrier . You can do this by inverting

Create a

condensation effect

with a hot/cold

barrier.

  • Boil the water in your pot. As the water continues to boil, it will cause steam to rise

and condense on the pot's lid. The condensation will drip into the bowl. Allow the

distillation process to continue until you have

enough distilled water in the bowl for your

needs.
needs.

Boil the water in your pot.

  • Remove your pot from the heat and take off the lid.

 Remove your pot from the heat and take off the lid . Remove your pot

Remove your pot from the heat and take off the lid.

  • Take the bowl of distilled water out of the pot of boiling water. Use caution when doing this so you do not burn yourself. You can allow the water to cool before removing the bowl, if you prefer.

 Take the bowl of distilled water out of the pot of boiling water . Use

Take the bowl of distilled

water out of the pot of boiling water.

  • Allow the distilled water to cool before storing it.

 Allow the distilled water to cool before storing it . Allow the distilled water to

Allow the distilled water to cool before storing it.

The Distillation Process

  • The basic distillation procedure is the same

regardless of the spirit. Alcohol is not "created"

by distillation, just concentrated. A weak alcoholic beverage such as wine or beer is

heated to boiling in a still (see illustrations below). Since the various constituents of the resulting vapor (like water, ethyl, methyl, and isopropyl alcohols) will vaporize and condense

at different temperatures, they may be

selectively extracted to create a new mixture which may then be further aged and/or flavored by the distiller.

The column still.

The plates in each column are hottest at the bottom and coolest at the top. Liquids with low boiling points are concentrated in the vapor that leaves the first column and rises in the second. As is the case with

the pot still, the impurities

are recycled to extract their fraction of desirable ingredients.

The column still. The plates in each column are hottest at the bottom and coolest at
Pot distillation. The container at center receives both the distillate from the first pot, which must
Pot distillation.
The container
at center
receives both
the distillate
from the first
pot, which must
be further
purified, and
the undesirable
portions--the
foreshots and
feints--of the
second
distillation,
more of whose
alcohol can
thereby be
extracted.
Pot distillation. The container at center receives both the distillate from the first pot, which must

Picture’s