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Motivation defined

Motivation is a psychological process that causes the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed.

Need, Drive


Motivation is internal. A single motive can lead to many. Different motives may result in a single behaviour. Motives come and go. Motives interact with the evironment.

Motivation is the psychological process

that leads to

Choice of behavior

that results in

Some level of job performance

The Motivation-Behavior-Job Performance Sequence

Needs or expectations

Result in

Drive force (Behavior or Action)

To Achieve

Desired Goals


Which Provides

Need theories
Expectancy theory Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory E.R.G. Theory McClellands Achievement Motivation Theory Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs



Belongingness and love



Five groups of basic needs Healthy adults try to satisfy these needs So basic that they motivate behavior in many cultures

Physiological needs: basic requirements of the human body; food, water, sleep, sex Safety needs: desires of a person to be protected from physical and economic harm Belongingness and love needs (social): desire to give and receive affection; be in the company of others

Esteem needs: self-confidence and sense of self-worth

Esteem from others: valuation of self from other people Self-esteem: feeling of self-confidence and selfrespect

Self-actualization needs: desire for selffulfillment

Maslow: . . . the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.

Douglas McGregor 1906-1964 Theory X & Y

Theory X Assumptions

Dislike work will avoid it Theory Y Assumptions Must be coerced, controlled, Do not dislike work directed, or threatened with Self direction and self punishment control Prefer direction, avoid Seek responsibility responsibility, little Imagination, creativity ambition, want security

widely distributed Intellectual potential only partially utilized

Theory X Manager: A manager who believes that people are basically lazy and that coercion and threats of punishment often are necessary to get them to work. Theory Y Manager: A manager who believes that under the right conditions people will work hard and will seek increased responsibility and challenge.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Long-Term Employment Collective Decision-making Individual Responsibility Slow Evaluation/ Promotion Implicit Informal Control with Explicit, Formalized Control Specialized Career Path Holistic Concern for Employees

6. 7.

Theory Z Manager: A manager who believes that workers seek opportunities to participate in management and are motivated by teamwork and responsibility sharing.
Combination of Theory Y and Japanese management techniques Emphasizes mutual commitment between the organization and the employee Theory developed by William Ouchi

Alderfers ERG Theory

SA Esteem
Love (Social)


Safety & Security



A variation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs Three groups of needs

Existence needs: physical and material wants Relatedness needs: desires for interpersonal relationships Growth needs: desires to be creative and productive; to use ones skills

Both similar to and different from Maslow's need hierarchy Satisfied and unsatisfied needs operate in much the same way Movement upward is the same Movement downward is new

Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created y different factors. Hygiene factors- Extrinsic ( Environmental ) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Motivation Factors- Intrinsic ( Psychological ) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but rather no satisfaction.

MotivationHygiene Theory of Motivation

Company policy & administration Supervision Interpersonal relations Working conditions Salary Status Security

Motivation factors increase job satisfaction

Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth

Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction


McClelland and colleagues studied the behavioral effects of three needs

Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation

Emphasized the Need for Achievement, although they investigated all three needs

McClellands Need Theory: Need for Achievement

Need for Achievement The desire to excel and succeed

McClellands Need Theory: Need for Power

Need for Power
The need to influence the behavior of others.

McClellands Need Theory: Need for Affiliation

Need for Affiliation
The desire for interpersonal relationship

Vrooms Expectancy Theory Concepts

Expectancy: Belief that effort leads to a specific
level of performance

Instrumentality: A performance outcome


Valence: The Value of a reward or outcome

If performance results in equitable and fair rewards, people will be more satisfied. High performance can lead to rewards and high satisfaction.

Types of rewards:
Extrinsic rewards are outcomes set and awarded by external parties (e.g., pay and promotions). Intrinsic rewards are outcomes internal to the individual (e.g., selfesteem and feelings of accomplishment).

Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory

Determine the outcomes employees value. Identify good performance so appropriate behaviors can be rewarded. Make sure employees can achieve targeted performance levels. Link desired outcomes to targeted levels of performance. Make sure changes in outcomes are large enough to motivate high effort. Monitor the reward system for inequities.

Organizational Implications of Expectancy Theory

Reward people for desired performance, and do not keep pay decisions secret. Design challenging jobs. Tie some rewards to group accomplishments to build teamwork and encourage cooperation. Reward managers for creating, monitoring, and maintaining expectancies, instrumentalities, and oucomes that lead to high effort and goal attainment. Monitor employee motivation through interviews or anonymous questionnaires. Accommodate individual differences by building flexibility into the motivation program.

Utilitarian analysis
Total effects of the manager's efforts Do they produce a widespread net positive benefit for the organization?

Rights and justice analysis: Employees' rights to know their managers intent

Ethical egoism
It is right for a manager to affect behavior because it meets the manager's interests Interests include units work performance and the manager's career