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Academic Writing Formalities

ENGLCOM V28 Austria|Tan|Mendiola|Duana|Tanaka|Tabing June 21, 2012

What will be tackled in this presentation

1. Formalities in Academic Language 2. Fragments 3. Run-On Sentences 4. Active Verbs 5. Passive and Active Comparison

Prepped by Claudine Mendiola


Fragments are incomplete sentences. Usually, fragments are pieces of sentences that have become disconnected from the main clause. One of the easiest ways to correct them is to remove the period between the fragment and the main clause. Other kinds of punctuation may be needed for the newly combined sentence. that have been left unattached to the main clause; they are written as main clauses but lack a subject or main verb.

Some fragments are not clearly pieces of sentences

For Incomplete Sentences: Fragment: She needs to move schools. Because

she failed too many subjects Possible Revision: She needs to move schools because she failed too many subjects

For No Subjects: Fragment: By taking down notes and studying for

every test. Possible Revision: By taking down notes and studying for every test, she got a high grade for that subject.

For No Main Verbs or Predicates: Fragment: A team that has passion

Possible Revision: A team that has passion will have a higher chance of winning the league.

purdue online. (2011, July 27). Retrieved June 20, 2012, from Purdue Online Web Site: owl/resource/620/1/

Run- On Sentences
Prepped by Myla Duana

A RUN-ON SENTENCE (sometimes called a "fused

sentence") has at least two parts, either one of which can stand by itself (in other words, two independent clauses), but the two parts have been smooshed together instead of being properly connected.
When two independent clauses are connected

by only a comma, they constitute a run-on sentence that is called a comma-splice.

Comma Splicing
a comma splice is the attempt to join

two independent clauses with a comma, but without a coordinator.

When two independent clauses are

next to each other, you have only two choices: you can either join them, or you can separate them.

Comma Splicing
1. To join two independent clauses, you must use a coordinator. The coordinators are the correlatives and the coordinating conjunctions. 2. To separate two independent clauses, you must use some form of end-stop punctuation. Here are all of your possible choices: the period [.], the exclamation point [!], the question mark [?], and the semicolon [;].

Run-on sentences happen typically under the following

When an independent clause gives an order or

directive based on what was said in the prior independent clause:

This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it,

you should start studying right away.

(We could put a period where that comma is and start a

new sentence. A semicolon might also work there.)

When two independent clauses are connected

by a transitional expression (conjunctive adverb) such as however, moreover, nevertheless.

Mr. Nguyen has sent his four children to ivy-league

colleges, however, he has sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery.
(Again, where that first comma appears, we could

have used either a period and started a new sentence or a semicolon.)

When the second of two independent clauses

contains a pronoun that connects it to the first independent clause.

This computer doesn't make sense to me, it came

without a manual.
(Although these two clauses are quite brief, and the

ideas are closely related, this is a run-on sentence. We need a period where that comma now stands.)

Blue, T. (2000, August 11). Retrieved June 20, 2012, from Grammar Tips Web Site: http:// Houghton , H. M. (1999). Sentence sense: a writer. Retrieved from grammar/runons.htm

Active Verbs vs. Passive Verbs

Prepped by Aiko Tanaka and Joe Tabing

Active Verbs
The actions of a subject are performed by

active verbs.
Active verbs are used when one wants to

emphasize an action or to create interest in a sentence.

Active verbs give an order to the

Active verbs are commonly used in


Comparison to Passive
Active voice- The voice in which the

subject is the PERFORMERS the verb.

Passive voice- The voice in which the subject is the RECEIVER of the action.

Active: Performer::Passive:Receiver

1. We did not write on the wall. 2. My sister dropped my laptop. 3. I made the dinner yesterday night. Passive Comparison: 1. The writing on the wall was not written by us. 2. My laptop was dropped by my sister. 3. The dinner yesterday night was made by me.

Jerz, D. G. (2011, April 04). Setonhill, Retrieved

from and-