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# FUZZY LOGIC

## Guided by S.MAHESWARI B.E., Lecture Electronics and instrumentation department

Fuzzy logic

WHAT IS FUZZY ?

FUZZY
Fuzzy" - "vagueness
Boundary of a piece of information is not clear-cut. Lotfi a. Zadeh (1965) as an extension of the classical notion of set.

## CLASSICAL & FUZZY SET

Classical set theory - membership of the elements in the set -in binary terms, a bivalent condition Fuzzy set theory Permits the gradual assessment of the membership of elements in a set, described with the aid of a membership function valued in the real unit interval [0, 1].

EXAMPLE:
Words like young, tall, good, or high are fuzzy. There is no single quantitative value which defines the term young. For some people, age 25 is young, and for others, age 35 is young. The concept young has no clean boundary. Age 1 is definitely young and age 100 is definitely not young; Age 35 has some possibility of being young and usually depends on the context in which it is being considered.

In real world, there exists much fuzzy knowledge; Knowledge that is vague, imprecise, uncertain, ambiguous,inexact, or Probabilistic in nature.

Human thinking and reasoning frequently involve fuzzy information, originating from inherently inexact human concepts. Humans, can give satisfactory answers, which are probably true. However, our systems are unable to answer many questions. The reason is, most systems are designed based upon classical set theory and two-valued logic which is unable to cope with unreliable and incomplete information and give expert opinions.

## FUZZY SET THEORY

Fuzzy Set theory is an extension of classical set theory where elements have degrees of membership.

CLASSICAL SET

CLASSICAL SET
A classical set is defined by crisp boundaries; i.e. there is no uncertainty in the prescription or location of the boundaries of the set. The members of these sets must have their degree as one

Universe of discourse Cardinal Number Set Subset Power set Whole set

OPERATIONS
Union-AUB={xl xA or xB}

## PROPERTIES OF CLASSICAL SETS

COMMUTATIVITY ASSOCIATIVITY DISTRIBUTIVITY IDEMPOTENCY IDENTITY AU=A TRANSITIVITY INVOLUTION

## TWO SPECIAL PROPERTIES

EXCLUDED MIDDLE AXIOMS AXIOM OF EXCLUDED MIDDLE AXIOM OF CONTRADICTION DEMORGANS PRINCIPLES

## MAPPING CLASSICAL SET TO FUNCTIONS

SET THEORETIC TO FUNCTION THEORETIC XA(x)= 1,X A 0,x A XA= MEMBERSHIP IN SET A

FUZZY SET

FUZZY SET
In classical (crisp) sets, the transition for an element in the universe between membership and non-membership in a given set is abrupt and well-defined. For a fuzzy set, this transition is gradual due to the fact that the boundaries of the fuzzy sets are vague and ambiguous.

## OPERATIONS OF FUZZY SET

Union
AUB(x)=A(x)vB(x)= max(A(x),B(x))

Intersection
AUB(x)=A(x)^B(x)= min(A(x),B(x))

Complement
AA(x)=1A(x)

A fuzzy set with discrete and finite university of discourse (X) is denoted by

## CRISP RELATION AND FUZZY RELATION

The cartesian product of two universaL SETS is determined as X*Y={(x,y) l xX , Y y} The crisp relation uR(x,y)is defined as, uR(x,y)=1 (x,y) X*Y 0 (x,y) X*Y where 1 implies complete relation 0-no relation when the sets are finite the relation is given by matrix called Relation Matrix,R.

CRISP RELATION

COMPOSITION
Let X,Y,Z be the three universal sets Let R be the relation that relates X,Y Let S be the relation that relates Y,Z Let T be the relation that relates same elements that R contains to the same elements that S contains

## Given R and S,T is determined by using the principle composition T=R.S

CARTESIAN PRODUCT
An Ordered Sequence written in the form (a1,a2,a3ar) is called an ordered r-tuple For crisp sets A1,A2.Ar the set of all r-tuples (a1,a2,a3ar) where a1A1 ,a2 A2 is called the cartesian product of A1,A2.Ar and is denoted by A1,A2Ar

FUZZY RELATION
A Fuzzy relation is the fuzzy set defined in the crisp sets X1,X2,X3.Xn A fuzzy relation is thus defined R(x1,x2,x3xn) as

FUZZY RELATION
A fuzzy relation, f is a mapping from the Cartesian space to the interval [0,1], where the strength of the mapping is expressed by the membership function of the relation

## CARDINALITY OF FUZZY RELATION

Since the cardinality of a fuzzy set on any universe is infinity, the cardinality of fuzzy relation between two or more universes is also infinity

EXAMPLE

## CRISP EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS

A Relation R can also be thought as a relation from X to X The relation R is an equivalence relation if it has the following properties

## CRISP TOLERANCE RELATION

A tolerance relation R on a universe X is a relation that exhibits only the properties of reflexivity and symmetry R=r1 r1 r1 r1

## FUZZY TOLERANCE RELATION

FUZZY SYSTEMS
Fuzzy systems are very useful in two general c ontexts (1) in situationsinvolving highly complex systems whose behaviors are not well understood, and (2) insituations where an approximate, but fast, solution is warranted

ThankU