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Analysis of Nursing Theory

Definition

Components

A supposition or system of ideas that is proposed to explain a given phenomenon. (Kozier & Erb, 2007) composed of concepts, propositions, definitions and assumptions. A creative and rigorous structuring of ideas that projects a tentative, purposeful, systemic view of phenomenon. (Chinn & Krammer)

What composes a Theory? Concepts Propositions


Definitions Assumptions
CONCEPTUAL ABSTRACT CONCRETE

OPERATIONAL

Concepts Proposition Assumption Definition

Systematically organized

THEORY

PHENOMENA

VIEW

Definition Concepts Components Development Purpose Categories Characteristics

Nursing Theory

A group of interrelated concepts that are developed from various studies of disciplines and related experiences. Framework of thought in which to examine situations. (Delaune, 2006)

Components of Theory
(Accdg. To Barnum, 1994)

Context Content Process

Purposes of Theory

Education Research Clinical Practice

Characteristics of Theory
Correlational Logical

in nature Simple but generally broad Source of hypothesis Contribute in knowledge enrichment Guide Consistent

Metaparadigm of Nursing:

4 Strategies of Theory Development:


Practice Theory Practice Theory Research Theory or Inductive Method Theory Research - Theory
Theory

Stages of Theory Development


Silent Knowledge Stage

Received Knowledge Stage

Subjective Knowledge Stage

Procedural Knowledge Stage

Categories of Theories
according to:

Function Range Focus / Orientation Underpinnings

According to Function:
Descriptive

theories/ Factor-

Isolating Explanatory theories/ FactorRelating Predictive theories/ SituationRelating Prescriptive theories/ SituationProducing

According to RANGE
GRAND

Theories

MIDDLE-RANGE
MICRO-RANGE

Theories

Theories

According to FOCUS/ORIENTATION
CLIENT-CENTERED

Theory NURSE-CLIENT Theory CLIENT-NURSEENVIRONMENT Theory


client nurse

` environment

According to Philosophical Underpinnings:


Needs

Theory Interaction Theory Outcome Theory Humanistic Theory

HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF NURSING

INTUITIVE NURSING / MEDIEVAL PERIOD

PERIOD OF APPRENTICE NURSING / MIDDLE AGES

PERIOD OF EDUCATED NURSING/ NIGHTINGALE ERA (19th-20th Century )

PERIOD OF CONTEMPORARY NURSING

PERIOD OF INTUITIVE NURSING/ MEDIEVAL PERIOD

Nursing was untaught & intinctive Nursing was a function that belonged to women No caregiving training Primitive men believed that illness was caused by the invasion of the victims body of evil spirits Use of trephining

PERIOD OF APPRENTICE NURSING/ MIDDLE AGES


Care was done by Crusaders, prisoners, religious orders Nursing care was performed without formal education Nursing went down to the lowest level The Kaiserswerth Institute for the training of Deaconesses was establishe in Germany

PERIOD OF EDUCATED NURSING

The devt of Nsg.was strongly influenced by trends resulting from wars, arousal of social consciousness Increased educational opportunities offered to women Florence Nightingale recruited female nurse 1860- the Nightingale Training School of Nurses opened at St.Thomas hosp.in London Nursing evolved as an art and science Formal nursing education and Nursing Service begun

PERIOD OF CONTEMPORARY NURSING


Licensure of nurses started Specialization of hospital and diagnosis Training of Nurses in Diploma Program Devt of baccalaureate and advance degree programs Scientific and technological devt as well as social changes marked this period

CARE PROVIDER

COMMUNICATOR

RESEARCHER

TEACHER

MANAGER

ROLES OF NURSES

COUNSELOR

LEADER CHANGE AGENT

CLIENT ADVOCATE

NURSE GENERALIST

NURSE PRACTITIONER

EXPANDED ROLES OF NURSES

NURSE CLINICIAN

NURSE SPECIALIST

Nursing is an art: and if it is to be made an art, it requires an exclusive devotion as hard a preparation, as any painter's or sculptor's work; for what is the having to do with dead canvas or dead marble, compared with having to do with the living body, the temple of God's spirit? It is one of the Fine Arts: I had almost said, the finest of Fine Arts. ~Florence Nightingale

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