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Welcome to Psychology

1.1 Why Study Psychology?

Psychology provides tools to help us gain insight into our own behavior, as well as our relationships with others. Definition of Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

Psychological Needs are things like love, comfort, security Physiological Needs are physical Needs are things you have to have like food, water, sleep.

4 Goals of Psychology:
(yes, write these down they will be on the test also located on pg. 10 in your text, if your text is not open then you need to be opening it now)

1. Description

2. Explanation
3. Prediction

4. Influence

Learning about psychology can help you gain

a better understanding of your own behavior. knowledge about how psychologists study human and animal behavior.

practical applications for enriching your life.

Example: The child throws a fit every time he goes to Wal-Mart and his mom says no by the candy aisle. 5

Psychology is Empirical that

means information is obtained through observation and experimentation not common sense or guessing.

By accumulating knowledge we are able to predict what people or animals will do or think in certain situations and predict future behaviors. 7

Scientist seek to influence behavior in helpful ways.

Chains like Wal-mart have done these scientific observations and place candy as you check out because when your kid is screaming sometimes it is easier to just buy the candy bar. 8

Basic Science:
There are two types of science that influences psychology.

Research Ex. Research on drug effects on the brain.

Applied Science:
putting that research to use for a purpose Example: Using research on how drugs effect the brain to come up with a new antidepressant to help people suffering from depression.

Last point:

Psychology is a behavioral science. Psychologists rely on the scientific method to obtain their data.


Empirical Science
The scientific method is used to reduce errors and biases. A theory is a proposed explanation. In Psychology we will be studying different theories. Hypothesis is an educated guess.

Greek for False Science Examples: Horoscopes, Astrology, Phrenology


Chapter 1.2: History of Psychology

Aristotle (384-322 BCE.) Started asking how the mind and the body were related?? Were the separate or related??

Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?


Rene Descartes I think therefore I am

Pioneer philosopher. He was brilliant. Descartes also made great strides in geometry. Great scientific mind, was asked and asked again by the Queen Christinia of Sweden to come teach her philosophy. He forcibly went and caught ammonia while waiting for her and died.



the concept of the mind and body are separate and distinct.
Descartes held that, unlike humans, animals could be reductively explained as automata De homines 1622)

Rene Descartes' Illustration of inputs passed on by the sensory organs to the epiphysis in the brain and from there to the immaterial spirit.


Foundations of Modern Psychology

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Theory of natural selection (1859) Darwins theory encouraged scientific inquiry


Okay Psychology is going to go through a transition. It actually goes through several transitions to brace for the ride. (Epcot)


3 Things you need to remember about your daddy:

1. Wilhelm Wundt opened the

first psychology laboratory in Germany.

2. Changed psychology from a philosophy to a science. 3. Studied introspection. Introspection means looking within yourself. How do you feel about this or that. How does that rose make you feel?

Structuralism vs.
Broke down consciousness to basic thoughts. Introspection - self-observation of ones own conscious experiences

Wilhelm Wundt

Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure Leaned toward applied work (natural surroundings) Environment

William James 20 (1842-1910)

William James

What you have two daddies? Yes, one is your American Daddy. Known as the Father of American Psychology. You also need to know he wrote the 1st Psychology Book.

Phrenology led scientists to study the bumps on the head to determine human behavior Phrenology is considered a pseudoscience (False Science)

Inherited Traits
Sir Francis Galton
said that heredity influences a persons abilities, character, and behavior. For example, if your parents are mentally challenged then you should be sterilized so that you dont have mentally challenged children.

His cousin was Charles Darwin, began eugenics movement.


Gestalt Psychology

The whole is different than

the sum of its parts.

Max Wertheimer (1880-1943)


Can you read this? This is bcuseae the huammn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Amzanig, huh?

What is it?? We like to fill in the gaps so that we see objects as wholes.


New Transition Contemporary Approaches: These are the ones we will use the rest of the semester!! Yes write them down!!!In fact put the list under your pillow at night so that you can dream about them and then unconsciously you will remember them. This is also how the book is broken up into. Pg. 18

Contemporary Psychology
Psychologys Perspectives A lot depends on your viewpoint

You have 6 to remember: 1. Psychoanalysis 2. Cognitive 3. Behaviorial 4. Biological 5. Socio-cultural 6. Humanistic

On your test you will have to write a Paragraph about each one and include a founding father.

Psychoanalytic Psychology

Study of unconscious motives and conflicts that determine behavior. Unconscious are motives that you are not aware of. For instance if someone with brown hair rejects you, then you might not talk to people with that color hair. Conscious are motives that you are aware of.

Psychoanalytic Psychology

Study of unconscious motives and conflicts that determine behavior.

Freud used the technique called free association He would say a word and you would say the first word that popped in your head and he would then analysis what is going on in your unconscious.

Sigmund Freud:
Father of Psychoanalysis NOT psychology!!!!

Unconscious expressed in dreams & slips of the tongue


Cognitive Approach
Cognition is the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, storing & using information
Cognitive Psychologists return to the study of learning, memory, perception, language, development & problem solving Example: Is your boyfriend

dumping you traumatic or do you just think it is therefore you are depressed? Or..your ability to do math compared to a 5 year old. You can understand abstract thinking that goes along with statistics.


Cognitive Approach


JEAN PIAGET 1896 1980

Worked in France administering Binets IQ test.
Children do not think like adults. Why? Created 4 stages of cognitive ability that accurately explain the behavior of children. Influenced teachers and school system.

Biological Approach
Focus How the body and brain create emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.

Sample Issues
Depression and antidepressants. Problems with thyroids. How are messages transmitted within the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?

Behavioral Approach
Scientific Psychology should focus on observable behavior.
John Watson (1878-1958)

If you do a trick I will give you a treat.

B.F. Skinner

Ivan Pavlov 36


DR. IVAN PAVLOV (1849-1936)

Begins the school of Behaviorism through his work with dogs and digestion. All behavior is the result of external stimuli. Free will and decision making is ignored.

B. F. SKINNER 1904 1990

Operant ConditioningOrganisms learn behavior through the consequences of that behavior. Reinforcement vs. Punishment Shaping-learning complex behaviors through learning small steps of that behavior.

Social-Cultural Approach

Focus How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.

Sample Issues How are we, as members of different races and nationalities, alike as members of one human family? How do we differ, as products of different social contexts? Why do people sometimes act differently in groups than when alone?

Humanistic Approach
You have the potential to be great. Self Actualization. Feel Good approach. Client Centered Therapy Hierarchy of needs.
Carl Rogers believed in client centered therapy Abraham Maslow came up with the Hierarchy of needs

What Causes Behavior?


Fields of Psychology
Psychologist is someone who is trained to observe and influence behavior in people.

Psychiatrist is a medical doctor that can prescribe medicine.


Work In Psychology (?)

Elementary/ Secondary Schools 4.2% Independent Practice 33.1% Business, Hospitals, Counseling, Government or Clinics, etc. Consulting 22.3% 12.1% Universities & Colleges 27.2%