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Presented to: Dr.

Javed Iqbal

PRESENTED BY : GROUP 2 Iqra Khan (01) Freeha Ali (06) Tayyba Chaudry (07) Tasneem Nawaz Kazmi (10) Saher Sanaullah (12)

Insect Orders
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Dermaptera Embioptera Dictyoptera Isoptera Zoraptera Psocoptera Mallophaga Siphunculata Hemiptera Homoptera

DERMAPTERA
Etymology:Greek word: dermatos,skin pteron, wing. Earwig, derived from the Old English are, means "ear", and wicga, means "insect".

Distribution: Found throughout the Americas and Eurasia. Few survive outdoors in cold climates. Found in tight crevices in woodland, fields and gardens. About 1,800 species About 25 occur in North America, 45 in Europe (including

7 in Britain), and 60 in Australia.

Distinguishing characteristics
General body shape: Elongated; dorso-ventrally flattened.
Head: Prognathous.

Antennae: segmented.
Biting-type mouthparts. Ocelli absent.

Compound eyes in

most species, reduced or absent in some taxa.

Appendages:
Two pairs of wings. Forewings: short smooth,

veinless tegmina.

Hind wings: Membranous Semicircular Veins radiating outwards.

Abdomen:
Cerci: unsegmented,

resemble forceps-like pincers Male: curved pincers, Female: straight ones.

The ovipositor in females

is reduced or absent.

Metamorphosis
Hemimetabolous. about 4-5 larval instars display maternal activity

Importance:
Few species damage the blossoms of ornamental plants by chewing on stamens or petals.

EMBIOPTERA
Etymology:
Greek, embio = lively; pteron = wing Common Names: web-spinners, foot-spinners

very good at spinning webs from silk secreted

by glands in the tarsi of their forelegs.

Distribution:
All over the world, except Antarctica. Most abundant: tropics and warm temperate regions.

General Characteristics:
Body: specialized for the silk tunnels, being long, narrow and

highly flexible.
Females and larvae are

wingless
Males can be winged or

wingless depending on species.

Eyes:
Compound eyes kidney-shaped no ocelli.

Head: prognathous

Mouthparts: chewing mandibles

Antennae:
Long, with up to 32 segments.

Metamorphosis:
Hemimetabola Moulting :four times before reaching adult form. Adult males never eat, leave the home colony immediately to

find a female and mate.

Economic Importance:
do not feed on living plants.

These are a part of the forest litter re-cycling system.

DICTYOPTERA
Distribution:
Found almost in every part of the world especially in the tropics.

General Characteristics:
Antenna: Filiform

Mouthparts: Mandibulate Biting mouthparts

Legs:
roughly similar Mantids have raptorial

forelegs most have 5 tarsi.

Wings:
Forewings :hardened

into a tegmina Hind wings: often fanlike

Genitalia: Concealed Female: behind 7th abdominal segment Male: behind the 9th Cerci: present, males bear a pair of styles also.
No specialized stridulatory

organs present. Some Mantids have a single ear on the metathorax which allows them to hear the sonar of bats.

Metamorphosis:
Hemimetabola. 5-12 nymphal moults. Eggs produced in batches contained in a hard, protective

capsule called the ootheca.

Suborders of Dictyoptera:
the Blattaria or Blattodea (Cockroaches) the Mantodea (Mantids) called Praying Mantids from the

way they hold their raptorial forelegs.

Importance of Cockroaches: as food items by man.


not associated with disease by means of direct

transmission
Highly beneficial insects as they feed on other insects. Since they also feed on other beneficial insects, their

value as biological control agents is rather limited.

Importance of Mantids: Used by organic gardeners as biological pest control. Egg cases are commercially available for placement in landscaping friendly to people and even make good pets.

Egg Casement of Mantid

ISOPTERA
(termites or white ants)

Etymology:
Greek "iso= equal and "ptera = wings

Distribution:
Most abundant in tropical and subtropical climates.

General Characteristics:
Medium sized polymorphic social

insects. Chewing mouthparts Short cerci Moniliform antennae: 9 to 30 segments Winged primary reproductives have four almost equal wings. Sterile workers Secondary reproductives have no or greatly reduced compound eyes some forms have two ocelli.

Physical Characteristics:

Queen: lays thousands of eggs.


King: male reproductive member, will fertilize the eggs. Soldiers: develop large heads with pincers, used to

confront and ward off enemies of the colony like ants. Workers: locate food and feed all the other groups of termites in the colony.

Economic Importance:
Important part of the community of decomposers. Break down and recycle up to one third of the annual

production of dead wood. Become economic pests when their appetite for wood and wood products extends to human homes, building materials, forests, and other commercial products. In the United States, annual losses due to termite infestations estimated at more than 800 million dollars.

Termite colonies

ZORAPTERA
Etymology:
Greek "zor= pure and "aptera= wingless Name given before winged forms were discovered.

Distribution:
34 species are found worldwide in tropical & subtropical regions 4 species occur north of the Tropic of Cancer 2 in the USA 2 in Tibet.

General Characteristics:
Soft-bodied Small, usually less than 3 mm Wings absent, with reduced

venation when present Antennae 9-segmented Mouthparts mandibulate, hypognathous Tarsi 2-segmented Cerci one-segmented Immature are always wingless

Metamorphosis:
Hemimetabolos insects

Economic importance:
Zoraptera do not have any economic significance. They are rarely collected.

PSOCOPTERA
Etymology:
Greek "psokos" = rubbed or gnawed and "ptera = wings. Order contains the booklice and barklice.

Distribution:
Abundant worldwide

Often overlooked because of their secretive habits.


Bark lice live in moist terrestrial environments Booklice are more common in human dwellings and

warehouses.

General Characteristics:
Head prominent Thread-like antennae Narrow "neck" between head and

thorax Bark lice is winged booklice is wingless Front wings larger than hind wings Venation reduced Tarsi 2- or 3-segmented chewing mandibles swollen forehead large compound eyes three ocelli.

Metamorphosis:
Hemimetabolous Moulting: six times before reaching full adulthood. Total lifespan: rarely more than a few months.

Economic Importance:
Most are woodland insects Rarely come into contact with humans.

May become a nuisance, but seldom cause

economic damage.

MALLOPHAGA
(Chewing Lice)

Distribution:
About 2 800 species world wide

General Characteristics:
Apterous Hemimetabolous Ectoparsites Size: 0.5 to 10 mm long Dorsoventrally flattened body. Reduced compound eyes no ocelli Antennae: 3 to 5 segmented and capitate. Mouthparts: biting no cerci

Bird lice with egg

Species on fowl have two claws


Species on mammals- one claw

Egg Laying:
Females lay up to 100 eggs
Nymph

Cemented to the hair or feathers of the host with a clear fast

drying glue, secreted onto the hair or feather by the female immediately before she lays the egg. Eggs hatch in 3 or 4 days to Nymphs go through 3 larval instars in about 20 days before they reach maturity.

Importance:
Symbiotic relationship with

bacteria which live in special Mycetocytes in the insects fat reserves.


May help with the digestion of

blood etc as individuals deprived of their bacteria die in a few days.

SIPHUNCULATA (sucking lice)


Sucking Lice feed on fresh blood & only occur on Mammals

Distribution:
500 species world wide

General Characteristics:
Small, wingless parasites of

mammals Head narrow Eyes reduced Antennae short Piercing/sucking mouthparts, Ectognathous Feeds solely on blood Each leg ends in a strong claw Eggs are usually stuck on to the host's hair

Metamorphosis: Hemimetabolous

Importance:
Most importance to mankind because of the ones that live on us. Two species feed only on humans.

HEMIPTERA
Etymology:
Greek hemi= "half and pteron= "wing

50,00080,000 species

General Characteristics: Size: 1 mm - 15 cm. Mandibles & maxillae evolved into a proboscis. Forewings: entirely membranous or partially hardened. Wings : hemelytra Antennae: fivesegmented The tarsi: threesegmented or shorter.

Metamorphosis:
Hemimetabolous No metamorphosis between a larval phase and an adult phase. Nymphs resemble adults to a large degree Final transformation: development of functional wings and functioning sexual organs.

Importance:
Pests of crops and gardens e.g. many species of aphids.

predatory hemipterans are biological pest control agents e.g. Nabids


primarily phytophagous e.g. genus Geocoris in the family Lygaeidae. Uses in the production of the dyestuffs cochineal and crimson, or shellac.

HOMOPTERA
Etymology:
Homo = same ptera = wing

Distribution:
45,000 species (6700 in N. America)

General Characteristics:
Piercing-sucking

mouthparts - "beak" from back of head; Wings folded like tent over body Wings: 2 pair of uniform, membranous; many lack wings Parthenogenesis= in female sex only Viviparous= live birth is common.

Metamorphosis:
Hemimetabolous- with many complex life cycles.

Importance:
Most destructive insect order
many plant pests transmit plant diseases

The present members of the order Hemiptera were

historically placed into two orders, Homoptera Heteroptera/Hemiptera, Based on the differences In wing structure Position of the rostrum. These two orders were then combined into the single order Hemiptera by many authorities, with Homoptera and Heteroptera classified as suborders.

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