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Ong, Jan Derrick C. Mutuc, Anne Ysabel T.


Acquired AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents. You acquire AIDS after birth. Immuno Your body's immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off infection or disease. Deficiency You get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient," or isn't working the way it should. Syndrome A syndrome is a collection of symptoms and signs of disease. AIDS is a syndrome, rather than a single disease, because it is a complex illness with a wide range of complications and symptoms.

It is the final stage of HIV infection. People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems, which put them at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). You will be diagnosed with AIDS if you have one or more specific OIs, certain cancers, or a very low number of CD4 cells. If you have AIDS, you will need medical intervention and treatment to prevent death.

Causative agent HIV The 4 recognized (Human human retroviruses Immunodeficiency virus) belong into 2 distinct groups: HIV belongs to the family Transforming retroviruses - Human Tof human retroviruses lymphotropic virus I & II (Retroviridae) and the (HTLV) subfamily of lentivirus Human immunodeficiency viruses (Cyptopathic viruses) HIV1 & HIV2

Both HIV1 & HIV2 damage a persons body by destroying specific blood cells, called CD4+ T fight diseases. cells, which are crucial to helping the body

Over time, HIV can destroy so many of your CD4 cells that your body can't fight infections and diseases anymore. When that happens, HIV infection can lead to AIDS

In 1981, the first cases of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) were identified among gay men in the United States.

However, scientists later found evidence that the disease existed in the world for some years prior, i.e., subsequent analysis of a blood sample of a Bantu man, who died of an unidentified illness in the Belgian Congo in 1959, made him the first confirmed case of an HIV infection.

1999: Origin of HIV-1 Discovered by Scientists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) The researchers identified a subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) native to West-Central UAB AIDS Researchers Dr. Beatrice Hahn Africa as the natural and George Shaw, M.D., Ph.D. reservoir for HIV-1.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to a variety of life-threatening infections and cancers. Common bacteria, yeast, parasites, and viruses that ordinarily do not cause serious disease in people with healthy immune systems can cause fatal illnesses in people with AIDS. HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue and spinal fluid, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, which is the liquid that comes out before ejaculation), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk generally transmits infection to others.

Sexual transmission - Through sexual contact - including oral, vaginal, and anal sex. - This can be in a form of heterosexual transmission.

Transmission by Blood and Blood Products - HIV can be transmitted to individuals who received HIV-tainted blood transfusions, blood products or transplanted tissue. - Injection paraphernalia such as needles, syringes in the water in which drugs are mixed or the cotton through which drugs are filtered, injection, intravenous, subcutaneous or intramuscular as low risk.

Maternal-Fetal/Infant Transmission - HIV infection can be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus during pregnancy, during delivery, or by breast feeding. - HIV can be transmitted as early as the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Maternal transmission to the fetus occurs most commonly in the perinatal period.

Occupational Transmission - There is a small but definite, occupation risk of HIV transmission to health care workers and laboratory personnel and potentially workers with HIV containing materials, particularly when sharp objects are used.

It is estimated that 50-70% of individuals with HIV experience an acute clinical syndrome approximately 3 to 6 weeks (21-42 days) after primary infection

- Infectiousness with HIV may be variable; anyone with a positive test for HIV antibody and/or detectable HIV in the blood should be considered infectious. - The degree of correlation between the quantity of circulating virus and infectiousness is not clearly established, although lower viral counts appear to reduce the risk of transmission. HIV is a chronic infection and persons having this will remain infectious indefinitely.

AIDS begins with HIV infection. People infected with HIV may have no symptoms for 10 years or longer, but they can still transmit the infection to others during this symptomfree period. If the infection is not detected and treated, the immune system gradually weakens and AIDS develops.

Almost all people infected with HIV, if not treated, will develop AIDS. There is a small group of patients who develop AIDS very slowly, or never at all. These patients are called non progressors, and many seem to have a genetic difference that prevents the virus from damaging their immune system.

AIDS may also be diagnosed if a person develops one of the opportunistic infections and cancers that occur more commonly in people with HIV infection. These infections are unusual in people with a healthy immune system. The diagnosis of HIV infection depends upon the demonstration of antibodies to HIV and/or direct detection of HIV or one of its components.

The standard screening test for HIV infection is the ELISA, also referred to as an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). This solid phase assay is an extremely good screening test with a sensitivity of >9905%. Most diagnostic laboratories use commercial EIA kit that contains antigens from both HIV-1 and HIV-2 and thus are able to detect either.

As the immune system weakens, a variety of complications start to appear. Symptoms that may be experienced months to years before the onset of AIDS include:
-Lack of energy -Weight loss -Frequent fevers and sweats -Persistent/frequent yeast infections (oral or vaginal) -Persistent skin rashes or flaky skin -Pelvic inflammatory disease that does not respond to treatment (in women) - Short-term memory loss

People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV and are very susceptible to these opportunistic infections. Common symptoms are:
Chills Fevers Sweats (particularly at night) Swollen lymph glands Fatigue and weakness Weight loss Diarrhea Nausea Vomiting Coughing or shortness of breath

There is no cure for AIDS at this time. However, a variety of treatments are available that can help keep symptoms at bay and improve the quality of life for those who have already developed symptoms.

A combination of several antiretroviral drugs, called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), has been very effective in reducing the number of HIV particles in the bloodstream. This is measured by the viral load (how much virus is found in the blood). Preventing the virus from replicating can improve Tcell counts and help the immune system recover from the HIV infection.

Prevention Education, counseling and behavior modification are the cornerstones of an HIC prevention strategy

The practice of safer sex is the most effective way for sexually active uninfected individuals to avoid spreading infection.

Despite intensive research since the viral pathogen was discovered some 25 years ago, not much progress has been reported on the development of a safe vaccine that protects against human immunodeficiency virus type.

An article in the Philippine Daily Inquirer dated February 03, 2011, it stated that he Department of Health recorded 174 new HIV cases in December 2010, bringing the total number of infections for the entire 2010 to 1,591, the highest since the agency began gathering monthly data on the dreaded disease way back in 1984.

Statistics from the DOH's Philippine HIV and AIDS Registry Report showed that HIV/AIDS cases totaled 6,016 from 1984 to 2010. It was the first time that the infections breached the 6,000 mark.

Republic Act 8504 otherwise known as the "Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act of 1998" was signed into Law. Whereas, The Philippine National AIDS Council, a multisectoral, central advisory, planning and policy making body is mandated by Law to oversee a comprehensive and integrated HIV/AIDS prevention and control program in the Philippines.

Global Fund Round 6 HIV project by AIDS Society of the Philippines Strengthening the provision of HIV and AIDS capacity building Initiatives among LGU and partner institutions in the Philippines through voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and blood safety. 9aidsepidemicupdate/ htm 0110203-318317/HIV-and-AIDS-cases-in-Philippinesexceed-6000