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Electrical Equipments Interlocks (Concepts)

Interlocks.
Interlocks in a substation is used to ensure the

safety of the equipments , operating personal and to prevent the wrong sequence of operations.

Why interlocks are used?


Suppose interlocks are not present and an operating

person close the earth switch without opening the isolator then it can be the cause of phase to earth fault. Which is an example of wrong sequence of operation or human error this is also hazardous for human life and equipments.
Opening of isolator without opening of circuit breaker

cause damage to the isolator.

hence interlocks are required and used

Bay operation/Switching.
Bay opening
Bay closing Protection trip(Bay opening due to protection)

Sequence of operation.
De-energization of a bay (Opening of a bay) I. Circuit breaker open II. Isolator open III. Earth switch close
I. II. III.

Energization of a bay(Closing of a bay)


Earth switch open Isolator close Circuit breaker close

Protection trip
At the time of fault circuit breaker will open instantaneously .

Interlocks required between following equipments.


Isolator

Circuit breaker

Earth switch

Isolator.
Bus isolator close interlocks:

Bus earth switch open II. Associated earth switch open III. Circuit breaker open IV. Earth switch after CB open V. Isolator switch in remote position
I.

.
Bus isolator open interlocks: .

Circuit breaker open II. Associated earth switch open III. Earth switch after CB open IV. Isolator switch in remote position
I.

.
Line isolator close interlocks: .

Associated earth switch open II. Circuit breaker open III. Earth switch after CB open IV. Isolator switch in remote position
I.

.
Line isolator open interlocks: .

Circuit breaker open II. Associated earth switch open III. Earth switch after CB open IV. Isolator switch in remote position
I.

Circuit breaker interlock


Circuit breaker close interlocks: I. Close permit received II. Circuit breaker not lockout III. Protection trip not issued IV. Switch in remote position V. Charging conditions
a. b. c. d.

dead bus and dead line live bus and dead line dead bus and live line live bus and live line
Continued.

Circuit breaker open interlocks:


Direct open command from the BCU

or Through TNC switch available in panels

Earth switch interlock


Bus earth switch close interlocks:
All the isolator

associated to that particular bus are open. Bus is under voltage

.
Line earth switch close interlocks:
Associated line

isolator open Line under voltage

Thank you