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Sports injuries and its prevention

Basic anatomy

Bones in our body

What are bones made up of ?


1. Compact Bone
Spongy bone Bone marrow

Ligaments
A ligament is a tough band of white, fibrous, slightly

elastic tissue. binding the bone ends together to prevent dislocation and excessive movement that might cause breakage

Muscles
There are more than

600 muscles in your body. Smooth muscles Cardiac muscles Skeletal muscles Each muscles will have an origin & insertion.

Tendon
Tendons connect muscles to bones

Common injuries

Sports first aid


Rehabilitation

Prevention

Benefits Of a Warm up
There is no doubt that time spent on warming up

and cooling down will improve an athlete's level of performance and accelerate the recovery process needed before training or competing again. As a result the coach must encourage the

athlete to regard the warm up and cool down as


an essential part of both the training session and competition itself.

Warm Up

Muscle stiffness is thought to be directly related to muscle injury and therefore the warm up should be aimed at reducing muscle stiffness.
Warming up should at least consist of the following: 5 to 10 minutes jogging - to increase body temperature 10 to 15 minutes dynamic stretching exercises (The

dynamic exercises you incorporate into your warm up program should be appropriate to the movements you would experience in your sport/event.) - reduce muscle stiffness 10 to 15 minutes general and event specific drills preparation for the session or competition. 4 to 8 easy run outs over 30 to 60 metres - focus on correct running technique Dynamic stretches are more appropriate to the warm up as they help reduce muscle stiffness. Static exercises do not reduce muscle stiffness.

What are the benefits of a warm up?


Performance may be improved as an appropriate warm up will result in an: Increased speed of contraction and relaxation of warmed muscles. Dynamic exercises reduce muscle stiffness. Greater economy of movement because of lowered viscous resistance within warmed muscles. Increased blood flow through active tissues as local vascular beds dilate, increasing metabolism and muscle temperatures.

Stretching exercises
Strecthing should be gentle initially and you gradually move further into the stretch. Benefits of stretching There are many benefits to be gained from a regular stretching programme Increased flexibility and range of motion Injury prevention Preventing DOMS Improved posture Improvements in sports performance Stress relief

Identification of the injury


Talk with the injured person to know what happened

really. Point of incident How severe it is?

Injury first Aid with PRICE


The primary treatment to stop swelling of injured soft tissue is with the PRICE method. Protection. In this case, protection means stopping activity immediately and protect the injured part fro additional damage. Rest. Rest the area to allow the tissues time to heal. Ice. Applying cold therapy (ice or an ice pack wrapped in a thin towel) to an acute injury reduces swelling and pain. Ice is a vasoconstrictor. It causes the blood vessels to narrow and limits internal bleeding at the injury site. Apply cold to the affected area every two hours for no more than 20

Compression. Compression of an acute injury is

perhaps the next most important immediate treatment tip. By quickly wrapping the injured body part with an elastic bandage or wrap, you help keep swelling to a minimum. If possible, it's helpful to apply ice to the injured area over the compression wrap to limit the swelling. Elevation. Elevating the injured area is another way to reduce the blood flow and swelling to the area.

Soft Tissue Injury Step-By-Step In summary, here is what you should do immediately when you sustain any soft tissue injury: Stop the activity immediately. Wrap the injured part in a compression bandage. Apply ice to the injured part (use a bag of crushed ice or a bag of frozen vegetables) for 10 minutes to 15 minutes. Let the area warm completely before applying ice again to prevent frostbite. Elevate the injured part to reduce swelling. Get to a physician for a proper diagnosis of any serious injury.

First aid for cuts & abrasions


If the injury causes a cut or abrasion that leads to bleeding, it's important to stop the blood flow quickly.

Wash the wound with soap and water, and apply an


appropriate bandage until medical help arrives. A deep

cut will probably require stitches, but if you can pull the
edges of the cut together, you may be able to use a butterfly bandage to hold it closed.

Most common sports injuries


What Is an Ankle Sprain? The most common of all ankle injuries, an ankle sprain occurs when there is a stretching and tearing of ligaments surrounding the ankle joint. The numerous ligaments around the ankle can become pulled and torn when the ankle is forced into a position not normally encountered.

Grade I - stretch and/or minor tear of the

ligament without laxity (loosening).


Grade II - tear of ligament plus some laxity.

Grade III - complete tear of the affected

ligament (very loose).

Rest. Avoid weight bearing for 24 hours or longer for

a severe sprain. Ice. Apply ice (bagged, crushed ice wrapped in a thin towel) to the ankle joint. To avoid frostbite, ice should not be left on the area longer than 20 minutes at a time. Ice 20 minutes every 2 hours for the first 24 hours to control swelling. Compression. Wrap the ankle with an elastic bandage (start at the toes and wrap up to the calf) to help prevent swelling and edema. Elevation. Raise the ankle above the hip or heart to reduce swelling. If swelling doesn't subside in 48 to 72 hours, seek medical treatment for a complete evaluation. If unable to weight bear within 48 hours, seek medical treatment

Fractured Clavicle
A fractured clavicle is a common sports injury that is

often the result of a direct impact to the clavicle Signs and Symptoms of Clavicle Fracture Pain and an inability to raise the arm is one sign of a shoulder fracture Treating Clavicle Fractures The first line of treatment is to realign the bones so they can heal in the correct position. Healing occurs while the bones of the clavicle and arm are held in place with a strap or sling. Surgery is sometimes needed if the bones are severely displaced or if an athlete is anxious to return to sports quickly.

Hamstring Injury
The hamstring muscles run down the back of the leg

from the pelvis to the bones of the lower leg. The three specific muscles that make up the hamstrings are the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus. Symptoms of a Hamstring Injury A hamstring injury typically causes a sudden, sharp pain in the back of the thigh that may stop you midstride. Like most sprains and strains hamstring injuries are usually caused by excessive stretching (tearing) of muscle fibers or other soft tissues beyond their limits.

Severity of a Hamstring Injury Hamstring strains are classified as 1st (mild), 2nd (moderate), or 3rd (severe) degree strains depending on the extend of the muscle injury. Mild (Grade I) Hamstring Injury Muscle stiffness, soreness and tightness in the back of the thigh. Little noticeable swelling. A normal walking gait and range of motion with some discomfort. Flexing the knee to bring the heel up

Moderate (Grade II) Hamstring Injury Gait will be affected-limp may be present . Muscle pain, sharp twinges and tightness in the back of the thigh. Noticeable swelling or bruising. Painful to the touch. A limited range of motion and pain when flexing the knee. Severe (Grade III) Hamstring Injury Pain during rest which becomes severe with movement Difficulty walking without assistance. Noticeable swelling and bruising.

Treating Hamstring Injuries After an injury it's important to rest the injured muscle, sometimes for up to two or three weeks before you can return to sports after your injury. R.I.C.E - Rest, apply Ice and Compression. Elevate the leg if possible. An anti-inflammatory can be helpful to reduce pain and inflammation. A stretching program can be started as soon as the pain and swelling subsides. A strengthening program should be used to rebuild the strength of the injured muscle in order to prevent re-injury. Make sure you increase this gradually. A thigh wrap can be applied to provide support as the muscle heals.

Preventing Hamstring Injuries Warm up thoroughly. This is probably the most important muscle to warm-up and stretch before a workout. Performing specific movement prep exercises that activate the gluteus and lengthen the hip flexors may help. Try these Two Exercises to Prevent Hamstring Injuries Stretching after the workout may be helpful. Other ways to prevent injury are to avoid doing too much, too soon, avoid drastic increases in intensity or duration, and take it easy if you are fatigued

Calf Muscle Pain


Sudden pain that occurs in the calf muscle during

activity may be the result of a pulled or torn calf muscle. This is called a calf strain or a calf pull. Calf Strain Cause and Severity A calf strain or pull often happens during acceleration or an abrupt change in direction while running.

Calf strains may be minor or very severe and are typically graded as follows: Grade 1 Calf Strain: The muscle is stretched causing some small micro tears in the muscle fibers. Full recovery takes approximately two weeks. Grade 2 Calf Strain : There is partial tearing of muscle fibers. Full recovery takes approximately 5-8 weeks. Grade 3 Calf Strain: This is the most severe calf strain with a complete tearing or rupture of muscle fibers in the lower leg. Full recovery can take 3-4 months and, in some instances, surgery may be needed.

Calf Strains Treatment The first treatment is R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, elevation). Wrap the calf to keep the blood from pooling in the foot, and keep it elevated for the first 24 hours to reduce swelling. Antiinflammatory medication may help reduce pain. Eventually, the muscle reattaches to the tendon; however, and the calf is often shorter than before the injury and prone to repeat injury. A visit to a physician and or a physical therapist is recommended to ensure in fast rehab. Typical rehab for a calf strain depends upon the severity of the injury, and includes the following.