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Electromagnetic Interference Ground & Shield

Elektromagnetika - Dr. Fitri Yuli Zulkifli S.T., M.Sc. By: Jonathan Martin Limbong, Teknik Elektro Uiniversitas Indonesia. Email:jo_martin0703@yahoo.com

Grounds

Electrical Ground actually a path for current to return from some load back to the source.

A Ground to earth is REQUIRED of most electrical equipment to protect against shock hazard!

Proper Grounding is EXTREMELY IMPORTANT for minimizing EMI problems.

Grounds Symbol :
1. Signal/Earth Ground 2. Chassis Ground 3. Special Ground

(1)

(2)

(3)

Bond Wires
Circuit connected to Ground using bond wires. Keep leads short and keep impedance low. Lower inductance is attained using flat, wide-cross-section conductive straps.

Signal Grounds
1. Single-Point
Tying the grounds together at a single point,so all signal ground will be at the same potential. The facility ground may not be equipotential. Avoid significant difference in the ground potential in some case (ex: lightning strike).

Ground Loop

Circuit

Facility Ground

1. Single-Point
a) Series-Connected Single-Point
Source

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

Circuit 3

a) Series-Connected SinglePoint
Very commonly used. Can see a potential difference at the ground level that can affect operation and cause EMI problems. For this reason, the bond leads must be kept as short as possible.

1. Single-Point
b) Parallel-Connected Single-Point
Source

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

Circuit 3

b) Parallel-Connected SinglePoint
The circuit operates best at low frequency where the wire inductance is low.

Offers much better EMI control.

Can require an excessive amount of wire for a large system.

Signal Grounds
2. Multipoint Arrangement

Source

Circuit 1

Circuit 2

Circuit 3

2. Multi-Point Arrangement
A better approach for high frequency. Work best for frequencies above 10 MHz. It is CRITICAL that the ground leads from circuit to the common ground plane be as short as possible (preferably less than

Loop Area
Larger Loop Area +5V Smaller Loop Area +5V
IC IC IC IC

Loop Area
A circuit containing : a source, connecting wire, load, and ground creates a current loop that resembles a loop antenna. It can serve an unintentional source of radiated emissions and also susceptible to reception of incident fields (ex: from radio transmitters) Because of radiated power from a loop antenna is proportional to the loop area squared, the area enclosed by these current loops should be minimized to reduce EMI.

Shields

Shields is metal or metal screen box placed around circuit to block radiation.

Metal/ metal box/ metal braid Shield attenuate electromagnetic

wave and reflect waves

Figure 9-23 (p. 479)


Some of a field Ei incident on a shield will be reflected at the air -shield boundary, some will be transmitted and attenuated within the shield, some will be reflected at the shield-air boundary, and finally some will be transmitted as Et.
Fundamentals of Electromagnetics With Engineering Applications by Stuart M. Wentworth Copyright 2005 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved.

Shielding effectiveness = SE

SE adalah tingkat performa Shield,

didefinisikan sebagai desibel SE = 10log (Pns/Ps) = 20log (|Ens|/|Es|) = 20log (|Hns|/|Hs|)

Atenuasi (attenuation) atau absorsi

mengkonfersi energi electromagnetic menjadi panas dalam materi Shield Material dengan permebealitas tinggi membuat proses absorsi yang bagus, karena
=

SE tergantung dari :
komposisi dan ketebalan Shield itu

sendiri Frekuensi radiasi gelombang elektromagnetik Bentuk dari Shield itu sendiri Diskontinuitas yang mungkin berada dalam Shield

Dalam Shield terkadang terpadat

beberapa lubang yaitu:


Opening untuk mnejalankan sinyal,

power dan koneksi grounding Ventilasi Shield Lubang yg tidak tertutup sempurna pada penggabungan dua Shields

Lubang-lubang ini terkadang

mengurangi integritas SE