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Maternal Effect
The Maternal Genotypesubtitle style Click to edit Master Has a Strong Influences during Early Development

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Maternal Effect

also referred to as maternal influence, an offsprings phenotype for a particular trait is under the control of nuclear gene products present in the egg. in contrast to biparental inheritance, where both parents transmit information on genes in the nucleus that determines the offsprings phenotype.

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Limnaea Coiling

Hermaphroditic undergo either cross- or self-fertilization, providing a variety of types of matings. Strains

left-handed, or sinistrally, coiled shells (dd) right-handed, or dextrally, coiled shells (DD or Dd).

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The progeny reveals that their phenotypes depend on the genotypes of the female parents.

Ovum donors that are DD or Dd produce only dextrally coiled progeny. Maternal parents that are dd produce only sinistrally coiled progeny.

The coiling pattern of the progeny snails is determined by the genotype of the parent producing the egg, regardless of the phenotype of that parent (Cummings, Klug, Palladino, & Spencer, 2012).

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F1 Generation

Cross-fertilization D female x d male D male x d female All dextral progeny (Dd) All sinistral progeny (Dd)

Same phenotype as the female parent

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F2 Generation

Self-fertilization Dd x Dd All dextral (1 DD : 2 Dd : 1 dd)

F3 Generation

Self-fertilization DD x DDdextral Dd x Dd dextral Dd x Dd dextral dd x dd sinistral

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When these F1 individuals were crossed to each other, a genotypic ratio of 1 DD : 2 Dd : 1 dd is predicted for the F2 generation. Because the D allele is dominant to the d allele, a 3:1 phenotypic ratio of dextral to sinistral snails should be produced according to a Mendelian pattern of inheritance. Instead of this predicted phenotypic ratio, however, the F2 generation was composed of all dextral snails. This incongruity with Mendelian inheritance is due to the maternal effect.

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The phenotype of the offspring depended solely on the genotype of the mother. The F1 mothers were Dd. The D allele in the mothers is dominant to the d allele and caused the offspring to be dextral, even if the offsprings genotype was dd. When the members of the F2 generation were crossed, the F3 generation exhibited a 3:1 ratio of dextral to sinistral snails. This ratio corresponds to the genotypes of the F2 females, which were the mothers of the F3 generation.

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The ratio of F2 females was 1 DD : 2 Dd : 1 dd. The DD and Dd females produced dextral offspring, whereas the dd females produced sinistral offspring. This explains the 3:1 ratio of dextral and sinistral offspring in the F3 generation (Brooker, 2012).

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References

Brooker, R. J. (2012). Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 4th ed. NY: McGraw-Hill. Cummings, M. R., Klug, W. S., Palladino, M. A., & Spencer, C. A. (2012). Concepts of Genetics, 10th ed. California: Pearson Education, Inc.