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WELCOME TO A PRESENTATION ON LCI TYPE VFD

- BY COMMISSIONING GROUP PROFESSIONAL CIRCLE

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS A VFD ? VFD means Variable Frequency Drive, i.e., adjustable speed AC motor drive system to control and/or optimize processes. AC Line frequency power is converted to DC & again inverted to AC power of required frequency to be applied to the motor stator to get speed as per process requirement. AC to DC conversion & again DC to AC inversion are done by semiconductor devices (this case it is Thyristors) & electronic control.

There are different methods of adjustable speed system such as Cycloconverter, phase-controlled switches, stator power control of synchronous motor with Loadcommutated inverter system (LCI). LCI drive system is most effective & common in compressor, pump & fan applications

WHAT IS LCI ?
LCI means Load Commutated Inverter. Commutation is the process whereby changing voltage cause one cell to stop conducting and another to begin. In Other words Control can turn ON a thyristor, but we need the changing voltage relationship to turn it OFF Commutation takes place.

In case of rectifier bridge, the power system provides the voltage & energy for commutation, so it is called a line commuted bridge In case of Inverter bridge, the requirement is same , but a synchronous motor with leading power factor ( current leading voltage) shall be able to provide the voltage (back e.m.f of the motor) & energy for commutation. Hence, the Load (Synchronous machine) helps commutation required for inverting DC to AC. That is why it is called Load commuted inverter.

WHAT IS LCI ?

Why a synchronous motor, not an induction motor IN LCI?

A synchronous machine is used because of its ability to deliver leading VARs which commutate the inverter bridge. And induction motor cannot do this.

LCI TYPE VFD LCI type VFD can be either 6-pulse single channel type or 12-pulse dual channel type . Each channel consists of an isolating transformer, source converter, DC link inductor and load converter, in a single channel type VFD, the synchronous motor will have one winding whereas in dual channel type VFD, the synchronous motor will have two windings, one for each channel. The source side converter operates in rectifier mode whereas the load side converter operates in inverter mode.

The DC link inductor effectively isolates load side frequency and source side frequency and smoothens the DC link current. The demand signal received from the control system prompts the source side converter to provide the required current to the DC link inductor at the DC voltage level set by the load side converter. Thus the source side converter plus the DC link inductor become current source controller to the motor and the motor torque, frequency (hence speed) and voltage level get adjusted to the load requirements.

he choice of six pulse, single channel, or 12 pulse dual channel VFD depends on the. Harmonics that are allowed to be injected into the grid Whether available. redundant fan/pump is

2-pulse system is recommended where lower

ADVANTAGES OF LCI TYPE VFD


--Saving in operational cost due to reduced power consumption . -- Absence of voltage dip problems associated with DOL starting of large motors since the starting current in this drive is limited to about 120% of the motor full load current (soft start). -- Increased motor life due to the lower thermal and mechanical stresses in view of the absence of starting inrush currents(6-7 times FLC) , reduced speed operation. -- No limitation on the number of starts.

VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE FOR EACH TYPE OF MOTOR


SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR: LOAD COMMUTATED INVERTER (LCI)

SUPER SYNCHRONOUS : HIGH SPEED LOAD COMMUTATED MOTOR (> 3000 RPM) (HSLCI) INVERTER

SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR

: INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE (IMD)

VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES : APPLICATION AREAS


LCI HSLCI
BOILER ID/FD/PA FANS GAS TURBINE STARTER COMPRESSOR / BOILER FEED PUMP EXTRUDER / MIXER BOILER CONDENSATE PUMP CIRCULATING WATER PUMP CEMENT MILL FAN / PIPELINE PUMPS X X X X X X X X X

IMD
X X X X X X X

VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES : APPLICATION AREAS


LCI HSLCI
HIGH SPEED BLOWERS / PUMPS SLURRY PUMPS / SEWAGE PUMPS FREQUENCY CONVERTER / MOTOR STARTER X X X -

IMD
X -

X = SYSTEM SUITABLE AND APPLICATION DATA AVAILABLE - = SYSTEM NOT SUITABLE AND / OR APPLICATION DATA NOT AVAILABLE

RATINGS AVAILABLE with BHEL Design :

LOAD COMMUTATED INVERTER KW

: 1000 KW TO 15000

HIGH SPEED LOAD COMMUTATED : 4500 KW TO 45000 KW INVERTER INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE 2000 KW : 150 KW TO

6 PULSE CONVERTER

12 PULSE CONVERTER

CONVENTIONAL BOILER FEED PUMP

50 Hz GRID BOOSTER PUMP

INDUCTION MOTOR

GEAR BOX + HYDRAULIC COUPLING

BOOSTER PUMP INDUCTION MOTOR 150KW

SUPER SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR UPTO 100 Hz VFD 50 Hz GRID BOILER FEED PUMP

ARRANGEMENT WITH VFD

TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF 6 PULSE VFD OVER HYDRAULIC COUPLING FOR 250MW BOILER FEED PUMP DRIVES
MOTOR RATING: 3900 KW ,5300 RPM NO.OF PUMPS PER BOILER :3

SL. GEN NO. MW

ENERGY CONSUMED PER Yr IN MW.Hr HYD. VFD COUP.

ENERGY SAVED DUE TO VFD

PAYBACK PERIOD

1. 2. 3.

150 200 250

9000 10426 12423

7575 9101 11415 9.39 MILLION Rs 6Yrs

RECTIFIER DC Link 1 3 5 2

INVERTER

SYNC. Motor

AC Line 4 6 2 5 REACTOR 3 1

BRUSH LESS Exciter

415 V Power 2 Phase controlle d switches 6

Exciter

Fld. Wdg

Exciter is an induction frequency changer

LCI BRUSHLESS EXCITER

100 % Efficiency 80 60 40 20

LCI or VFD Drive

Hydraulic Coupling Inlet Guide Vane

Outlet Damper Throttling

20

40

60

80

100

% Speed / Flow

EFFECIENCY CURVE OF VARIOUS FLOW CONTROL DRIVES

CONTROL SYSTEM
AC MACHINE TORQUE EQUATION T = (1/w)*q*E*I*cos q = no.of phases in armature winding E = r.m.s induced voltage of armature I = r.m.s current per phase of armature = phase angle between E & I w = mechanical angular velocity is related to electrical angular velocity by 4**f / p , p = no.of poles, f = frequency. So, T E*I*cos / f , that is * I * cos

CONTROL SYSTEM
The speed reference from the process controller is a compared to a speed feedback derived from the integrated motor voltage & error is fed to a speed regulator. The output of speed regulator is a torque command. This torque command is sent to the field controller and to a current controller as a current command. By proper control of stator current & field excitation , the machine has a fairly linear torque-per-ampere characteristic. The most straight forward approach is a speed controller with a V/f controller for field excitation.

There are three controllable element which can be used to control the power to the motor: - The source side converter - The load side converter - the field exciter. All three of these use phase control of thyristor gating angle to control output. Major function of load side converter control is to keep the power to the motor at the highest possible power factor.

CONTROL SYSTEM

CONTROL SYSTEM
A current feedback signal is derived from the AC current into the source side power converter. The output of the current controller is used to control the gate firing angle of the source side converter to adjust the DC link voltage necessary to produce the commanded current.

How much power saving? A case study


Site: TATA POWER, TROMBAY, 500 MW Units SITUATION: UNIT 5 with Flue gas controlled by dampers UNIT6 Flue gas controlled by VFD Power consumption of ID fans in both the units were taken at various generating points and data is outlined in TABLE 1

How much power saving? A case study


TABLE 1

Gen.M U5 U6 Total power Power Saving W IDsTotal (KW) by ID Power (KW) Fans 200 240 280 320 360 400 440 3800 4150 4450 4800 5050 5350 5600 850 950 1050 1250 1420 1850 2500 2950 3200 3100 3550 3630 3500 3100

How much power saving? A case study


From table1 it is seen that power saving ranging from 2900 KW to 3630 KW at various gen. Points Considering an average saving of 3200MW and 300 days in operation a net saving of Rs.288 lakhs @ generating costRs.1.25/unit Capital investment on VFD Rs.500 Lakhs Payback period less than 02 years.

How much power saving? A case study


Techno-economical analysis for use of VFDs for BFPs in 210MW units Situation : Constant pressure operation Motor rating: 3500KW, 5300 R.P.M No.of pumps in a boiler: 3 VFD design: 6 pulse Existing coupling: Hydraulic Parameters on both the case maintained same

How much power saving? A case study


Sl.no MCR (%) Speed rpm Flow t/h 1 Hydrau.coupling 60% 4459 1780 80% 4596 1860 4344 100% 4815 1965 5176 VFD system 60% 4459 1780 3106 80% 4596 1860 3742 100% 4815 1965 4706

Power drawn by 3750 two BFPs(KW)

Energy 31849 ( considering 28091( considering 2400 consumed MWh 2400 hrs. operation on each hrs. operation on each MCR in a yr. MCR rating) rating) Running cost at Rs. 1.25/KWh Saving in cost Additional cost during initial 398.11 lacks 351.14 lakhs

4 5

46.97 lacks/yr. 150 lackhs

LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN VFDs  IGBT POWER CIRCUIT FOR INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES (LACKING IN POWER STATION EXPERIENCE )  UNITY INPUT POWER FACTOR  MINIMUM INPUT HARMONICS  ALMOST SINE WAVE OUTPUT  SELF TUNING CONTROLLER  DC MOTOR LIKE CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS

BHEL VFD FOR ID FANS OF 500 MW UNITS : AN OVERVIEW

C o n tro l P an el C & E S ection B rid g e L C I, (C o n tro l an d b lo w er & S ectio n (all external interlocks, excitatio n ) F ilter (C o n verter alarm s, P ower sectio n & In vester supplies b rid g es) available here)
LCI P anel Com m on for both c hanels in one ID F ans , but interloc k ing & trip relay s are s eperately m ounted in this panel for eac h c hannel

Load breaker (V C B )

Panels related to VFD in VFD room

PSFF Pow er Supply module

70V Gate Supply module

Exciter Module

SEM Rack (Microprocessor & other control cards)

IOM A (Input / output module)

C & E (Control & Excitation) Panel

AIR

FAN 1

FAN 2 Air flow monitor sensor Filter Resistors and capacitors

Fan & Filter Panel

S T M 1 S T M 3 S T M 5 L T M 4 L T M 6 L T M 2

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

S T M 4 S T M 6 S T M 2 L T M 1 L T M 3 L T M 5

STM - Source Thyristor Module LTM - Load Thyristor Module HPTK - Gate firing card XPTK - Attennator fead back card

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

HP TK

X P TN

LCI (Load Commuted Inverter) Thyristor Bridge

NOTE: In each Thyristor stack there are three Thyristors in series. Each Thyristor is having one indication card with neon lamp. In case of Thyristor short circuit this neon lamp will not glow. One Thyristor short circuit in a stack is allowed. If two Thyristors get shorted load / source commutation failure will arrive depending upon which thyristors have failed and channel will get tripped.

S ourc e break er

Transform er 11/ 2.3K V (D d o), 3kvA

P O W E R C O NV E RTE R B RID G E
Cooling Fans Cooling Fans

Load break er

UA 11kV B US
o Contr l ID Ch # 1 415V 3 P has e s upply form E S P
CONTROL & EXCITA TION PA NEL INTER FA CE INTER FA CE

Channel 1 o Contr l

RE A CTO R

415V 3 P has e s upply form E S P

CONTROL & EXCITA TION PA NEL

RE A CTO R

B RUS HLE S S S Y NCHRO NO US M O TO R

S ourc e break er o Contr l

Load break er
INTER FA CE INTER FA CE

o Contr l

UA 11kV B US
ID Ch # 2

Channel 2
Cooling Fans Cooling Fans

Transform er 11/ 2.3K V (D yn), 3kvA

P OW E R C ONV E RTE R B RID GE

T HYRIST OR FIRING
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3

1 6 2 120 deg.

3 4

5 6

1 2

DC Voltage Source

1 4

3 6

5 2

R Ph Y Ph B Ph

Synchronous Motor Stator Winding

DC Voltage Source

1 4

3 6

5 2

R Ph Y Ph B Ph

Synchronous Motor Stator Winding

DC Voltage Source

1 4

3 6

5 2

R Ph Y Ph B Ph

Synchronous Motor Stator Winding

DC Voltage Source

1 4

3 6

5 2

R Ph Y Ph B Ph

Synchronous Motor Stator Winding

DC Voltage Source

1 4

3 6

5 2

R Ph Y Ph B Ph

Synchronous Motor Stator Winding

DC Voltage Source

1 4

3 6

5 2

R Ph Y Ph B Ph

Synchronous Motor Stator Winding

DC Voltage Source

1 4

3 6

5 2

R Ph Y Ph B Ph

Synchronous Motor Stator Winding

R Ph

Y Ph

B Ph

FIRING SEQUENCE & PHASE CURRENTS

VFD Data for Motor: Base armature current per channel Amps Base Voltage(Ac r.m.s) Base speed / frequency Base exciter current Exciter Data: Rated EVC Current 74 Amps 2300 V 530 / 44.2 150 Amps 580

Maximum allowable continuous exciter stator current at standstill: 75 Amps

Nominal source voltage

2300 V AC

Source breaker tripping initiated through VFD system: This is other than protection tripping from HT S.W.gear) Source breaker tripping through an aux. relay (hand resettable flag relay) mounted on control panel. VAA13 relay on each channel. In case of source breaker tripping check this relay has operated on control panel of VFD room. If this relay has not operated tripping is from HT breaker trip circuit relays &

VAA13 relay can operate on following conditions: Through LCI panel source side fault through SWGR relay in LCI panel. Through 11KV/2.3KV transformer Oil temp. trip, winding temperature trip & Buchholz trip. In that case flag relay (FLAGRY) installed just above VAA13 relay shall operate & flag will come. Emergency push button is pressed. Trip command from control panel [CLOSE-NEUTRAL-TRIP] on VFD room.

POWER SUPPLIES
In control panel of VFD room there are following supplies for different interlocks & distribution:1.0 3Phase, 415 V AC supplies 02Nos. (1st from Ch # 1 LCI Panel & 2nd from Ch # 2 LCI Panel) which in turn fed from 415V ESP MCC.

415 V AC supplies stepped down to 110V AC, 1phase and 220 V AC, 1phase supplies through transformers. 110V supply used for control & interlock relays of both channels in control panel itself. 220V supply is used for space heaters of panels, motor, reactor, cubicle illumination lamps, door mounted printer and line drivers, temperature scanner, reactor temp. indicator, motor water leakage defector etc.

24V DC: 24V AC stepped down from 415V and then rectified to 24V DC for control panel indication lamp. Another 24V DC supply from FSSS for starting / stopping circuit of ID Fan channels. 220V DC: supply from station battery supply for source breaker tripping interlocks.

Power supplies in LCI Panel: . 2.3 KV main supply connected to Source Bridge in bridge panel. . 415 V 3 phase supply to C&E panel which is drawn from ESP feeder (separate source for each C&E panel for Ch # 1&2). 415V supply stepped down to 220V & 110V AC 220V, 10 AC is used for fan flow indicator & SEM rack fan. 110V AC, 1phase is used for power supplies to all

SOME MAJOR FAULTS: VFD trips on these faults Loss of cooling fan Source Overcurrent Load overcurrent Field Loss Load commutation failure Source commutation failure Load overvoltage fault Bridge differential pressure Gating supply undervoltage fault P105 supply undervoltage

SOME MAJOR FAULTS: VFD trips on these faults Overspeed Ground Fault Fan compartment door open Source Low line or deep undervoltage SOME MAJOR ALARMS: Attention needed to check Loss of speed reference Gating supply undervoltage Microprocessor alarm Bridge filter fuse blown Source undervolts Transformer alarm

START PERMISSIVES FOR THE CHANNELS (To be seen at VFD room): No emergency stop pressed. No motor overtemperature trip persisting Bus supervision 24V DC & 220V DC healthy Heating & Illumination CB 2 ON No water leakage in Motor Water flow healthy in motor CB3 in control panel ON, all indication lamp circuit healthy No transformer alarms persisting No transformer trips persisting

START PERMISSIVES FOR THE CHANNELS (To be seen at VFD room): No reactor alarm persisting No reactor trip persisting Motor isolator i.e., VFD breaker (VFD output to motor) not closed Source breaker closed

CLOSE PERMISSIVES FOR THE SOURCE BREAKER (To be seen at VFD room): No emergency stop pressed. No motor over temperature trip persisting Bus supervision 24V DC & 220V DC healthy Heating & Illumination CB 2 ON No water leakage in Motor Water flow healthy in motor CB3 in control panel ON, all indication lamp circuit healthy No transformer alarms persisting No transformer trips persisting

CLOSE PERMISSIVES FOR THE SOURCE BREAKER (To be seen at VFD room): No reactor alarm persisting No reactor trip persisting Permit to close source breaker from LCI panel ( from IOMA card : Swgr. Relay shall not be picked up

CHANNEL RUN PERMIT (To be seen at VFD room): No emergency stop pressed. No motor over temperature trip persisting Bus supervision 24V DC & 220V DC healthy Heating & Illumination CB 2 ON No transformer trips persisting No reactor trip persisting Source breaker closed Motor isolator i.e., VFD breaker (VFD output to motor) not closed

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