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Ergonomics

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

What is ergonomics ?

Body dimension, weight, Reach envelop, strength and movement envelop Treats human body as series of levers and fulcrums.

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

The spine is well sprung with resilient discs between the vertebrae and luckily, too. Otherwise, just one ordinary step would result in a minor concussion. The sacrum and coccyx cannot move but the 24 other vertebrae are connected by moveable joints. Together they make a very elastic construction

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

A wrong working posture, especially if you bend forward too much, will produce an uneven pressure on the discs. When the discs are "squeezed" out of shape, the surrounding tissue will compress or stretch. If the pressure becomes excessive, you may end up with a slipped disc. The outer ring of the disc will rupture so that the soft core will be squeezed out and press on the nerves.
Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

What can cause injuries ?


Repeated use over time of vibrating tools and equipment, such as a jackhammer; Tools and tasks which require twisting hand or joint movements, such as the work many mechanics perform; Applying force in an awkward position; Applying excessive pressure on parts of the hand, back, wrists or joints; Working with the arms outstretched or over the head; Working with a bent back; Lifting or pushing heavy loads.
Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Ergonomics injury groups

Manual material handling (37%) Repetitive strain injuries (30%) Posture (14%) Improper lighting (14%) Visual display units (VDU)-3% Other (2%)

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Types of injury
Sprains and strains (50%) Broken skin or bone (30%) Inflammation of joints (3%) Chemical burns (2%) Other (15%)

Note: Maximum number of injuries are caused due to ergonomic concerns at work place!

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Principles Of Ergonomics
(Heavy Physical Work) When ever possible, use mechanical power in place of heavy work. Machines can be used by workers to perform the most arduous tasks, not to replace workers. Heavy work should be varied with lighter work throughout the day. Rest periods must be included in the job. Consider ergonomic factors,such as the weight and shape of the load and how often a worker must lift the load, when designing heavy physical job tasks.
Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Principles Of Ergonomics
(Heavy Physical Work)

Other ergonomic recommendations include:


Reducing the weight of the load; Making the load easier to handle; Using storage techniques to make handling easier; Minimizing the distance a load must be carried; Minimizing the number of lifts; and Minimizing twisting of the body.

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Principles of Ergonomics
Well designed jobs consider the workers mental and physical characteristics as well as health and safety conditions. Job design determines whether the work is varied or repetitive, whether it allows the worker to be comfortable or forces him or her in to awkward position, and whether it involves interesting / stimulating tasks or boring / monotonous ones. There are a number of ergonomic factors that should be considered when designing or redesigning jobs, such as :
the type of tasks, how they need to be accomplished, the type of equipment that is needed to complete the tasks.
Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

(Job Design)

Principles of Ergonomics
(Job Design)
A well designed job should allow: A worker to vary the body position; It should include a variety of interesting tasks; Give the worker some decision making authority; Provide a sense of accomplishment; Include training for new job tasks; Provide adequate work / rest schedules; And allow an adjustment period for new job tasks.

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

As with the shorter than average individual, this has to have some effect. Though the degree of back pain, fatigue or aggravated tension experienced will vary, it will cause discomfort. In fact, backache is the third most widespread illness in our population.

The proper method of adjusting a chair for sitting comfort is to stand facing the chair and adjust it to a height just below the kneecaps. Then when you sit back in the chair your thighs will be parallel to the floor and your weight evenly distributed across the chair. While there are a regrettable number of chairs still being made with high and prominent arms that prevent the user from sitting properly positioned at his or her desk, the trend is towards chairs with recessed or sloping arms that do not cause this obstruction. Such chairs, of course, are highly recommended.

Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007

THE STUDY REVEALS THAT A NOMINAL 5% IMPROVEMENT IN PRODUCTIVITY WAS ACHIEVABLE USING ERGONOMICS ENHANCEMENTS AND IMPROVED WORK GROUP LAYOUT . IT HELPS IN REDUCING STAFF OVERALL SALARY BURDEN ALSO REDUCES BETTER SPACE UTILISATION IMPROVED QUALITY OF LIFE , IMPROVED
Safety Module: Industrial hazard, Rev 0.0, Mar 2007