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Charting and Diagramming Techniques for Operations Analysis

Chapter 9

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Objectives of Charts and Diagrams Used in Methods Engineering


1. To permit work processes to be communicated and comprehended more readily 2. To use algorithms specifically designed for the particular diagramming technique 3. To divide a given work process into its elements for analysis purposes 4. To provide a structure in the search for improvements 5. To represent a proposed new work process or method
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

How to Create / Develop the Chart or Diagram?


Analyst is intimately familiar with the process and develops a graphic to represent it Analyst observes and records information about the process One-on-one interviews with those familiar with the process
A graphic model of the process is developed based on these interviews

Group meetings with personnel familiar with process


The analyst records the discussion of the meeting. A graphic model of the process is developed based on the group meetings
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

How to Analyze the Chart or Diagram


Algorithmic analysis
Line balancing, critical path methods

Checklists
General questions applied to the particular process to assess whether they can be applied to the problem of interest

Brainstorming
Team activity in recommendations which participants contribute

Separating value-added and non-value-added operations


Value added steps:
1. 2. Important to customer Physically change the product or service
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Checklist of Questions - Example


What alternative starting material could be used? Should the part be produced or purchased? Can this operation be eliminated, combined, or simplified? Could a different joining method be used? Could the inspection task be automated?
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Categories of Charts and Diagrams


1. Network diagrams 2. Traditional industrial engineering charts and diagrams
Operation charts Process charts Flow diagrams Activity charts

1. Block diagrams and process maps 2. Gantt charts


Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Network Diagrams
Consist of:
Nodes representing operations, work elements, activities or other entities Arrows connecting the nodes indicates relationships among the nodes Direction of work flow between nodes Precedence among nodes Used to represent Work elements in assembly line balancing Work activities in CPM and PERT

Two-way flows (movement of materials):


Maximum number of arrows = n(n -1)

One-way arrows (precedence):


Maximum number of arrows =

n ( n 1) 2

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Network Diagram - Precedence Constraints


Restrictions on the order in which work elements can be performed

Precedence diagram

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Traditional IE Charts and Diagrams


Operation charts Process charts Flow diagrams Activity charts

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Operation Charts
Graphical and symbolic representation of the operations used to produce a product The time to accomplish the operation is sometimes also included. Two types of operations: 1. Processing and assembly operations Changing the shape, properties or surface of a material or workpart Joining two or more parts to form an assembly Inspection operations Checking the material, workpart, or assembly for quality or quantity
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

1.

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Operation Chart

Component Subassemb ly
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Checklist of Questions Used to Analyze an Operation Chart


The focus of the operation chart is on the materials of a product and the operations on them Questions related to material What alternative starting material could be used? Make or buy decision: should the part be produced in the factory or purchased? Questions related to operations Is this processing operation necessary? Can this operation be eliminated, combined, or simplified? Could a different joining method be used? Questions related to inspection Is this inspection necessary? Could the inspection task be automated?
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Operation Charts

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Process Charts
Graphical and symbolic representation of the processing activities performed either on something or by somebody. The chart consists of a vertical list of activities using symbols to represent operations, inspections, moves, delays and storage and other activities. Principal types of process charts:
1. 2. 3. Flow process chart analysis of a material or workpiece being processed Worker process chart analysis of a worker performing a task Form process chart analysis of the processing of paperwork forms

All these charts are used improvements of operations

to

examine

for

possible

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Process Chart


Uses five symbols to detail the work performed on a material or workpart as it is processed through a sequence of operations and activities: Operation processing of a material Inspection check for quality or quantity Move transport of material to new location Delay material waiting to be processed or moved Storage material kept in protected location
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

SYMBOLS USED IN FLOW PROCESS CHART

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Process Charts


If the processing operation combined with an inspection at the same workstation: combine symbols - a circle inside a square Provides more detail about the steps required to process a material than in the operation chart: is used to study a single work part rather than the multiple components of an assembly The chart also indicates distances for move activities and time values for other activities

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Form for Flow Process Chart

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Checklist of Questions Used to Analyze a Flow Process Chart


Questions Related to Material
Make or buy decisions: Should the part be produced in the factory or purchased from an outside vendor?

Questions Related to Operations and Inspections


Is the operation time too high? Is the inspection operation necessary?

Questions Related to Moves


How can moves be shortened or eliminated by combining or eliminating operations? Can the level of mechanization in material handling be increased?

Questions Related to Delays


Is the delay avoidable? What is the reason for the delay? Can the reason be eliminated?

Questions Related to Storage


Is the storage necessary? Why cant the material be move immediately to the next operation?
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Process Chart

Unplann ed vs. Planned stoppag e

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Process Chart

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Worker Process Charts


Used to analyze the activities of a human worker as (s)he performs a task that requires movement around a facility. Also known as process chart-person analysis The symbols are the same as flow process chart
Storage activity is omitted since it is difficult to interpret in the context of human work activity

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Form Process Charts


Used to analyze the flow of paperwork forms and office procedures

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Diagram
Drawing of the facility layout with the addition of lines representing movement of materials or workers within the facility Arrows on the lines represent direction of movement Often used in conjunction with a process chart
Operations, inspections, delays, and storages at specific locations are identified by numbers referenced to the activity number

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Diagram
The flow diagram reveals problems in the work flow that may not readily be identified using the process chart alone. For example, if the work flow involves considerable backtracting, this can be identified in the flow diagram, whereas it is indicated only as distances in the process chart. Thus, it can be used to detect excessive backtracking (which might be missed in a process chart), excessive travel, possible traffic congestion, points where delays typically occur and inefficient layout.
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Flow Diagram

Flow diagram for worker setting up a milling machine:

Note the large number of trips back and forth between the milling machine and the tool crib
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Activity Charts
A listing of the activities of one or more subjects (e.g., workers, machines) plotted against a time scale to indicate graphically how much time is spent on each activity These activities are generally repetitive. Types of activity charts:
Right-hand/left-hand activity chart (a.k.a. workplace activity chart) Worker-machine activity chart Worker-multimachine activity chart Gang activity chart (a.k.a. multiworker activity chart)
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Shading Formats for Activity Charts


Instead of using symbols for the work activities, as in the other charts, the activities are indicated by vertical lines or bars When bars are used, they are shaded or colored to indicate the kind of the activity being performed.

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Activity Chart
Activity charts usually have more than one time scale e.g., activity time and cumulative time

Activity chart for a worker performing a repetitive task:

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Multiple-Activity Charts
Used to track several participants working together They consists of multiple columns, one for each participant. Objective: to analyze how the workload is coordinated and shared among the entities.
Right-hand/left-hand activity chart Worker-machine activity chart Worker-multimachine activity chart Gang activity chart (a.k.a. multiworker activity chart)
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Right-Hand/Left-Hand Activity Chart


Shows contributions of the right and left hands balance of the workload between the right and left hands Remember the example with pegs
Task involves placing pegs into a peg board Note that left hand is used as a workholder

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Worker-Machine Activity Chart


Shows how work elements are allocated between a worker and a machine Help to identify opportunities for cycle time improvements e.g., replacement of external work elements by internal work elements

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Worker-Multimachine Activity Chart


Can be used to indicate machine interference (when a machine must wait for service because worker is currently servicing another machine)

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Gang Activity Chart


This chart indicates activities in which two or more workers performing together as a team Also known as multiworker activity chart Can be used to analyze the operations of different stations in the the same chart Objective: To better coordinate the activities and balance the workload among the workers

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Block Diagrams
Graphic consisting mostly of blocks and arrows to portray the relationships among components of a physical system Commonly used in linear control theory, where
Arrows represent the flow of signals or variables in the system Blocks contain transfer functions that define how input signals are mathematically transformed into output signals

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Block Diagram
Used to depict flows and interrelationships among components in complex systems Block diagrams are commonly used in linear control theory, as shown below for a feedback control system

x2 = x1 Cx3 , x3 = Ax2 x3 = Ax1 ACx3

Output y AB = = Input x1 1 + AC

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Process Maps
A process is a sequence of tasks that add value to inputs to produce outputs Basic process map is a block diagram showing the steps in a process Widely applied to business processes Also applicable to production, logistics, and service operations Levels of detail: High-level process map macroscopic view of process and includes only the most important steps Low-level process map used to map each of the steps in a high-level process map
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Symbols in the Basic Process Map


Process map symbols: (a) beginning/ending point of the process, (b) task or activity step, (c) decision point Symbols are connected by arrows to indicate sequence

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Basic Process Map

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Alternative Forms of Process Maps


Relationship process map block diagram that shows the input-output connections among departments (or other functional components) of an organization Cross-functional process map block diagram showing how the steps of a process are accomplished by various departments Departments listed as rows separated by dashed lines Also called a swim-lane chart
Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Relationship Map
Block diagram that shows the input-output connections among departments (or other functional components) of an organization

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Cross-Functional Process Map


Block diagram showing how the steps of a process are accomplished by departments

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Gantt Charts
A graphical display of schedule project activities on a time axis Project activities are listed on a vertical axis Activity time durations are shown as horizontal bars with starting and ending times

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Gantt Chart: Planned Activities


Shows planned activities for a construction project

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Gantt Chart: Progress


Shows actual work accomplished at some point during week 7

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Gantt Chart Showing Precedence


Arrows can be used to indicate precedence relationships among activities

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.