Sei sulla pagina 1di 30

Genetics & Plant Breeding

J.G. Mexal A/H 100 G Spring 2006

Topics
History Cell Division (mitosis) Reproduction (meiosis) Role of DNA Role of RNA Plant Breeding & Genetics

Gregor Mendel (1822-1864)


Worked in monastery garden Time period = 1856-1863 Published: Experiments on Plant Hybrids in obscure journal Worked discovered in 1900

Gregor Mendel
Dominant vs Recessive genes

S = smooth s = wrinkled

Gregor Mendel
Dominant vs Recessive genes (2)

F1

S = smooth s = wrinkled Y = yellow y = green

Gregor Mendel
Incomplete dominance

Important Milestones
1866 Gregor Mendel 1947 Barbara McClintock (jumping genes) 1953 Watson & Crick (structure of DNA) 1970s Foreign gene expressed in tobacco 1986 Transgenic plants field tested 1990s Bt gene inserted into crops 1994 Flavr-Savr tomato released

Sex in the Garden

Types of Propagation

#10 #9 #8 #7 #6 #1 #5 #4 #2

Sex in the Garden

Types of Propagation
Sexual
Self-pollination -- Wind pollination Cross-pollination -- Insect pollination

Asexual
Cuttings Grafting -- Layering -- Biotechnology

Sex in the Garden

Sexual Propagation
Terms
DNA : Deoxyribonucleic Acid a polymeric molecule
consisting of nucleotides (ribose, PO4, and adenine, cytosine, guanine, & thymine). Found in nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria. Makes RNA.

RNA: Ribonucleic Acid a polymeric molecule


consisting of nucleotides (ribose, PO4, and adenine, cytosine, guanine, & uracil). Found in nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, ribosomes. Makes proteins.

Building Blocks

Sex in the Garden

Sexual Propagation
Terms
Chromosome: genetic material of cell organized in
linear structures

Gene: genetic material on a chromosone determining


a characteristic

Genotype: the genetic makeup of an organism Phenotype: the physical manifestation of the
genotype modified by the environment

Sex in the Garden

Sexual Propagation
Terms
Diploid: a cell containing 2 sets (2n)of chromosomes
(vegetative cell)

Haploid: a cell containing 1 (1n)set of chromosomes


(pollen or ovule)

Polyploid: a cell containing more than 2 sets of chromosomes. Usually vegetatively reproduced.
Banana = Potato = Strawberry = 3n 4n 8n

Sex in the Garden

Sexual Propagation
Terms
Mitosis: cell division where nuclear complement (1n
or 2n) is maintained

Meiosis: cell division where nuclear complement (2n


only) is reduced to 1n (gametes)

Hybridization: controlled cross-fertilization Independent Assortment: each chromosome


operates independently during mitosis & meiosis

Mutation: a heritable change in a gene

Sex in the Garden

Sexual Propagation
Terms Monoecious: Both sexes on same plant (e.g. corn, pecan) Dioecious: Sexes on different plants
Holly (female) Juniper (male or female) Pistachio (female) Cottonwood (male) Asparagus (male)] Ash (male)

Cell Division-Mitosis

Cell Division-Meiosis

Sexual Propagation

Meiosis
Pollen
#10 #9 #8 #7 #6 #1 #5 #4 #2

Ovule

Flower

microspores

megaspores

Sexual Propagation

Fertilization
Generative cell Tube nucleus Sperm cells Polar nuclei Pollen grain Pollen tube Egg Embryo sac Endosperm 3n Zygote 2n Embryo 2-nucleate 4-nucleate

Genetic Engineering
The Plan:
Find a gene of interest Develop cell culture of crop Insert the gene (tools) Hope it gets incorporated in plant DNA Have gene product expressed Regenerate plants from cells Field test to see if it works!

The Tools
Agrobacterium Gene Gun Electroporation Microinjection Liposomes

Plant:People Interactions
People to Plant Moving plants
The Good Corn Chile Peanut Apple Potato The Bad Saltcedar Tumbleweed Kudzu Tree of Heaven Potato and The Ugly Chestnut blight Dutch Elm Disease Sudden Oak Death White Pine Blister Rust Karnal bunt

Endangering plants Chestnut, Echinacea Creating new plants Bt corn, RoundUp Ready
Cotton

Biotechnology Advances
Flavr-Savr Tomato Ring spot virusresistant Papaya Golden Rice (vitamin A) Round-up resistant crops (herbicide) BT crops (insecticide) Designer plants

Genetic Engineering
The Future:
Antibiotics in fruits Salt tolerance?? #10 #9 #8 #7 #6 #1 #5 #4 #2 Drought tolerance?? Freeze tolerance (INA) Mexals botanical kindergarten??

Plant:People Interactions
Creating new plants for the future
Sensitive Noses: Beano-Beans Movie Goers:Glo-in-the-dark Popcorn Indecisive New Mexicans: NuMex RednGreen Chile Americans: Atkins-friendly Maple Syrup Christmas: Epiphany Poinsettia Kinder-garden: Nile water lily X Venus fly-trap

Plant:People Interactions
People to Plant
Creating new plants for the future
Sensitive Noses: Beano-Beans Movie Goers:Glo-in-the-dark Popcorn Indecisive New Mexicans: RednGreen Chile Americans: Atkins-friendly Maple Syrup Christmas: Epiphany Poinsettia Kinder-garden: Nile water lily X Venus fly-trap

Sex in the Garden

Asexual Propagation
Terms
Cutting PGR (hormone) Sport Scion Rootstock Graft Union Tissue Culture

Sex in the Garden

Asexual Propagation
Vegetative Propagation
Timing (season) PGR Stem Wounding RH -- Age (branch) -- Leaf Area -- Cutting Size -- T

Rooting of Blue Spruce/ Wagner1987


Rooting %
2 0 1 5

Rooting %
45 40 35 30

1 0

25
0
Dc e Jn a Fb e M a r Ar p M a y

Collection Month
1 2 1 0

20 15 10 5 0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

2 0 20 00 40 00 60 00 80 00 100 00

Cutting Length (cm)


IBA Treatment (ppm)

Genetics & Plant Breeding


Things to Know
DNA Gene Chromosome Ploidy
Haploid (N) Diploid (2N) Polyploid (3N, 4N, 6N)

Things to Know
RNA Mitosis Meiosis