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CENG 2062



Traditional Houses of Ethiopia--- an over view

Wurch (Cold highlands): Areas above 3000 meters and annual rainfall is above 2200mm. Barley is the dominate crop and light frost often forms at night. Dega (Cool, humid, highlands): Areas from 2500-3000 meters where annual rainfall ranges from 1200 to 2200-mm. Barley and wheat are the dominate crops. Weina Dega (Temperate, cool sub-humid, highlands): Areas between 1500 to 2500 meters, where annual rainfall ranges from 800-1200-mm. This is where most of the population lives and all regional types of crops are grown, especially teff. Kolla (Warm, semi-arid lowlands): Areas below 1500 meters with annual rainfall ranges from 200-800 mm. Sorghum and corn are grown, with teff grown in the better areas. The kolla is warm year round and temperatures range from 27 to 50 degrees Celsius. Bereha (Hot and hyper-arid): General term that refers to the extreme form of kolla, where annual rainfall is less than 200-mm. The bereha has desert type vegetation where pastoralism is the main economic activity. This area encompasses the Denakil Depression, the Eritrean lowlands, the eastern Ogaden, the deep tropical valleys of the Blue Nile and Tekez rivers, and the peripheral areas along the Sudanese and Kenyan borders.

Traditional house (tukle)


Traditional house (tukle) Ethiopia in village proper, near market exterior Lalibela house

stone, millet grass thatch vernacular architecture round rock cut

single family dwelling, 2-story thatch roof stone house. In traditional 2-sto Ethiopian houses such as this one, th lower floor houses goats (note fence area off to left).

Houses near Nazareth, Ethiopia, around 1949.

Houses near Nazareth, Ethiopia, around 1949.

Traditional Dorze houses, Ethiopia

Local houses - southern Ethiopia

Houses in Lalibela, one of Ethiopia's holiest cities.

The tukul are traditional houses. This one is in the church complex and preserved as part of the World Heritage site. Some of the monks still live in these houses in the village. The cooking area is outside the building with only space for sleeping inside.

One of the picturesque traditional houses of the country.

Ethiopia, Tigray Province, Gheralta Mountains. A Tigray homestead overlooks the spectacular Gheralta Mountains in Northern Ethiopia. Flat-roofed stone houses, which are common throughout Tigray Province, may have been introduced into Ethiopia from Arabia as early as 700 BC.

traditional in the town of Lalibela

Ethiopia, Shewa Province, Sendafa. An attractively decorated traditional thatched house belonging to an Orthodox Christian community in the Ethiopian Highlands, northeast of Addis Ababa. Most Amhara people living in the Ethiopian Highlands adhere to the Ethiopian Orthodox faith. Ethiopia is Africa"s oldest Christian nation

detached house is a free-standing residential building

Semi-detached housing consists of pairs of houses built side by side as units sharing a party wall and usually in such a way that each house's layout is a mirror image of its twin.

A terrace(d) or row house is a style of medium-density housing where a row of identical or mirror-image houses share side walls

A duplex house/apartment is a living space at two or more levels

Duplex Apartments,

A condominium, or condo, is the form of housing tenure and other real property where a specified part of a piece of real estate/l






Gotera CondominiumHousing- Addis Ababa

Hospital Buildings

One of the largest private medical centers in the world, Cleveland

Theatre Recreational Building

Cinema Hall Recreational Building

Cinema Hall

open air theatre

open air theatre

Bus Station

Bus Station

railway station

railway station

railway station

Sports Auditorium--

Sports Pavilion

Swimming pool

Bole International Airport Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Bole International Airport Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Bole International Airport Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Bank Building-Commercial building

Court House.






Fruit Stall Market

Vegetable Market

flower market

Commercial Avenues

Large dairies.

Refinery Industrial Buildings

Industrial Buildings

Textile Industry

car factory.

car factory.

Cold Storages

Living room design

Living room design-Lighting and Ventilation

Grouping ---Living room design

Contemporary Living Room Design

Modern Kitchen Design

Modern Kitchen Design

Modern Kitchen Design

Kids Modern bedroom Design

Small bedroom design is a problem to make every inch count floor space

Modern Bathrooms from Ideal Standard

Furniture layout

Prospects--Aesthetic appeal

Grouping Disposition of rooms

Unique luxury living room furniture ideas

Grouping Disposition of rooms

living room design

Sanitation:Daylight and outdoor views have proven benefits to health care facilities

Sun Lighting Design Style


The largest temple corridor in India


Hotel Lobbies

Building Lobbies.

Elegance of a Building

Addis Ababa'sSkyscraper

Architecture: Addis AbabaExhibition Center

Top 10 Major Religious Buildings

1 St. Peters Basilica, Vatican City

. This is the largest church in the world that never existed. Located in Italys capital Rome. With a length of 730 ft (220 m) wide and 500 ft (150 m), It has the biggest part of every Christian church in the world, and accommodate up to 60,000 people. St. Peters style is Renaissance and Baroque architecture. Basilica is one of the most sacred Christian sites and the greatest of all Christian churches. Built from 1506 to 1626 by Michelangelo among one of the architects. The building is officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano. The church is known as a place of pilgrimage, because of its function and history of the liturgy association.

2Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, Brazil

. The new Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida was built in 1955 and designed in a Greek cross. Has a length of 173 m (567 ft) wide and 168 m (551 ft), and holds 45,000 people. Pope John Paul II called the church the most important National Marian Shrine in Brazil. Officially declared as the largest Marian Temple in the World in 1984

3.Cathedral of Seville, Spain

Also known as Catedral de Santa Maria de la Sede (Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See), Cathedral of Seville is claimed by some as the largest Gothic cathedral in the world. Its construction began in 1402 and continued until the 16th century. The total area covers 11,520 sq m.

4. Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, United States

The Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine in the City and Diocese of New York claimed to be the largest Anglican Cathedral and the fourth largest Christian church in the world. Has a length of 183.2 m (601 ft) and width 70.7 m (232 ft). This church was originally designed as a Byzantine-Roman, but transformed into Gothic. A huge fire damaged the church in 2001. construction and restoration still continues today, so its get nickname: St. John the Unfinished.

5. Liverpool Cathedral, United Kingdom

The Cathedral Church of Christ in Liverpool, England is the fifth largest cathedral in the world. This church occupies a total area of 103,334 square feet (9600 square meters) and the main building made of sandstone material. Cathedral bell in the tower is the largest and highest in the world that is 219 ft. and weighing 31 tons. This bell is named Bartlett Bells.

6. Church of the Most Holy Trinity, Portugal

The Church of the Most Holy Trinity is the fourth largest Catholic Church and the sixth largest Christian church in the world. Built between 2004 and 2007 and was ordained on October 12, 2007. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity was fully paid with gifts from the pilgrims. Has a length of 95 m (310 ft) and width 115 m (380 ft), accommodating up to 9,000 people.

7. Milan Cathedral, Italy

Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano) is often referred to as one of the largest churches in the world. Construction began in 1386 and completed in 1965. This cathedral has a length of 157 m (515 ft) wide and 92 m (302 ft), accommodating 40,000 people. This is the largest Gothic cathedral in the world and one of the most famous buildings in Europe.

8. Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Belgium

The National Basilica of the Sacred Heart is a Roman Catholic basilica and is the parish church in Brussels, Belgium. King Leopold II laid the first stone in 1905 during the birthday celebration of the 75th Independence of Belgium. This development was stopped because of World War II, construction completed in 1969. Has a length of 164.5 m (540 ft) and width of 107.80 m (353.7 ft). The church is the sixth worlds largest catholic church and seventh among all the Christian

9. Basilica of Our Lady of Peace, Ivory Coast

The Basilica of our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro, a Roman Catholic basilica is listed by Guinness World Records as the largest church in the world. Its area is 30,000 square meters (322,917 sq ft), accommodating 18,000 worshipers. However, calculated on the whole region including the rectory and villas, which are not part of the church. Basilica was built between 1985 and 1989 and was ordained in 1990 by Pope John Paul II.

10. Sanctuary of Our Lady of Liche, Poland

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of lichen is the largest church in Poland,seventh in Europe and tenth in the world. The church was built from 1994 until 2004. Has a length of 120 m (393 ft) wide and 77 m (252 ft). Sanctuary of Our Lady of lichen was built to honor the Virgin Mary and is home to the 200-year-old painting known as Our Lady of Sorrows, Queen of Poland.

Velankanni church- Tamil Nadu -India

Sun Temple, Konark: India

Chittorgarh Fort, Rajasthan- India

Birla Temple, Kolkata-India

The Famous Kajuraho Temple, Kajuraho, Madhya Pradesh- India

Islamic Architecture

1. Masjid al-Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia:

The ever great mosque and Holy place Masjid al-Haram is the largest mosque in entire world. It is situated in the Holy city of Mecca and encircled the Kaaba Shareef. All the Muslims from every corner of the world turn over here and do their daily worships. It is all better recognized as the Grand Mosque. It has capacity to accommodate up to four million Muslim having area of 4,008,020 square meters (990.40 acres), it happens usually during the Hajj period which is also one of the largest gathering ever been in whole world.

2. Al-Masjid al_Nabawi: Medina, Saudi Arabia

It is also well recognized as the Prophets Mosque which is located in Medina, Saudi Arabia. It is well respected by both caste Shia and Sunni Muslims as It was the last place where our beloved Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W) took rest, and it is second holiest place after the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca and also termed as the second

3. Imam

Reza Shrine:Iran

It is the third largest mosque in the world which contains the tomb of Imam Ridha who was the 8th Imam of Twelver Shias which is located in the city of Mashhad, Iran. Poles apart from the tomb, it also possess the Goharshad Mosque, museum, library, four seminaries, graveyard, The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, a dinning hall for pilgrims, huge prayer halls, and varieties of other sorts of buildings and monuments.

4. Istiqlal Mosque:Indonesia
It is the largest mosque in South-east Asia and number four largest mosque in the world considering the capacity to accommodate people that are located in the city of Jakarta, Indonesia. It is also refer as the national mosque for Indonesia because they commemorate their independence by gathering in this place in order to take Gods blessings, and it is reason why it is named as Istiqlal which is literally meant in English word as Independence


5. The Hassan II Mosque:

It is designed by a Frensh architect Michel Pinseau and built by Bouygues which is the fifth largest mosque in the world located in the city of Casablanca, Morocco. The outlook given to it resembles to the Atlantic and has capacity to accommodate 25,000 worshipers at a time which looks quite awful at a enormous glass floor. However, considering outer space adjoined to it could also be used as to accommodate more worshipers up to 80,000 which come to total of 105,000 worshipers. The unique and recognition point of this is Its minaret, which is the tallest minaret in entire world having length of 210m (689 ft).

6. Faisal Mosque, Islamabad, Pakistan:

The great and unique mosque, Faisal Mosque is the largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and placed at 6th spot in the list of largest mosque in the world. However, it was considered as the largest mosque in the world from 1986 to 1993, but later on It was overtaken by the development of the Masjid al-Haram and the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. Except this, on completion of the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco, it came to number 6th spot in the list. It is considered as the National Mosque of Pakistan, having area of 5,000 square meters (54,000 ft) and could accommodate 300,000 worshipers comfortably.

7. Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan:

It is also well known as the Emperors Mosque in foreign language is the 2nd largest mosque in the Pakistan and in South Asia as well. It greatly the typify the beauty, passion and majesty of the Mughal era; it is one of the famous site and tourist place in Lahore which attracts huge figure of people. It has the capacity to accommodate a total of 110,000 worshipers at a time in its main hall, courtyard and entry.

8. Sheikh Zayed Mosque:U.A.E

It is termed as the largest mosque in U.A.E and number 8th largest mosque in entire world. It was like a dedication to Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, who was the founder and first President of the U.A.E, buried in the same place. It was unlocked in the Holy Islamic month of Ramadan in the year of 2007.

9. Jama Masjid, Delhi, India:

It is well known and very old since it was built in the year of 1656 AD developed by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, who also built the wonder place, Taj Mahal in the same country, India. It is named as Jama Masjid because all the Muslim community over there offered congregational Friday Noon prayer, Jummah. It has capacity to accommodate 25,000 worshipers.

10. Baitul Mukarram, Bangladesh:

It was built and developed in last century during the 1960s decade located in the capital city of Bangladesh, Dhaka, also known as the National Mosque of Bangladesh. It has capacity to easily hold up to 30,000 worshipers at a moment. However, government is planning to extend its area which would accommodate up to 40,000 worshipers than as Muslims getting overloaded during the holy month of Ramadan

11. Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Oman:

11. Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Oman:

This great mosque was built in the year of 1992 in Oman and has also nominated in a competition for its design after one year of its opening in 1993. It took a complete figure of

12. Id Kah Mosque, China:

This well named mosque is situated in Kashgar, Xinjiang, China, built by Saqsiz Mirza in ca. 1442; which is a largest in its country and number twelfth in whole globe. Since Friday is a Holy day for Muslims, so it is crowded nearly 10,000 worshipers every Friday while it has capacity to accommodate 20,000 figure of people.

13. Masjid Negara, Malaysia:

This very beautiful and awful mosque is located in Kaula Lampur and taken as the National mosque of Malaysia. It can easily accommodate 15,000 of crown quite easily and consists of 13 acres of area. The design for this mosque was designed by a small team comprises of three personas from UK, architect Howard Ashley, and Malaysians Hisham Albakri and Baharuddin Kassim. This awful mosque is greatly known for its design and architect.

14. Masjid-e-Aqsa Rabwah, Pakistan:

It is the largest mosque for Ahmadiyya Muslim Community merely which is inaugurated right on 31st of March, 1972. It has capacity to accommodate about 12,000 worshipers. It took 6 years in completion as Mirza Nasir Ahmad laid the foundation specifically on 28th of October in 1966 for the Masjid-e-Aqsa.

15. Baitul Futuh Mosque:

It is the largest mosque in Western Europe consists of 5.2 acres that can accommodate approximately 10,000 worshipers. It was completely financed by Ahmadiyya Muslim community which is located in the south-west of London, Morden.

Istanbul Turkey.

16. Gronzy Central Dome Mosque:

This beautiful mosque is officially named as Akhmad Kadyrov Grozny Central Dome Mosque in the capital city of Chechnya, Grozny; and put up with the name of Akhmad Kadyrov. The design for this mosque is greatly inspire from the Blue Mosque in Istanbul. It was recently inaugurated right on 16th of October, 2008 in participation with Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov. It is listed in one of the biggest mosque in Europe which can accommodate about 10,000 of worshipers.

17. Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul:

This historical mosque was built in time period of 1609 to 1616 during the ruling era of Ahmed I (from 1453-1923). It is also well recognized as Blue Mosque as it has been designed with beautiful blue tiles that really look adorable. As many of the largest mosques have tomb of their own founder, Sultan Ahmed Mosque has also the tomb of its founder

18. Al Fateh Mosque: bahrain -Manam

It is also well known as Al-Fateh Islamic Center & Al Fateh Grand Mosque which is capable enough to easily accommodate about 7,000 of crowd at a moment. It is situated in the capital city of Bahrain, Manama. It is near by the Royal Bahraini Palace which is the residence of the King of Bahrain Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa. The unique element of it is that the dome is purely built of fiberglass.

19. Masjid-e-Tooba: Pakistan

Masjid-e-Tooba which is also simply refers as Tooba Masjid which is located in the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. However, it is also known as Gol Masjid locally. This beautiful mosque was built in 1969 in the location of Defense Housing Society, Karachi. It is usually nominated as the largest mosque having largest solitary dome in the world. The dome of the mosque is 72 meters in diameter with no supporting and central pillars. It has only one minaret of 70 meters of height. The main hall of the mosque can easily accommodate 5,000 worshipers. The unique factor is a person speaking at one end of the domes hall can be heard clearly at the other end. This beautiful designed was proposed by Pakistani architect Dr Babar Hamid Chauhan.

20. Al-Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem:

Al-aqsa is an Islamic Holy place which is located in the old city of Jerusalem. This mosque is also usually referred as alHaram ash_Sharif or Sacred Noble Sanctuary which is the Holy spot in Judaism. Apart from al-Haram and Masjid Nabawi, it is taken as the third holiest spot in Islam as Muslims community believes that the Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W) was transported from al-Haram Mosque to al-Aqsa when He was on a Night Journey. According to historical epic of Islam that at initially stages Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W) was offering prayers towards this site of al-Aqsa but later on Allah (GOD) ordered Him to follow Kaaba direction from

Angkor Wat (City Temple) is a vast temple complex featuring

the magnificent remains of several capitals of the Khmer Empire, from the 9th to the 15th century AD. These include the famous Angkor Wat temple, the worlds largest single religious monument, and the Bayon temple (at Angkor Thom) with its multitude of massive stone faces. During its long history Angkor went through many changes in religion converting between Hinduism to Buddhism several times.

Hindu temple- Indonesia

Prambanan is the largest and most beautiful Hindu temple complex in Indonesia. Located about 18 km east of Yogyakarta, it is somewhat overshadowed by the even more awe-inspiring Borobudur situated just next door. The two sites are quite different in style though, with Prambanan being a collection of tall and pointed Hindu temples, instead of the single large Buddhist stupa of Borobudur. Prambanan has three main temples dedicated to Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva and was built around 850AD by the Mataram Kingdom, rulers of central Java.

The Virupaksha Temple in the city of Hampi started out as a small shrine and grew into a large complex under the Vijayanagara rulers. It is believed that this temple has been functioning uninterruptedly ever since the small shrine was built in the 7th century AD which makes it one of the oldest functioning temples in India. The largest entrance tower of the temple is 50 meters high.

Dedicated to Lord Ranganatha (a reclining form of Lord Vishnu), the Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam is an important shrine that receives millions of visitors and pilgrims every year. With an area of 156 acres (6,31,000 m), the Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple is one of the largest religious complexes in the world. The oldest structure of the temple dates back to the 10th century.

Although officially part of the Angkor Wat complex, Banteay Srei lies 25 km (15 miles) north-east of the main group of temples, enough to list it separately here. The temple was completed in 967 AD and is built largely of red sandstone, a medium that lends itself to the elaborate decorative wall carvings which are still clearly visible today. Banteay Srei is the only major temple at Angkor not built for a king, instead it

The village of Khajuraho is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. Its numerous Hindu and Jain temples are famous for their erotic sculpture. The temples were built over a span of 200 years, from 950 to 1150. A few of the temples are dedicated to the Jain pantheon and the rest to Hindu deities, to Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, and various Devi forms.

The Brihadishwara Temple, located in Thanjavur, was built by the Chola king Rajaraja I in the 11th century. The worlds first complete granite temple, Brihadishwara is a brilliant example of the Dravidian style of temple architecture. The temple tower is 66 meters (216 feet) high making it one of the tallest temples in the world.

Situated on a large rock, Tanah Lot is one of the most famous temple in Bali, and probably the most photographed. The Tanah Lot temple has been a part of Balinese mythology for centuries. The temple is one of 7 sea temples, each within eyesight of the next, to form a chain along the south-western coast of Bali.