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DEM604 Human Resource and Personnel Management

DAMULO WENNA 2nd sem. S.Y. 2011-2012

an increase in rank which may also be accompanied by a raise in pay, benefits, and responsibility someone is rewarded with a promotion when he or she performs exemplary work, or shows aptitude for a position with more responsibility

Enable management to obtain the best

talent available within the company to fill more senior posts Provide employees with the opportunity to advance their careers within the company

Promotion is the advancement from one position to another involving increase in duties and responsibilities as authorized by law, and increase in compensation and benefits.


employment opportunity the condition in which all individuals have an equal chance for employment, regardless of their race, color, religion, sex age, disability, or national origin.

-Even though women make up almost 50% of the workforce today and hold almost 52% of managerial positions in professional occupations, as you start to go up the pyramid, the real issues begin -Men are promoted on potential, while women are promoted only after they have demonstrated competence and results
Elaine Sarsynski, executive vice president for MassMutuals Retirement Services Division and CEO of MassMutual International

a system in which the talented are chosen and moved ahead on the basis of their achievement

Glass Ceiling -the unseen, and unbreakable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements

Person-centered understanding of the gender issue Pipeline theory is premised on the relatively late participation of women in tertiary education and professional life. It argues that the effectiveness relies on women at senior Its under-representation of levels will reverse once a generation of womens capacity to appropriately qualified women move through successfully hierarchies organizational negotiate and become better their promotion placed for way up the(Rosener, 1995) organizational hierarchy

whereas in 1990 men were more likely to report having received a promotion than women were, by 1996 the promotion rate of women was slightly higher than that of men

the qualitative nature of promotions appears to be the same for men and women. Rather than being automatic, promotions are linked to increased responsibilities and a change in work duties

59.3 percent of all women were in the labor force while 73.3 percent of all men were in the labor force in 2005 Over the past decade (1995-2005), roughly 17 million jobs have been created. Women secured nearly half of these jobs (48.9 percent).

Projections show that of the 10 fastest growing occupations between the 2004-14 period, women already comprise the majority in 7 of these occupations. This fact suggests that women will continue to find jobs in growth occupations.

OCCUPATIONS-- In 2005, for women who were full-time, wage and salary workers, the ten most prevalent occupations were: Secretaries and administrative assistants (2,611,000) Elementary and middle school teachers (1,801,000) Registered nurses (1,654,000) Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (1,118,000) Cashiers (1,064,000) Customer service representatives (1,010,000) First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers (979,000) First-line supervisors/managers of office and administrative support (953,000) Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks (861,000) Accountants and auditors (855,000) -US Department of Labor 2011

Making Promotion Decisions

Decision 1: Decision 2: Decision 3: Seniority How Should Is the Process vs. We Measure Formal or Competence Competence? Informal?

Decision 4: Vertical, Horizontal, or Other?

Promotion: Unfair Labour Practice EC3223 SKWATSHA v DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Commissioner: Mr Vermaak Case No.: EC3223 This was an unfair labour practice dispute, on the basis that the employee had applied for numerous promotion posts, and had never received adequate feedback from the department about these applications. The one occasion he did receive acknowledgment of receipt of an application, he found that it was for posts he had not applied for. The employee was later called in for an interview, but upon investigation, found that the post in question was the one he occupied at the time.

The Commissioner found that the employer had committed an unfair labour practice, and ordered that the employee should inform the department of all posts he had applied for, and the department was to provide feedback in terms of: * minimum requirements for the posts; * whether the posts had been filled; * names, qualifications and experience of the people who had been appointed to those posts; * process followed in appointing those people; * reasons why the employee had not been appointed; and * whether the departments affirmative action requirements had been complied with.

After going through the interview with all the shortlisted candidates and carefully matched their qualification against the job requirement , James decided to promote Miller Stewart. The reasons why he did not pick the other 3 candidates are as follows:Robert Welsh is currently pursuing evening course in Marketing, hence it would not work out to promote him because his job is not in line with his long term career choice. John White is an outside candidate, even though he has the supervisory experience, XYZ Corporation already has qualified candidates within the Company. William Taylor has good engineering background, so he is more technically qualified. Besides, he is a loner and may not be suitable for the position. In view of all the above, the Human Resource officers opinion that Miller Stewart is the best choice. Just that he needs to contain his emotions to smooth over some rough spots in human relations.

An employee has the right to refuse promotion. There is no law which compels an employee to accept a promotion. Promotion is in the nature of a gift or reward. Any person may refuse to accept a gift or reward. Such refusal to be promoted is a valid exercise of such right and he cannot be punished thereof. (Dosch vs. NLRC, G. R. No. 51182, July 5, 1983; See also Erasmo vs. Home Insurance & Guaranty Corporation, G.R. No. 139251, Aug. 29, 2002).
An employee, therefore, cannot be promoted, even if merely as a result of a transfer, without his consent. A transfer that results in promotion or demotion, advancement or reduction or a transfer that aims to lure the employee away from his permanent position cannot be done without his consent. (Philippine Telegraph & Telephone Corporation vs. CA, supra). Hence, the exercise by the employees of their right cannot be considered in law as insubordination, or willful disobedience of a lawful order of the employer. Consequently, employees cannot be dismissed on that basis. (Ibid.).

August 17, 2004-San Francisco

The suit charges that Costco operates a "glass ceiling" at the store-management level which stops women from getting promoted to assistant manager and general manager positions.
The class action, entitled Ellis v. Costco Wholesale Corporation, was brought by a current (now former) female Costco assistant manager on behalf of herself and all current and former female Costco employees across America who have been subjected to gender discrimination in promotion to store management positions.

The suit claims that senior management of Costco is virtually all male. Nationwide, less than 16 percent of General Managers are female. Promotions into Assistant Manager and General Manager positions are not based on any stated qualifications or criteria; openings for those positions are not even posted. Nor is there any application procedure for such positions.

Relying upon subjective, gender-based and/or arbitrary criteria utilized by a nearly all male managerial workers in making promotion and compensation decisions; Failing to follow a uniform job posting procedure to guarantee that all employees have notice of openings; Discouraging females from applying for senior level management positions; Failing and refusing to consider females for promotion on the same basis as males are considered; Failing and refusing to promote females on the same basis as males are promoted and compensated; Failing to provide females with accurate and timely notice of promotional opportunities; and Maintaining and fostering a reputation for discriminatory conduct which deters females from pursuing promotion opportunities with Costco.

The suit asks the court to order Costco to stop its discriminatory practices, and to pay damages to women denied promotions, including lost pay and benefits, and damages for emotional distress, and punitive damages.

When a firms work involves higher levels work, uncertainty problem variability, strategic indeterminacy, or dependence on autonomous factors the firm is less likely to promote women.