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Lecture 01

Digital Electronic Circuits

Electronic Logic Values


Digital circuits contain many elements. The inputs and outputs of the elements are connected together. The connections are nodes in the circuits. The nodes are always in a state that is described as being either 1 or 0. Electronic Digital Circuits use two defined voltages to represent the logic values.

One possible choice is to define the terminals of a battery as being the logic values.
A node in the circuit will have a logic 1 if it is somehow connected to the +ve terminal of the battery.

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Basic Switching
1 0 1 0
The node on the right is always a 1 or a 0 except while the switch is being changed. We shall consider this change to be instantaneous. The switch changes from one position to the other because of a mechanical input. The switch is actuated by the mechanical action of a human. Digital circuits are constructed from many electronically actuated switches.

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Electronically Actuated Switches


TYPE 2
Actuating terminal

TYPE 1

The terminal that is drawn touching the bar is the actuating terminal.
The switch is EITHER open = not connecting = not conducting

OR
closed = connecting = conducting We have TWO possible types of switches TYPE 1: 1 actuates the switch to open and 0 actuates the switch to closed Right

TYPE 2: 0 actuates the switch to open and 1 actuates the switch to closed Left We draw the symbol in the 0 actuated state.
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Electronic Relays
Many years ago digital circuits used Relays as electronically actuated switches.
A relay contains a single pair of contacts or sometimes a complicated arrangement of contacts. There is a coil of wire which becomes an electromagnet when a current is passed through it. The magnet attracts the contacts pulling them into a position that is different from the unmagnetised position.

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MOSFET (a)
Today we use transistors as electronically actuated switches.

CROSS-SECTIONAL VIEW
SiO2

SiO2

SiO2

SiO2

TOP VIEW

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MOSFET (b)
n+
Ion Implantation

p+

Contacts PolySilicon Gate

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MOSFET (c)
nmos pmos

Metallic Interconnect Metal

Insulator

Each transistor has 3 terminals called the source, gate and drain
The gate is the actuating terminal.
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MOSFET (d)

nmos

pmos

NMOS the channel conducts when the gate is connected to a logic 1 PMOS the channel conducts when the gate is connected to a logic 0

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CMOS Inverter

1
1 0

input

output
1

0
0

A pair of transistors, nmos and pmos can be connected to form an inverter.

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CMOS NAND gate


1 1

1 output 1 input 1 0 input 1

1 output

1 input 2 0 0

output

input 2

input 1
1

input 2
0

0
1 input 1

output

Can you build a NOR gate?

1 input 2 0

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SSI Logic
30 years ago we would buy ICsis placed 30 transistors per chip. We would The silicon die with 20 inside a package to protect wire together the circuit and also to allow us to connect chips the packaged IC. the individual gates by connecting the leads of together using the package leads.

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IC packages
ICs today contain millions of transistors that are interconnected to form very complicated digital circuits. Modern packages have many leads to externally connect to the I/O of the internal circuit.

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Board-Level Systems

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Motherboards

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PALs

We will continue our discussion next time.

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