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Multiple Access Techniques & Spread Spectrum

Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

071

Todays Class
Multiple Access Techniques
Spread Spectrum in detail

Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

072

Time

Frequency

FDMA

MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES

Time

Frequency

TDMA

Time

Frequency

CDMA

Question
The EM spectrum is a limited resource
How can we share it?
Time Space Frequency Polarization Spread Spectrum - use a wider bandwidth?
074

Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

Multiple Access techniques


Goal

allow many users to simultaneously share a communications resource

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Polarization Division Multiple Access (PDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
aka Spread Spectrum
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separate the signals at the receiver to extract

Key Issue

your information Two methods


Do not mix the signals in the first place
can use space or time (SDMA or TDMA)

Use distinctive properties of each signal as a means to identify


Frequency spectrum (FDMA)
Polarization of waves (PDMA) code sequence attached to each message (CDMA)
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076

TDMA Illustration
Divides the radio spectrum into time slots, and in each slot only one user is allowed to either transmit or receive

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Preston University

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TDMA Details
The incoming data from each source are briefly

buffered and scanned to to form a composite digital data stream mc ( t ) .


m1 ( t ) m2 ( t )

U1 U2

Buffer Buffer Frame mc ( t )


preamble preamble

Frame

1 2

...

1 2
Time slot

UN

mN ( t )

Buffer
Scan operation

information

Each slot may be empty or occupied. + has preamble & guard bits 07Kashif Shahzad Preston University 8

TDMA Pros and Cons


Advantages flexible bit rate
channels may have

Disadvantages Synchronization
must lock on to your time

slot (signal processing)

varying data rates

Overhead
processing required for

efficient use of channels

buffering...

Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

079

SDMA

Space Division Multiple Access Use highly directional Ae


The receiver selects the beam that provides the greatest

signal enhancement and interference reduction


Smart antenna systems

can adjust their antenna pattern to enhance the desired signal, null or reduce interference.
Desired Signal Direction

Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

0710

SDMA Pros and Cons


Advantages BW increases with km2
Simple system

Disadvantages Restricted Geometry


terminals in same direction

cannot share

May have unused BW


if no terminals in given

zone, bw not used

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Preston University

0711

FDMA Illustration
assigns individual channels or bands to individual users, which can only be used by that user for the period of the call

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Preston University

0712

FDMA Pros and Cons


Advantages Simple to implement Disadvantages Nonlinear Effects
sharing of Ae causes

spreading at saturation

Continuous tx
minimal overhead bits

Inefficient
once assigned, cannot be

reassigned even if not in use

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Preston University

0713

SPREAD SPECTRUM
CDMA - FHMA - DSMA - SSMA

The transmission bandwidth must be much

Definition - Spread Spectrum


larger than the information bandwidth

The resulting RF bandwidth is determined by a

function other than the information being sent

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Preston University

0715

Spread Spectrum - illustrated


Power Density Conventional Transmission

PDi

same total power


Spread Spectrum Transmission

PDSS Bi

BSS

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Preston University

0716

Two main methods


Frequency Hopped Multiple Access (FHMA)

How

Direct Sequence Multiple Access (DSMA)


THMA does exist, but not common

Both depend on pseudo random orthogonal codes remember part 2 of definition... often called pseudo noise

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Preston University

0717

FHSS

Frequency Hopping Multiple Access

message is "cut" into small "chunks" Each chunk is modulated by a different fc


(determined by pseudo-random code)

A band pass filter accepts the signals that follow

the hopping sequence and rejects all other requires


synchronization

note - some early systems used short

predictable patterns
0718

Kashif Shahzad

Preston University

FHSS - illustrated
Frequency

Frequency Hop Tune Time Dwell Time

Time
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0719

DSMA

Direct Sequence Multiple Access

Each bit is chipped Example - time domain


0.1 ms

Data

1 bit
0.1 s

Chips
1000 chips
Requires much wider bandwidth
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0720

Cross Correlation
Mathematical process used to determine the similarity between two signals

15-bit Code Received Signal Modulo-2 sum

111101011001000 011110101100100
100011110101100

Correlation = -1/15 (very poor)

Used for despreading

to determine start of code to lock onto correct code


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Different sequences are said to be orthogonal

Pseudo Random Orthogonal...


low cross correlation)

if they do not interfere with one another (ie have


A sequence is pseudo random if it is

orthogonal with a time shifted version of itself


note - this significantly reduces the number of

codes available << 2 n -1

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Preston University

0722

Spreading Process
Info

Noise Info Signal

Baseband Signal
Before spreading

Transmitted (Coded) Signal

After spreading

How can you recover signal < noise


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0723

The ratio of the SNR out to the SNR into the

SNR gain of spread spectrum


demodulator ( spreading factor).

GP =

SNRout SNRin

BWRF Rinfo

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Preston University

0724

CDMA Pros and Cons


Advantages security channel capacity
4xTDMA, 20xFDMA

Disadvantages self jamming near far problem


power issues

One channel for all < fading in wideband LPE, LPI, LPD
low probability of exploitation interception detection
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0725

Final
Most modern systems use a combination of TDMA, SDMA, FDMA, CDMA Take advantage of best features of each

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Preston University

0726

Comparison SDMA/TDMA/FDMA/CDMA
Approach Idea SDMA
segment space into cells/sectors

TDMA

FDMA

CDMA
spread the spectrum using orthogonal codes

Terminals

only one terminal can be active in one cell/one sector cell structure, directed antennas

Signal separation

segment sending segment the time into disjoint frequency band into time slots, demand disjoint sub bands driven or fixed patterns all terminals are every terminal has its active for short own frequency, periods of time on uninterrupted the same frequency synchronization in filtering in the the time domain frequency domain simple, established, robust inflexible, frequencies are a scarce resource

all terminals can be active at the same place at the same moment, uninterrupted code plus special receivers flexible, less frequency planning needed, soft handover complex receivers, needs more complicated power control for senders

Advantages very simple, increases established, fully


capacity per km digital, flexible inflexible, antennas Disadvantages typically fixed guard space needed (multipath propagation), synchronization difficult standard in fixed networks, together with FDMA/SDMA used in many mobile networks

Comment

only in combination with TDMA, FDMA or CDMA useful

typically combined with TDMA (frequency hopping patterns) and SDMA (frequency reuse)

still faces some problems, higher complexity, lowered expectations; will be integrated with TDMA/FDMA
0727

From: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/ MC SS02 Kashif Shahzad Preston University