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MATERIAL FOR ROLLING STOCKS

- AN OVERVIEW

ABOUT ME

I am known as Ananthanarayanan. A graduate in Mechanical Engineering in year 1969 from Kerala University. After 2 years of plant training, started the work in the Stainless Steel fabrication shop at Atomic Energy, Mumbai. Joined Steel Authority of India in the year 1980 at their Stainless project at Salem. Was attached to the Product Development and Application Department. Took Voluntary retirement in the year 2002. Now enjoying retired life combined with Independent Technical Consulting in the area of Stainless Steel.

Iron and Steel are the most commonly used fabrication material

Why because

Abundantly available Lower cost Easy to fabricate, cast and forge Good strength Easy for ameliorating the properties by adding alloying elements and heat treatment Recyclable & eco friendly

DEFICIENCIES IN THE PROPERTIES OF STEEL

Yes

More prone to general & other forms of corrosion. Corrosion protection processes are costly and time consuming. Higher strength with compromise in workability.

DO WE HAVE ANY CHOICE?

Yes.
Other metals like Aluminum, plastics etc which again have different sets of limitations of fabricability, cost, strength, availability, recyclability, ecology

VARIATIONS OF IRON & STEEL LIKE STAINLESS STEEL

ADVANTAGES OF SS

While normal steel is Ferritic with body centered cubic structure, SS is available in both BCC (Ferritic) & FCC (Austenitic) structures. Austenitics are cold work hardenable (Higher strength without compromising workability) General corrosion resistance. Fabricable, recyclable, indigenously available, eco friendly Costly per kg, but cheap

HOW IS IT POSSIBLE?

INTERNATIONAL DATA

INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO WAGON

INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO COACH

Basel Switzerland

Grade : Ferritic 1.4589

Grade 301L

Grade 1.4003 & 304

Grade 304

Grade 301LN

Railcars made of UNS S20100 or UNS S20153 alloys have long-lasting strength and beauty

NIROSTA 4003

INDIAN EXPERIENCE

Unpainted Stainless Steel wagon IRS M44/97

409M wagon under fabrication

Stainless Steel wagon painted

Stainless Steel wagons ready for service

Stainless Steel coach DIN 5512 (IR-CK-201)

METRO COACH (301L UNPAINTED)

SS IN INDIAN RAILWAYS

1965 Toilet pan, wash basin in SS 304 1984-85 Trough floor in SS 301 1990 Toilet inlays in SS 304 1990 LHB Coach in SS in DIN 5512 1.4003 1995 Internal furnishings in SS 304 1997 IRS M 44/97 specs for wagons 1998 Box N wagon in SS - 44/77 2000 CK-201 specs of SS for coaches 2000 44/97 used for structural in ICF designed coaches.

ALL SS COACHES

2003 Unpainted metro coaches in SS 301L by BEML.


2010 Unpainted EMU Coach by BEML. 2010 SLIP FREE SS flooring in EMU Coaches

History of Ferritic SS for Wagons/Coach

1980s developed in South Africa and UK as 3 CR12 grade utility SS for coal/ore transportation. (low carbon, 11% Cr and Titanium) 1990s Modified 3 CR12 for better toughness (low carbon, 11% Cr, 0.3 minimum Ni, Ti removed) DIN 5512 of German Spec for railway SS specify this grade for freight wagons and passenger coach as 1.4003 LHB specifies DIN 5512 (1.4003) for new coach design in India. LHB approves Indian manufacturer. 1997 IR specifies 44/97 (containing Ti max for trial wagons) 2000 ASTM spec UNS 40977 for Utility Ferritic SS (low carbon, 11% Cr, minimum Ni, no Ti) 2001 IR specifies in CK 201 utility Ferritic matching 1.4003 2005 Internationally EN 1.4003 and UNS 40977 specifications followed for utility grade Ferritic SS (Low carbon, 11% Cr, 0.3 min Ni and NO Ti)

Railway Coach Shells are made of following Stainless Steel Grades


409 M (Nickel Free) 301L (Nickel 6-8%) 201L (Nickel 4-5%)

&

The Surface Treatment Depends on the Stainless Steel Grades Selected for the Shell Components

Basic Difference Between The Three Grades of Stainless Steel


Property 409M 301L 201L

Ferro Magnetism
Higher Strength Levels Ductility (Workability)

Yes
No OK

No

No

Yes (Cold Workable) Very Good Very Good

General Corrosion Resistance


Surface Protection Weldability

Fair

Good

Good

Yes For aesthetics Very Good

No Very Good

No Very Good

Cost

Cheapest of the Three

Costlier

Cheaper than 301L

Chemical Composition Utility Ferritic SS


Element % X2CrNi12(1.4003) EN 10088 - 2 ASTM S40977 0.03 max 1.50 max 0.04 max 0.015 max 1.0 max 10.5 12.5 0.3 1.0 0.03 max Nil DIN 5512 Part 3 IR CK 201 X2Cr11 X2CrNi12 (409M) 2002 0.03 max 0.5 1.5 0.04 max 0.015 max 1.0 max 10.5 12.5 0.3 1.0 0.03 max Nil 0.03 max 0.5 1.5 0.04 max 0.03 max 1.0 max 10.5 12.5 0.3 1.0 0.03 max Nil IRS M 44/97

Carbon Manganese Phosphorous Sulphur Silicon Chromium Nickel Nitrogen Titanium

0.03 max 0.8 - 1.5 0.03 max 0.03 max 1.0 max 10.8 12.5 1.5 max Nil 0.75 max

Mechanical Properties Utility Ferritic SS


Property X2CrNi12(1.400 3) EN 10088 - 2 ASTM S40977 280/320 DIN 5512 Part IR CK 201 3 X2Cr11 X2CrNi12 (409M) 2002 320 320 IRS M44/97

Yield Strength (MPa) Tensile Strength (MPa) Percentage Elongation

350 - 450

450 - 650

450 - 600

450 650

500

20

18 - 20

20

25

Chemical Composition Austenitic SS


Element % 304 (1.4301) 301L (1.4318) 201L (1.4371)

Carbon Manganese Phosphorous Sulphur Silicon Chromium Nickel Nitrogen

0.07 max 2.0 max 0.045 max 0.03 (0.015) max 0.75 (1) max 17.5 19.5 8 10.5 0.10 (0.11 Max)

0.03 max 2.0 max 0.045 max 0.03 (0.015) max 1 max 16 18 (16.5 18.5) 68 0.20 (0.1 0.2) max

Titanium

Nil

Nil

0.03 max 5.5 7.5(6 - 8) 0.045 max 0.03 max (0.015) 0.75 max (1) 16 18 (16 - 17) 3.5 5.5 0.25 max (0.15 0.2) Nil

Mechanical Properties (annealed condition) Austenitic SS


Tensile Yield Elongation Strength Strength % MPa MPa -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------201L 655 260 40.0 301L 304 550 515 220 205 45.0 40.0 Grade

Mechanical Properties Strain Hardened Austenitic SS 301L & 201L


Temper UTS min. MPa 700 YS min. MPa 340 Elongation min. % 45

Low Tensile LT (2B Finish) Special Tensile ST Medium Tensile MT

760 830

415 550 750

35 25 20

High Tensile HT 1,000

NUANCES OF STAINLESS STEEL

SELECTION OF RIGHT GRADE AND PROCESS OF FABRICATION


PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN GETTING VALUE FROM STAINLESS STEELS

STEEL IS MADE STAINLESS BY ADDITION OF CHROMIUM (11%) NICKEL, MOLY ETC.

WHEN IN CONTACT WITH ATMOSPHERE


CHROMIUM FORMS PASSIVE CHROMIUM OXIDE IRON-FORMS RUST-IRON OXIDE

STAINLESS STEEL RESISTS CORROSION CORRODES BY FORMING CHROMIUM OXIDE LAYER ON SURFACE

CARBON STEEL RUSTS & BY FORMING IRON OXIDE LAYER ON SURFACE

BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL AND STAINLESS STEEL IN NORMAL ATMOSPHERE


Mild steel
Stainless Steel

Water And oxygen

Weak porous rust

Strong Imperveous layer

GALVANIC CORROSION

ANODE CATHODE

NEED * DIFFERENT METALS * ELECTROLYTIC CONTACT THE METAL WHICH IS

- LESS NOBLE - LESS PASSIVE - MORE ACTIVE0 THE ANODE - CORRODES AT INCREASED RATE

- LESS NOBLE - LESS PASSIVE - MORE ACTIVE THE CATHODE - IS PROTECTED - CORRODES LEAST OR NIL

BECOMES

GALVANIC SERIES GOLD MONEL STAINLESS TYPE 316 STAINLESS TYPE 304 STAINLESS 430 SILVER ALUMINIUM BRONZE COPPER BRASS CAST IRON CARBON STEEL ZINC MAGNESIUM

EFFECT OF COLD WORK ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 301/304 STAINLESS STEEL


1400 TENSILE STRENGTH

1200 1000 800 YIELD STRENGTH 600 400 200 40 5 0 20 40 COLD WORK, PERCENT 60 80

ELONGATION

HAZ

WELD DEPOSIT

PARENT METAL

SENSITIZED REGION GRAINS ACTUALLY DISSOLVED OUT

CORROSION ALONG AND AROUND THE GRAIN BOUNDARIES

SCHEMATIC ILLUSTRATION OF SENSITIZATION WITHIN THE HAZ, WITH ASSOCIATED CHROME CARBIDE PRECIPITATION AND CHROMIUM DEPLETION AT THE GRAIN BOUNDARIES.

SCHAEFFLER-DE LONG DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FERRITE CONTENT OF THE WELD METAL

30 A = AUSTENITE 25

20

M +A

2
X

A+F

5 4

15 M 10 M = MARTENSITE 5 M+A+F

40% F

100% F

1X
F + M 0 CARBON STEEL M+F F = FERRITE 5 10 15 20 25 30

CHORIMIUM EQUIVALENT (%Cr+%Mo+1.5 x %Si+0.5 x %Nb) - WELD METAL X - SHEET & PLATE

Easy Identification of SS grades


Identifying SS from Chrome Plated Steel

Identifying 304 & 316 grade SS

Identifying 304 & 316

Identifying different SS
430 grade SS 304 Grade SS

4 % Nickel SS

2 % Nickel SS

1 % Nickel SS

CLEANING OF SS WELDS

Why Low Carbon in SS

AT LOWER CARBON CONTENTS IT TAKES LONGER FOR THE MATERIAL TO BE SUSCEPTIBLE TO INTERGRANULAR CORROSION
TEMPERATURE C C=0.08 900

800

C=0.06 C=0.05 C=0.03 C=0.02

700

600 1h 0.2 0.5 1.0 5 10h 100 500

10

50

1000 TIME, MIN

SCHEMATIC ILLUSTRATION OF THE THREE ZONES OF WELDING AND THE RELATED CONFINED AREA OF HIGH TEMPERATURE

WELD METAL HEAT AFFECTED ZONE PARENT METAL(UNAFFECTED) WELD ZONE MELTING POINT

TEMPERATURE(C)

ROOM TEMPERATURE

EFFECT OF CHROMIUM CONTENT ON CORROSION RATE

mmpy 0.200 0.175 CORROSION RATE 0.150 0125 0.100 0.075 0.050 0.025

10

12

14

16

% CHROMIUM

SS USED ABROAD FOR RAILWAY APPLICATIONS

The effect of nickel price on the price difference between AL 201HP alloy and Type 304 based on the Ni raw-material surcharge [2]

UNS S20100

Type 304

Samples of UNS S20100 alloy and Type 304 following 100 hours of exposure in a salt spray test [15]

From NIROSTA 4003


Type 4003 provides good corrosion resistance, excellent abrasion resistance, hence does not need coating or painting systems to be applied for performance reasons. For aesthetic reasons it may be desirable in some applications to apply paint, especially as type 4003 will tend to discolor in corrosive conditions. Type 4003 has exceptional under-paint corrosion resistance and will continue to resist corrosion even where the paint coat has been damaged. Normal preparation is required such as ensuring a clean surface free of grease and other contamination. A primer coat is recommended for cold roll material due to its smoother surface, but hot rolled 1D finish material may be suitably painted in a single coat.

Dull Satin Finish for Painting

AT HIGH TEMPERATURE STRENGTH UGINE F12

Comparison of Moon Rock V/s Slip Free Finishes for Floor Applications

Parameter Grade Type Rigidity

Moon Rock Finish SS 430 2 dimensional Low 250 Mpa (passed through one etched and one plain roll)

Slip Free Finish SS 304/ SS 430 3 dimensional High 375 Mpa (passed thru male/female deep engraved rolls)

Relief

Low 270 N/mm (depth is around 0.15 mm)


High possibility (top surface is plain with ditches at low level ) Lower Vickers 185 (lesser reduction in pass) Wear Resistance low Rolled with oil (oil surface possible) 2.5 mm 16 Kg / Sq.Mtr Difficult (dirt accumulates in ditches) Not for flooring Rs.103 / Kg and Rs1648 / Sq. Mtr

High 400 N/mm(depth is around 1.5 mm minimum) Over the relief thickness will be around 2.5mm
Least slippage (contoured Surface with ups and downs) Test procedure attached Higher Vickers 275 (more reduction due to male /female system ) Wear Resistance High Dry process rolling 1.25MM /1.6 mm 10 Kg / Sq. Mtr Easy and self cleaning (easy flow pattern for water) Best used in flooring Rs. 100 / Kg andRs. 1000 / Sq. Mtr

Slippage Hardness Process of making Suggested thickness Weight. per unit area Cleanability International Practice Cost

Corrosion Comparison

GRADES SIMILAR TO 409M (IRS)


3CR12 HYFAB 3/12 1.4003 F 12 N YUS 410W S41003

South Africa United Kingdom Germany France Japan USA

Under the Paint Corrosion

Carbon Steel

409M

Why no Titanium in utility Ferritic Stainless Steel

Extract from Research paper of Mr.Vigor of Metallurgy dept, GM USA

Summary
I suggest Change 301 to 301L for all trough floors of coaches (Improves weldability and corrosion resistance Modify IRS M44 in line with CK 201 to meet International standards For LHB coach use 301L for trough floor and roof Can avoid painting for wagons (if required one primer coat) Avoid heating 4003 panels as it reduces the strength Use dull satin finish 2F for external panel for better paintability and avoid sand blasting Design inner structural members with 201L for metro coaches and use 201L for exterior panel of metro coach with/without painting Design tank wagons with 201L to reduce weight. Use double side embossed slip free finish for flooring and reduce weight Use Stretch forming process for making structural members to avoid wrinkles Use more of spot welding for fixing structural to panel

WHAT NEXT

Unpainted normal SS coaches (301L panel, 1.4003 structural) Painted normal SS coaches with weight reduction (1.4003 panels, 201L structurals) Painted Cost effective Metro coaches (1.4003 panels, 201L structurals) Tank wagons (Thickness reduction and unpainted) 201L

I AM REACHABLE

E-MAIL: kr.ananth@yahoo.com MOBILE NUMBER: +91-9448674645 (Bangalore)

Thank You For Your Kind Attention