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DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations Why a DC source ? Why not AC source ?

What for DC source is used in 400 kv sub stations How many levels of DC sources available ? Where from DC source is obtained?

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations


1. DC source is more stable , Local source, not dependent on grid 2. AC source is prone to disturbances, dependent on grid condition 3. DC source is mainly used for relays, Breakers, Isolators 4. Levels of DC source are 220 V DC and 50 V DC 5. DC source is obtained from Batteries.

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations

Charger

Load

DC Switch Boards

AC source

Charger

Battery

Load

Requirement for supervision Relays:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Relay are meant for supervision of Power system 24*7 *52 No interruption is permitted Two DC sources are designed from 220 KV power system level and above All protection relays are divided into two groups One group of relays are fed from DC source I and other group from Second Source

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations

DC Source I

DC source-2

Feeder Protection distribution

Feeder Protection distribution

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations Critical Equipment in DC Source systems : A. Chargers --- Full wave rectifiers , Half wave rectifiers, with 1 % ripples B. Batteries --- 109 Nos for 220 V system with 88th cell tapping , 24 Nos for 50 V systems with 18th cell tapping. C. DC distribution boards ---- DC switches , Fuses

Maintenance of DC systems
A. Voltage measurement between + Pole to Ground and - ve pole to Ground. B. Monitoring of leakage current in DC systems -- 4-6 milli amps C. Less leakage more healthiness of DC systems

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations DC Earth faults and its effects : A. Any One pole earthing No problem but to be rectified. B. Same pole earthing in both source ? C. Two different pole earthing in different sources ? + ve pole + ve pole

- Ve pole DC Source I DC Source II

- Ve pole

Earth fault relays shall give alarm

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations

+ ve pole

+ ve pole

- Ve pole Circuit breaker tripping is possible in this case.

- Ve pole

+ ve pole

+ ve pole

- Ve pole Fuse blows out

- Ve pole

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations

+ ve pole

- Ve pole

+ ve pole

- Ve pole

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations + Ve Relay contact Trip coil

- Ve

CB aux

Source I + Ve Relay contact Trip coil - Ve

CB aux Source -II

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations

A. There is possibility of insulation damage in Source CB trip circuits B. There is always possible for discharge of capacitance that is present with DC cables insulation C. The moment double earthing happens, then discharge is possible through the trip coil and breaker can trip. This can happen for the breakers where cable insulation is week and damaged. D. To prevent such mal operation of breakers, when ever ingle pole earthing occurs, same is to be identified and rectified.

AC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations

AC supply is for 1. Transformer Cooling systems 2. Circuit breaker compressors 3. Batteries 4. Control room lighting 5. AC plant 6. Fire fighting systems 7. Switch yard lighting 8. Street lighting 9. Colony power supply 10. Stores yard lighting

DC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations

Tertiary supply

11/33 kV source

DG source

F/F ACP SWYD DB DB DB

ACP DB

F/F SWYD DB DB

Lighting DB

Colony DB

440 V Main Distribution system

AC supply systems in 400 kV sub stations

AC systems Problems 1. Major problems are power cable failure from Transformer / DG set to Main distribution board. 2. Failure is due to improper laying of power cables 3. Other problems are in Lighting system

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