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TITLE : AQUACULTURE SPECIES (2)

TENAGA PENGAJAR : CIK HIDAYAH BT MUHAMMAD TAUFIK NAMA AHLI KUMPULAN: NORSHAZIRA BT AZIZ NORFATIN BT KAMA ZURAINI BT AHMAD NOR DALILA BT MOHD NUR FADZILAH BT ZAKARIA

(D034608) (D034635) (D034672) (D034697) (D034702)

introduction
Machrobrachium sp is all about prawn species which have scientific classification of kingdom that is animalia and phylum of Anthropoda. Its subphylum is crustacean and categorized in Decapoda order and in Malacostraca class. Machrobrachium sp in family of Palaemonidae and genus of Machrobrachium.

Selected Machrobrachium sp
1. 2. 3. 4. Macrobrachium Lanchesteri Machrobrachium malcolmsonii Macrobrachium ohione Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Macrobrachium lanchesteri
Scientific name: Macrobrachium lanchesteri Common name: Glass prawn/ rice prawn Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Crustacea Class: Malacostraca Order: Decapoda Family: Palaemonidae Genus: Macrobrachium Species:lanchesteri

BIOLOGY

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

In the Malaysian area ovigerous females of Macrobrachium lanchesteri may have an overall length of only 33 mm The largest, a male, had an overall length of 62 mm

is a relatively small species A good swimmer, it is less strictly a bottom dweller than are many palaemonids. It has a light and somewhat compressed build and a relatively large abdomen and lives in fresh waters throughout its life cycle.

FEEDING HABIT
It is not cannibalistic, at least under normal conditions, and appears to be vegetarian.

AQUACULTURE SYSTEM NORMALLY USED

can flourish and breed under pond conditions. It is eurytopic with respect to most environmental factors and seems to be well adapted to the soft waters found in most parts of Malaysia

eurytopic :Able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions

relatively small species but one which may make a considerable contribution to the biomass of the habitat in which it lives since it normally occurs in large numbers

compressed build and a relatively large abdomen and lives in fresh waters

Interesting facts

It has a light

A good swimmer, it is less strictly a bottom dweller than are many palaemonids

CHALLENGES FACING BY AQUACULTURIST IN PRODUCING Machrobrachium lanchesteri


It is noted that indigenous local fishery for wild stock of palaemonids has been in existence in many countries in the world. At the beginning, fishing was lucrative and there was adequate supply in the country where they exist but at present due to increased exploitation and better means of catching natural stocks are greatly reduced. This condition is aggravated by radical man-made changes in the environment such as pollution from population centers or from newly established industries. Likewise the building of multi-purpose dams in river systems have changed the ecology of those systems to the detriment of existing prawn species. Mine pollution and silting has also greatly reduced prawn populations. The trend toward rapid and gradual reduction of prawn fisheries from natural waters appear inevitable.

Machrobrachium malcolmsonii

the English name is monsoon river-prawn

BIOLOGY
maximum size of males and females are 230 to 243 and 200 mm. to regularly cast their exoskeleton or shell in order to grow. four distinct phases in the life cycle :
i. ii. iii. iv. Eggs Larvae Postlarvae Adult

require estuarine conditions or brackish water during the initial larval stages.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS..

Mature male prawns larger than females male head (cephalothorax) is larger than the female but the latter has a wider abdomen. the male the genital pores are between the bases of the fifth periopods while those of the female are at the base of the third periopods.

Egg mass is orange-coloured in the early stages and as the eggs become eyed, it becomes grey-black. Colour change occurs as the embryos utilize their food reserves. Prawn eggs of this species are slightly elliptical

The bodies of freshwater prawns are divided into twenty segments known as somites. 14 segments in the head, fused together,invisible under a large dorsal and lateral shield(carapace) The carapace is hard and smooth 11-14 teeth on the top and 8-10 underneath. antennae are the most important sites of sensory perception

FEEDING HABIT
is an omnivore or detritivore, its gut content containing mud and debris, dipterans larvae and cladocerans.

omnivorous bottom dwelling prawn and naturally feeds on decomposing plants and animals, small worms, insects and their larvae. cannibalistic in nature and may consume freshly moulted conspecifics in pond environments

high protein diets of 50% plant origin and 50% animal origin are required Juveniles are fed with formulated starter diet containing higher protein and lipid in crumble form
Natural spawning or artificial fertilization : Mating : after a male protects a newly moulted female from aggression by other individuals in the tank adult matures and breeds in rivers and lakes,

Aquaculture system that are normally used :


M. malcolmsonii monoculture can be categorized into extensive, semi intensive and intensive culture systems Extensive : carried out in large ponds and water impoundments such as reservoirs, irrigation ponds and rice fields water quality, prawn growth and health is generally not monitored Prawn production is limited to about 200-400 kg/ha/year

Semi-extensive: ponds are made free from predators and competitors Juveniles are stocked at 30,000-40,000/ha. Water quality, prawn health and growth rate are monitored Intensive: culture can be done in small earthen or concrete ponds about 0.05- 0.2 ha. Prawn juveniles are stocked at more than 40,000/ha under controlled conditions in predator free ponds. continuous aeration is provided. Prawns are fed with nutritionally complete diet

Macrobrachium ohione
Scientific name: Macrobrachium ohione English Name: Ohio Shrimp, Ohio River Shrimp

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Malacostraca Order: Decapoda Family: Palaemonidae Genus: Macrobrachium Species: M. ohione

GENERAL ANATOMY
having the first two pairs of legs chelate, the second pair larger than first, and the carpus of the second leg not subdivided. having a hepatic spine present and second pereopods enlarged and greatly elongated. The rostrum is curved, has up to 13 teeth but has a toothless daggerlike tip. may grow up to 10 cm (4 inches) long. The color - pale gray flecked with small blue spots.

HABITAT
Ohio shrimp apparently prefer low velocity water (Conaway and Hrabik 1997) open side channels, a preferred habitat of Ohio shrimp, have flow during normal river elevations (Barko and Herzog 2003). Ohio shrimp prefer borders of the main channel, especially when the borders are flooded and plant and animal material are available for foraging (Truesdale and Mermilliod 1979). Ohio Shrimp have been reported to have greater abundance in areas with suspended particulate matter, which may be a predator avoidance response. Ohio shrimp occupy low visibility physical habitats that are also occupied by predatory fishes, such as flathead catfish, a species that is not native to South Carolina (Barko and Herzog 2003).

BIOLOGY probably only recently evolved migratory behavior into fresh water. Biological characteristics indicative of it relatively recent adaptation include:
high hemolymph osmoionic concentrations, tolerance of high salinities, dependence on saline water for larval development with many larval stages and migratory

behavior.

Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Kingdom: Phylum: Subphylum: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species:

Animalia Arthropoda Crustacea Malacostraca Decapoda Palaemonidae Macrobrachium M. rosenbergii

General characteristic
also known as the giant river prawn, the giant freshwater prawn, the Malaysian prawn. important for its value as a food source This species lives in tropical freshwater environments influenced by adjacent brackish water areas which has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.

Biology
Males can reach a body size of 32 cm, while females grow to 25 cm Body usually greenish to brownish grey, but sometimes more bluish, darker in larger specimens There are three distinct male morphotypes exist which are small male (SM), orange claw males (OC), and blue claw males (BC).

The normal male developmental pathway is SM OC BC (BC dominate OC, OC dominate SM) The first stage is the small male (SM), that has short, nearly translucent claws Second stage have large orange claws on their second chelipeds, which may have a length of 0.8 to 1.4 their body size Third stage have blue claws, and their second chelipeds may become twice as long as their body

Feeding habit
The larvae are carnivorous and in culture they are fed on live, newly hatched brine shrimp Juvenile and adult prawns are omnivorous, and feed on a wide variety of food items such as aquatic worms, insects and their larvae, small molluscs and crustaceans, flesh and offal of fish and other animals, grains, nuts, seeds, fruits, algae, tender leaves and stems of aquatic plants

They prefer animal sources of food, and sometimes may even be cannibalistic. They also consume their shells which have been shed off as a result of mouldting

Natural spawning or artificial fertilization


In mating, the male deposits spermatophores on the underside of the female's thorax, between the walking legs The female then extrudes eggs, which pass through the spermatophores. The female carries the fertilized eggs with her until they hatch. Gravid females migrate downstream into estuaries, where eggs hatch as free-swimming larvae in brackish water. From these, eggs hatch to zoeae which is the first larval stage of crustaceans

They go through several larval stages before metamorphosing into post-larvae and have all the characteristics of adults

The aquaculture system normally use to culture the species


tanks, irrigation ditches, cages, pens, reservoirs, and natural waters. Common : earthen ponds produces prawn larvae for growing out in ponds and for sale to other prawn grow-out enterprises The hatchery consists of a building, where prawn larvae are hatched and reared in tanks of water which are set up to imitate the environment of the prawn larvae in the wild, together with outdoor ponds or tanks where prawns for breeding are grown out and maintained.

The hatchery is usually designed to suit the specific site and the techniques which will be employed by the operators, and design will also depend on availability of freshwater and seawater, financial input, climate and PL production requirements The hatchery building is usually associated with the nursery tanks and grow-out ponds in terms of water supply and other requirements.

Interesting facts or research related to your species


Freshwater prawns tend to go "mushy" if not handled and processed correctly. prevent prawns from becoming crushed during harvesting if they are not going to be sold live, they should be killed in a mixture of water and ice at 0 C immediately (at the pond bank), and washed in chlorinated tap water

Challenges facing by the aquaculturist in producing the species.


Disease - the species most seriously affected - because of poor intake water treatment, poor husbandry, overcrowding, poor sanitation, and non-existent or inadequate quarantine procedures. - black gill disease, black spot disease, rotten tail disease, parasitic disease (Ciliata species) and milky-whitebody (muscle) disease.

Production system Production cycle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, there are many type of Machrobrachium sp in production of locally and globally. Besides that, we learned about the biology, general characteristic, and many interesting fact about the type of Machrobrachium sp that we found.