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AP Biology Lab Review

Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Webb School of Knoxville


Using Figures from The LabBench by Theresa Knapp Holtzclaw

Modified from work by Kim Foglia

AP Biology

2007-2008

Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis


Factors that affect diffusion across the membrane

AP Biology

Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis Description

dialysis tubing filled with starchglucose solution in beaker filled with IKI solution dialysis bags in different molarities potato cores in sucrose solutions

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Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis Concepts


semi-permeable membrane diffusion osmosis solutions

hypotonic hypertonic

isotonic

water potential

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Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis Conclusions


water moves from high concentration of water (hypotonic=low solute) to low concentration of water (hypertonic=high solute) solute concentration & size of molecule affect movement through semi-permeable membrane

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Water potential and water movement


Know how water potential is measured and relationship to solute concentration and pressure potential

water moves from a region of high water potential to a region of low water potential

What are the 2 components of water potential?

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Calculating Water Potential


Water potential is calculated using the following formula: Water potential ( ) = pressure potential ( ) + solute potential( ) Pure water at atmospheric pressure has a solute potential of zero.

As solute is added, the value for solute potential becomes more ________ and water potential _____.
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Know the relationship of molarity to osmotic concentration

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1. In beaker B, what is the water potential of the distilled water in


the beaker, and of the beet core? a. Water potential in the beaker = 0, water potential in the beet core = 0 b. Water potential in the beaker = 0, water potential in the beet core = -0.2 c. Water potential in the beaker = 0, water potential in the beet core = 0.2 d. Water potential in the beaker cannot be calculated, water potential in the beet core = 0.2 e. Water potential in the beaker cannot be calculated, water potential in the beet core = -0.2
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2. Which of the following statements is true for the diagrams? a.The beet core in beaker A is at equilibrium with the surrounding water. b.The beet core in beaker B will lose water to the surrounding environment. c.The beet core in beaker B would be more turgid than the beet core in beaker A.

d.The beet core in beaker A is likely to gain so much water that its cells will rupture.
e.The cells in beet core B are likely to undergo plasmolysis.
AP Biology

Lab 1: Diffusion & Osmosis


ESSAY 1992 A laboratory assistant prepared solutions of 0.8 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D. Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions. Include in your answer: a. a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment; b. the results you would expect from your experiment; and c. an explanation of those results based on the principles involved. Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion.

AP Biology

Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis


What factors affect the rate of an enzyme reaction?

Description

measured factors affecting enzyme activity


catalase

H2O2 H2O + O2 measured rate of O2 production

Name an enzyme, substrate, products

AP Biology

AP Biology

Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis


How can the structure of an enzyme be altered?

Concepts
substrate enzyme

enzyme structure

product denaturation of protein experimental design

rate of reactivity reaction with enzyme vs. reaction without


enzyme

optimum pH or temperature test at various pH or temperature values


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Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis


Be able to calculate the rate of a reax

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Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis Conclusions

enzyme reaction rate is affected by:


pH temperature substrate concentration enzyme concentration
calculate rate?

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Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis


1. In order to keep the rate of reaction constant over the entire time course, which of the following should be done? a. Add more enzyme b. Gradually increase the temperature after 60 seconds c. Add More substrate d. Add H2SO4 after 60 seconds. e. Remove the accumulating product
AP Biology

Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis


2. What is the role of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in this experiment?
a.It is the substrate on which catalase acts. b.It binds with the remaining hydrogen peroxide during titration. c.It accelerates the reaction between enzyme and substrate d.It blocks the active site of the enzyme. e.It denatures the enzyme by altering the active site.

AP Biology

Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis


3. A student was performing a titration for this laboratory, and accidentally exceeded the endpoint. What would be the best step to obtain good data for this point? a.Estimate the amount of KMnO4 that was in excess, and subtract this from the result. b.Repeat the titration using the reserved remaining sample. c.Obtain data for this point from another lab group.

d.Prepare a graph of the data without this point, and then read the estimated value from the graph.

AP Biology

Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis


ESSAY 2000 The effects of pH and temperature were studied for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The following results were obtained.

a. How do (1) temperature and (2) pH affect the activity of this enzyme? In your answer, include a discussion of the relationship between the structure and the function of this enzyme, as well as a discussion of ho structure and function of enzymes are affected by temperature and pH. b. Describe a controlled experiment that could have produced the data shown for either temperature or pH. Be sure to state the hypothesis that was tested here.
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Lab 3: Mitosis Description

cell stages of mitosis


exam slide of onion root tip count number of cells in each stage to

determine relative time spent in each stage

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Lab 3: Mitosis
Concepts

mitosis

interphase prophase metaphase anaphase telophase

Conclusions

Mitosis
cell division growth, repair making clones longest phase = interphase each subsequent phase is

shorter in duration
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The cell cycle

5-6 hours

10-12 hours

4-5 hours

Know these:
Mitosis Cytokinesis Cell Cycle

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Cytokinesis in animal cells

Compare and contrast plant and animal cytokinesis

AP Biology

Lab 3: Mitosis
Know the events of mitosis and meiosis in plant and animal cells

AP Biology

Lab 3: Mitosis

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Lab 3: Mitosis

AP Biology

AP Biology

Lab 3: Mitosis

AP Biology

Lab 3: Mitosis

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Mitosis in a plant cell

Lab 3: Mitosis

AP Biology

Mitosis in an onion root

Know how to calculate the relative duration of each stage

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Lab 3: Mitosis
The cell cycle in a certain cell type has a duration of 10 hours. The nuclei of 660 cells showed 33 cells in anaphase. What is the approximate duration of anaphase in these cells?

a.2 minutes b.10 minutes c.20 minutes d.30 minutes e.600 minutes
AP Biology

Lab 3: Meiosis
Stages Importance of Crossing Over

farther genes are from each other, the greater

number of crossovers

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Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis

meiosis
meiosis 1 meiosis 2

crossing over
Synapsis tetrads in prophase 1

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Meiosis I

****** Note that at the end of Meiosis I homologs have separated


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Meiosis II

AP BiologyNow,

what is separated in Meiosis II?

Meiosis

1. How many times is the DNA replicated? 2. How many divisions? 3. When is chromosome # reduced?
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INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT INTRODUCES VARIABILITY

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CROSSING OVER INTRODUCES VARIABILITY

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Points of Variability

1. Independent assortment

How many different combinations of male/female chromosomes are possible in humans?

2. Crossing over
3. Random fertilization
and all of this variation is without mutation . . .

AP Biology

AP Biology

Lab 3: Meiosis in Sordaria

Meiosis
4:4 arrangement in

ascospores
no crossover

any other arrangement crossover 2:2:2:2 or 2:4:2

AP Biology

Sordaria analysis
total crossover
% crossover = total offspring % crossover 2

distance from = centromere

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Sordaria analysis

AP Biology

A group of asci formed from crossing light-spored Sordaria with dark-spored produced the following results:
Number of Asci Counted 7 8 3 4 1 2 Spore Arrangement 4 light/4 dark spores 4 dark/4 light spores 2 light/2 dark/2 light/2 dark spores 2 dark/2 light/2 dark/2 light spores 2 dark/4 light/2 dark spores 2 light/4 dark/2 light spores

How many of these asci contain a spore arrangement that resulted from crossing over? a.3 b.7 c.8 d.10 e.15
AP Biology

Lab 3: Mitosis & Meiosis


ESSAY 1987 Discuss the process of cell division in animals. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cycle. Do not include meiosis. ESSAY 2004 Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information.
a. Explain how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. b. Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. Identify ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? Describe how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c. Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. Describe either parthenogenesis or cloning and compare the genomes of the offspring with those of the parents.
AP Biology

Link to rubric
http://apcentral.collegeboard.co m/apc/members/repository/ap04 _sg_biology_37082.pdf

AP Biology

2007-2008

Lab 4: Photosynthesis

AP Biology

Lab 4: Photosynthesis
Description

determine rate of photosynthesis under different conditions


light vs. dark boiled vs. unboiled chloroplasts chloroplasts vs. no chloroplasts

use DPIP in place of NADP+


DPIPox = blue DPIPred = clear

measure light transmittance paper chromatography to separate plant pigments

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Lab 4: Photosynthesis Concepts


photosynthesis Photosystem 1

NADPH

chlorophylls & other plant pigments


chlorophyll a chlorophyll b xanthophylls carotenoids

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experimental design
control vs. experimental

Lab 4: Photosynthesis Conclusions

Pigments
pigments move at different rates based on

solubility in solvent

Photosynthesis
light & unboiled

chloroplasts produced highest rate of photosynthesis


Which would be the control?
AP Biology

DPIP + no chloroplasts

Lab 4: Photosynthesis
What is the Rf for chlorophyll a?

AP Biology

Lab 4: Photosynthesis
1. Which graph would be the most likely result of performing the photosynthesis experiment using fresh chloroplasts placed in light and DPIP? 2. What is the best explanation for graph B? a.The DPIP was too pale at the beginning of the experiment. b.The chloroplast solution was too concentrated. c.The experimenter used chloroplasts that were damaged and could not respond to light. d.The blank was not properly used to calibrate the spectrophotometer.

AP Biology

Lab 4: Photosynthesis
3. What effect would adding more DPIP to each experimental tube have on these results? a.Each curve would be shifted downward but would keep the same general shape. b.The curve in graph C would rise more steeply and level off sooner. c.The curve in graph A would have the same general shape as the curve in graph C. d.The chloroplasts would absorb more light energy, so there would be no change.

AP Biology

Lab 4: Photosynthesis
4. What is the role of DPIP in this experiment? a.It mimics the action of chlorophyll by absorbing light energy. b.It serves as an electron donor and blocks the formation of NADPH. c.It is an electron acceptor and is reduced by electrons from chlorophyll. d.It is bleached in the presence of light, and can be used to measure light levels.

AP Biology

Lab 4: Photosynthesis
5. Some students were not able to get many data points in this experiment because the solution went from blue to colorless in only 5 minutes for the unboiled chloroplasts exposed to light. What modification to the experiment do you think would be most likely to provide better results? a.Increase the number of drops of chloroplasts used from 3 to 5. b.Double the volume of DPIP so that the solution has a lower initial transmittance. c.Modify the blank so that the initial transmittance is higher. d.Use fresher spinach and prepare the chloroplast solution during the laboratory procedure. e.Change the wavelength at which data is collected
AP Biology

Lab 4: Photosynthesis
ESSAY 2004 (part 1) A controlled experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of darkness and boiling on the photosynthetic rate of incubated chloroplast suspensions. The dye reduction technique was used. Each chloroplast suspension was mixed with DPIP, an electron acceptor that changes from blue to clear when it is reduced. Each sample was placed individually in a spectrophotometer and the percent transmittance was recorded. The three samples used were prepared as follows. Sample 1 chloroplast suspension + DPIP Sample 2 chloroplast suspension surrounded by foil wrap to provide a dark environment + DPIP Sample 3 chloroplast suspension that has been boiled + DPIP Data are given in the table on the next page.

a. Construct and label a graph showing the results for the three samples. b. Identify and explain the control or controls for this experiment. c. The differences in the curves of the graphed data indicate that there were differences in the number of electrons produced in the three samples during the experiment. Discuss how electrons are generated in photosynthesis and why AP Biology the three samples gave different transmittance results.

Lab 4: Photosynthesis
ESSAY 2004 (part 2) Time (min) 0 Light, Unboiled Dark, Unboiled % transmittance % transmittance Sample 1 Sample 2 28.8 29.2 Light, Boiled % transmittance Sample 3 28.8

5
10 15 20

48.7
57.8 62.5 66.7

30.1
31.2 32.4 31.8

29.2
29.4 28.7 28.5

AP Biology