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By :Harman Singh 09109044

Basic reactor arrangement

Main Aim of Heat Transfer analysis


To remove heat from the reactor core at high thermal

efficiency without passing Safe limits Provide continuous coolant flow to remove heat from reactor core during operation Provide adequate core cooling to remove decay heat produced by the fuel when the reactor is shut down.

Though the fission in the reactor core is analysed by

the nuclear consideration, the heat generated by the reactor through fission and its use in the generation of power for a given reactor core is limited by thermal rather than by nuclear considerations.

Some important coolants


He
CO2 H 2O

D2 O
NaK

Heat Generation in a reactor

Fuel elements for BWR and PWR

The average volumetric heat generation rate q (W/m3) in the reactor core is given as the product of total reaction rate R (1/s) and the energy per reaction Gf (J). The reaction rate R is calculated as:

R=Nf f(E) (E) dE

Transient Heat Generation


The decay heat power comes mainly from five sources: (1) decay via , , +and -ray emission (2) unstable actinides (3) fissions induced by delayed neutrons (4) reactions induced by spontaneous fission neutrons; (5) structural and cladding materials in the reactor that may have become radioactive.

Heat transport in fuel element

Variation of UO2 Conductivity

Heat transport to Coolant


. The coolants should ideally have the following properties: Low absorption cross section Abundant and inexpensive Low melting point High boiling point Non-corrosive High moderating ratio (for thermal reactors) Radiation and thermal stability Low induced radioactivity No reaction with turbine working

External Flow heat transfer


Laminar

Flow in Channels
Turbulent Flow

1) Non-metallic Fluid

2)Metallic Fluid

Turbulent heat transfer correlations continued

Two phase heat transfer


Heat transport with phase change is an efficient method to transfer heat because latent heat per unit mass is very large Based on the relative bulk motion of the body of a liquid to the heating surface, the boiling is divided into two categories: pool boiling convective boiling

Pool boiling

Occurs when fluid is stationary

Two Phase Flow


Occurs in BWR Core and PWR steam generator

Flow boiling correlations(i)

Flow boiling correlations(ii)

THERMAL HYDRAULICS CODES


Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5) Used for modelling LOCA and Operational Transients MELCOR (Integral Severe Accident Analysis Code): Fast-Running, parametric models VICTORIA (Radionuclide Transport and Decommissioning Codes) are used for radionuclide transport and decommissioning codes, providing dose analyses in support of license termination and decommissioning Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package (SNAP) is a graphical user interface with preprocessor and post-processor capabilities that assists code users in the development of RELAP5 input decks and in running the code.

References
Nuclear Engineering Handbook

by Kenneth D.Kok CRC Press