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Establish and apply best practice in communicating with employees both directly and through trades unions.

Brikit Griminalli Norbert

Communication in the organisation Types and Styles of Communication Barriers to communication Direct and Indirect Communication Problems of Poor communication Best Practice Solutions for British Leyland Implementing A Communication Strategy Conclusion

Communication is defined by Bennett (1991) as the transmission of information and its receipt. It can involve the exchange of data, opinion and/or sentiment. Shannon and Weaver (1949) described communication as a series of relations between inputs and outputs


1. One way 2. Two way or Interaction 3. Transaction





BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION (Watson and Gallagher 2005)

5. Emotional contest 4. Words mean different things to different people 3. Influence of ones own reference group Intended Meaning 6. Noise

7. Organisational size 1. Hearing what we expect to hear Perceived meaning 2. Perceptions about the communicator

Message through channel e.g. TRADE UNIONS

Encodes into symbols

Decodes symbols

Feedback or new message

Direct Communication: Is speech that significantly states and directs an action. Indirect Communication: Is not typically authoritative. It invites contribution and makes the listener feel that their ideas are important.



Individual face-to-face

Involves all within the team and they hear the same message. Provides a forum for discussion if delivered well. Two way communication. inclusive and includes good feedback and response

Can appear top-down and bureaucratic if delivered badly

Consultative Committees

Not always effective. Decision making can become overcomplicated. Consens us may be difficult to reach. Can give key messages and useful visual stimulation.

Notice Boards

Can give key messages and useful visual stimulation.


Can be a more interesting read - power of story telling rather than 'dry' information. More tactile, can read over lunch. Good for external PR Electronic info, message of the day, document store etc etc. Accessible from desktop and mobile devices

Cost. Production and resource time. Quickly out of date. Can be seen as simply corporate propaganda


Not always suitable for manual workers or those working out in the field/non-office conditions. Can be impersonal or information overload

Information from the sender may not reach the recipient Communication overload may occur Misunderstanding Lack of feedback Poor organisational performance Employee dissatisfaction Stifles creativity and innovation

1. Adjust to the world of the receiver 2. Use feedback 3. Use reinforcement 4. Use simple direct language 5. Reinforce words with actions 6. Use multiple channels of communication 7. Create self managed teams and decentralise authority



3. 4.

6. 7.


Communities of practice Company handbooks Consultation policy Consultative committees Team briefings Magazines Newsletters, Notice Boards and Bulletins Videos and Recorded Messages Emails Websites 360 degrees feedback appraisal system

Embedded in the organisations strategy

Stages in implementing a communication strategy in British Leyland Communication requirement analysis Communication and technology audit Gap analysis Draft communication strategy and plan Consultation Agree communication strategy and plan Implement Constantly review

Effective communication methods, tools and techniques Effective change management strategies Dedicate resources to communication strategies Assessment of the organisational culture Assess potential resistance within the organisation

Bennett, R. (1991) Organisational Behaviour. London: Pitman Publishing Beardwell.J, Claydon.T (2009) Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall Cully.M, Woodland.S, and Dix. G. (1999) Britain At Work. London: Routledge Derek Rollinson (1998) Organisational Behaviour and Analysis. Addison-Wesley: Harlow Goleman, D. (2005). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. New York: Bantam Books Goodman.M. (1995) Creative Management. Harlow: Prentice Hall Mullins.L (2010) Management and Organisational Behaviour. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall Santosus.M, Surmacz. J. (2001) The ABCs of Knowledge Management. : CIO Magazine Shannon, C. and Weaver, W. (1949) The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Illinois University Press Watson, G. and Gallagher, K. (2005). Managing for Results. London: CIPD