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CURRENT EFFICIENCY IN ELECTROMETALLURGY

M.Haris Hidayat 3334090554


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OUTLINE
Introduction Current efficiency <100% Current efficiency >100% Conclusion References

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION (CONT)

Current efficiency is similar like recovery in concentration in mineral processing.

INTRODUCTION (CONT)

since RECOVERY value proportional with concentrat percent Rk so: R k

INTRODUCTION (cont)

Current efficiency is the effective utilization of current

INTRODUCTION (cont)
The best current efficiency is when it close to 100%
BUT IN PRACTICE

Ex: PT.SMELTING current efficiency target 98.0%


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CURRENT EFFICIENCY < 100%


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mechanical losses of substances formed at the electrodes. Evaporation of the metal from the cathode. Reaction of electrolysis product with the electrolyte. Dissolution of the metal in the electrolyte. Current losses due to presence of moisture. Deposition of unwanted products

1. Mechanical losses of substances formed at the electrodes


Some human error and mechanical work may make losses substances SOLUTION? USE SYSTEM OPERATING for massive production
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2. Evaporation of the metal from the cathode


This is likely happen if the metal is produced at a temperature near its boiling point Example: Sodium (BP: 892oC) produced from molten sodium chloride (MP: 801oC)

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4. Dissolution of the metal in the electrolyte


a metal may dissolve in its own salt thus causing loss of output and lowering of apparent current efficiency

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5. Current losses due to presence of moisture


Some molten salts may be higroscopic HIGROSCOPIC?
Higroscopic is the property of absorbing moisture from the air
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6. Deposition of unwanted products


Electrolysis of Solution ZnSO4 Cathode : Zn2+ + 2e- Anode : 2 H 2O Zn 4H+ + O2 + 4e-

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CURRENT EFFICIENCY >100%


The difference in nobility between the cathode substrate and the metal in solution (ELECTROPLATING) Q & A.htm

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CURRENT EFFICIENCY >100% (cont)


Experience has suggested that the current is dependent on a range of factors, including mass transport (stirring), applied potential, temperature, and the amount (weight or surface area) of feed available for oxidation AIWO1-PR30-Campbell-Kelly.pdf
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CURRENT EFFICIENCY >100% (cont)


Electrodialysis is enhanced by other, than electromigration process, more particularly by ion exchange (Donnan dialysis through anion exchange membrane). Thus the hydroxyl exchanges with the borate present in the diluate boundary layer. 9086.pdf
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Conclusion
Current efficiency mean parameter success of electrometallurgy process Presence of additives of impurities can effect current efficiency

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References
H.S. RAY and A.GHOST. PRINCIPLES OF EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY. TERKEL ROSENQVIST. PRINCIPLES OF EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY 2nd edition. PE Ted mooney. 2011. How can electroplating cathode current have efficiency less than or more than 100%? http://www.finishing.com/570/25.shtml. [26 Maret 2012] R.P. Campbell-Kelly, T.J. Paget. Electrorefining of Cerium in LiCl-KCl Molten Salts. Proceedings of the First ACSEPT International Workshop. 2010. http://www.acsept.org/AIWOproc/AIWO1-PR30Campbell-Kelly.pdf. [25 Maret 2012]

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