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Introduction to MPLS

Basic Terminology, Functions, and Applications

Rocky Mountain Cisco Users Group


8 January, 2008

Jeff Doyle Principal Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

A Little Background

What do we mean by multiprotocol? Generic encapsulation What do we mean by label switching? Fixed address switching similar to ATM or FR Original motivations for MPLS ATM-like switching speeds Modern motivations for MPLS Virtual circuits over IP networks Service separation and virtualization Multiservice networks

Network consolidation

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

MPLS Applications

Link and node failure protection Traffic engineering Virtual point-to-point connections Virtual point-to-multipoint connections ATM/FR interworking Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
Layer 3 VPNs Layer 2 VPNs Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Basic Concepts and Terms

Label A fixed-length (20-bit) address Local significance (link scope) Label Switched Paths (LSPs) An MPLS virtual circuit LSPs are unidirectional Label Switching Routers (LSRs) Any router supporting MPLS Forwarding Equivalence Classes (FECs) All packets:

To be forwarded out the same interface With the same forwarding treatment (CoS) To the same next hop
Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

This is not a new concept!

Basic Concepts and Terms

Ingress LSR Transit LSR

LSP

Transit LSR Egress LSR

LSPs are unidirectional Ingress, transit, and egress are relative to a given LSP A given router can be ingress, egress, and transit for
different LSPs
Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

The MPLS Switching Table


PAYLOAD PAYLOAD 35 1434

IF1

IF4

PAYLOAD

112463

IF2
IF3
IN Label 18 22 105 1434 9295 26312 100034 Label 35 5175 16 112463 17 17 16 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 OUT IF

IF5
IF6
PAYLOAD 18

Labels have local significance Incoming labels are assigned by local router

Label distribution
Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Pushing, Swapping, and Popping

Ingress LSR

Egress LSR L0 = 192.168.15.4


DA: 10.5.2.1 22 DA: 10.5.2.1 3 17 DA: 10.5.2.1 0 DA: 10.5.2.1

DA: 10.5.2.1

Routing Table
Prefix 10.5.0.0/16 Next Hop 192.168.15.4 PUSH 22, IF 1

MPLS Switching Table

MPLS Switching Table

MPLS Switching Table

IN
22

OUT
SWAP 17, IF 3

IN 17

OUT SWAP 0, IF 2

IN 0

OUT POP

Routing Table

Label 0 = Explicit Null


Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Prefix

Next Hop

10.5.0.0/16

10.1.16.3

Penultimate Hop Popping

Ingress LSR

Egress LSR L0 = 192.168.15.4


DA: 10.5.2.1 22 DA: 10.5.2.1 3 17 2 DA: 10.5.2.1 DA: 10.5.2.1

DA: 10.5.2.1

Routing Table
Prefix 10.5.0.0/16 Next Hop 192.168.15.4 PUSH 22, IF 1

MPLS Switching Table

MPLS Switching Table

Routing Table Prefix 10.5.0.0/16 Next Hop 10.1.16.3

IN 22

OUT SWAP 17, IF 3

IN 17

OUT 3, POP

Label 3 = Implicit Null

Penultimate LSR: Last transit LSR before egress

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Label Values
0 - 15 Reserved
LABEL 0 1 2 3 4-14 15 16 - 220-1 DESIGNATION IPv4 Explicit Null Router Alert IPv6 Explicit Null Implicit Null Reserved for Future Use OAM Production Use

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Label Stacking
Label Stacking allows LSPs to be tunneled in other LSPs
LSP1
LSP2 Ingress LSR

LSP2

DA: 10.5.2.1

22

DA: 10.5.2.1 1

22 18

DA: 10.5.2.1 3

22 31

DA: 10.5.2.1

22

LSP2 Egress LSR

DA: 10.5.2.1

75

MPLS Switching Table

MPLS Switching Table

MPLS Switching Table

MPLS Switching Table

IN 22

OUT PUSH 18, IF 1

IN 18

OUT

IN 31

OUT POP 3, IF 2

IN 22

OUT SWAP 75, IF 1

SWAP 31, IF 3

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

The MPLS Header

Layer 2 Header

MPLS Header Layer 3 Header

Data

LABEL
20

EXP S
3 1

TTL
8

32 bits

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

QUESTIONS?

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Label Distribution

Requests for labels flow downstream Ingress ==> Egress Because ingress is the LSR that established the LSP Assignment of labels (label binding) flows upstream Egress ==> Ingress Because LSRs need to map incoming labels to some
action (Push, Swap, Pop)

Request: I need a label for LSR A From Ingress Response: Use label 27
Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

To Egress

Label Distribution Protocols

Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)

Hop-by-hop label distribution Follows IGP best path Highly scalable

No traffic engineering capabilities

Best suited for apps using thousands of LSPs (VPNs) Resource Reservation Protocol with Traffic Engineering Extensions (RSVP-TE)

Best suited for traffic engineering in the core Constraint-Based Routed LDP (CR-LDP)

End-to-end LSP signaling Enables specification of path constraints Less scalable -- LSRs maintain soft state

TE-capable LDP Never widely deployed Can distribute labeled-unicast address families Best suited for inter-AS VPNs
Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

MP-BGP

Label Distribution: LDP

Hop-by-hop label distribution Always follows IGP best path IP addresses are locally bound to labels Bindings are stored in Label Information Base

(LIB) All bindings advertised to all peers No split horizon


Use Label 0 Use Label 23

Use Label 18

Use Label 16

Use Label 32

Use Label 0

LDP Label Mapping Message


Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Label Distribution: RSVP


End-to-end constrained path signaling Enabled by OSPF or IS-IS with TE extensions
Maximum Bandwidth Maximum Reservable Bandwidth Unreserved Bandwidth TE Metric Administrative Group (aka Link Affinity or Link Coloring) Interface parameters used to build Traffic Engineering Database (TED) Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF)

Extended IGPs flood TE interface parameters:

Explicit Route Object (ERO) passed to RSVP

Calculates best path based on specified constraints

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

CSPF Calculation
TE-Extended IGP Unicast Link State Database Unicast Link State Database User-Specified Path Constraints

SPF Calculation

CSPF Calculation

Shortest-Path Tree

ERO

Unicast Routing Table

RSVP

LSP Signaling Successful LSP Setup

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

RSVP LSP Signaling


ERO
B Strict; E Loose; G Strict; H Strict
Ingress

RSVP PATH messages flow Ingress ==> Egress, Request reservation of interface resources

RSVP RESV messages flow Egress ==> Ingress, Distribute labels

C
IGP Best Path

H
Egress
Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

QUESTIONS?

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

RSVP and LDP Applications


Typical PoP architecture:
CORE High-bandwidth core uplinks Core routers
Primary requirement is high performance

End-point for RSVP traffic engineering core LSPs


- Need relatively few of these - Serve as PoP-to-PoP tunnels for service-specific edge LSPs

Aggregation routers might or might not exist here

Edge routers
Primary requirements are: Service intelligence Customer-facing interface density

End-point for LDP service-specific LSPs


Might be hundreds or thousands of these

CUSTOMERS
Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Using RSVP and LDP LSPs Together


LDP-based customer (and/or service) specific LSPs at edge are tunneled through core in RSVP-TE LSPs Both LDP scalability and RSVP TE capabilities are leveraged
Customer 1 Customer 2 Customer 3 Customer 4 Customer 5 Customer 6

LDP-based LSP: RSVP-based LSP:

PoP 3
Customer 1 Customer 2 Customer 3 Customer 4 Customer 5 Customer 6

PoP 1

PoP 2

Customer 1 Customer 2 Customer 3

CORE
Customer 4 Customer 5 Customer 6

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

A Quick Glance at MPLS VPNs

PE1
Customer 1 CE1

PE2

Customer 1 CE1 Customer 2

Customer 2 CE2 Customer 3

CE2 Customer 3 CE3

CE3

Each VPN customer has a dedicated table (database):


- VPN Routing & Forwarding (VRF) for Layer 3 VPNs - VPN Forwarding Table (VFT) for Layer 2 VPNs

PE3
PE = Provider Edge CE = Customer Edge = Customer Table
CE2 Customer 2

Databases connected by customer-specific LSPs Reachability information advertised by MP-BGP (VPN-specific address families)
CE1 Customer 1

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

QUESTIONS?

Copyright 2008 Jeff Doyle and Associates, Inc.

Thank You!
jdoyle@doyleassociates.net (303) 428-4680

www.doyleassociates.net