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# Faculty Of Engineering 3/20/2012

## University of Central Punjab

There are three types of control loops in process control.\ 1. Single loop Feedback Control 2. Cascaded Loop 3. Ratio Feedback Loop

## In this loop the variable to be manipulated is measured and then

this process value (PV) is then compared with a set point value (SP) to generate an error signal. E = PV-SP

1. 2. 3.

## University of Central Punjab

As the controller compares the set point value and process value,

so both values should be in same units. The purpose of the input transmission system is to convert input signal into the required units. The purpose of output transmission system is to convert the controller signal into the signal required by final control element.

## The important objective in the design of a process control is to

correctly match the time response of a control system to that of the process. The time of the response of a control loop is known as Time Lag. In process control, the term lag means any relationship in which some result happens after some cause. In feedback control loop, lags act in series, the output of one being the input of another.

## In process sensors, the output lags behind the input process

value that is being measured. Sensor output changes smoothly from the moment a change in measurement value occurs, even the disturbance is sudden and discontinuous. The nature of the sensor time-response curve is the same for virtually all sensors, even though the sensors measure different physical variables.

## A typical curve for a process sensor is shown.

Here the input has been changed suddenly at time equal to zero.

## m(t) = mi + (mf + mi)(1 e-t/ )

Where

mi = the initial sensor output measurement mf = the final sensor output value = the sensor time constant
Faculty Of Engineering 3/20/2012

## when the initial sensor output is zero

m(t) = mf (1 e-t/T)
At t= sec, when the initial sensor output is zero

m() = mf (1 e-1) m() = 0.632mf It means for (1) the output is changed by 63.2% of the total change. At =5T m(5T) = 0.933mf

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process control.

## The equation for the first order time lag is where

y(t) = the output y as a function of time x(t) = the input x as a function of time K = a constant = time constant
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## As the equation of first order lag is the differential equation, so

we simplify this equation to an algebraic equation using Laplace Transform. For this perform the following steps
1. 2. 3.

Replace d/dt = S Replace = 1/S Replace the lower case letters that represent variables with their corresponding uppercase letter in the transformed equation.

The equation for the first order lag is Its transformed equation is Finaly

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## If an electric circuit has pure resistance and pure capacitance in

series, then this circuits is analogues to the resistance and capacitance of most liquid and thermal systems. Resistance in a pure resistive circuit is defined by Ohms law and its equation is V=IR The electrical resistance is R=V/I=Potential/Flow In case of capacitor, charge on capacitor is given as q=CV The capacitance of a capacitor is C=q/V=Charge quantity/Potential

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## A series RC electrical network is shown above. In order to give

step input to the circuit and switch will move to position 2 from 1. When switch is at position 2, then the circuit can be represented using following equation VS(t) = VR(t) + VC(t) OR VS(t) = (d/dt(VC)) + VC Where = Time Constant for the system
Faculty Of Engineering 3/20/2012

## University of Central Punjab

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VS(t) = (d/dt(VC)) + VC when we apply Laplace Transform on above equation, then result will be VS = *S*VC + VC Or VC/VS = 1/(S + 1) Or VC/VS = K/(S + 1) This equation is same as the equation of first order system.

## University of Central Punjab

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There are two main types of flow take place in liquid systems. 1. Laminar Flow 2. Turbulent Flow Laminar Flow

laminar flow occurs when the flow velocity is relatively low and the liquid flows in layers, so the liquid flow is directly proportional to differential pressure or head on the liquid. Turbulent Flow Turbulent flow occurs when the fluid velocity is relatively high and the velocity of the liquid at any point varies irregularly. When turbulent flow occurs from tank discharging under its own head or pressure

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## Flow equation can be represented as

q = K A (2 g h)
Where

q = flow rate (ft3/sec) K = flow coefficient A = area of discharge orifice (ft2) g = gravitation constant (ft/s2) h= pressure head of the liquid (ft) The hydraulic resistance can be defined as Rh = Potential/Flow = h/q The instantaneous rate of change of hydraulic resistance will be Rh = dh/dq

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## Flow equation can be represented as

q = K A (2 g h) After rearranging above equation we get h = q/KA 2g Differentiating above equation w.r.t q, we get dh/dq = 2h/KA 2g dh/dq = 2h/KA 2gh So dh/dq = 2h/q Therefore instantaneous hydraulic resistance is Rh = 2h/q The only difference lies in the fact that turbulent flow involves the square root of the driving potential or head h.
Faculty Of Engineering

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## University of Central Punjab

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Now we will show that the liquid capacitance is directly analogous to electrical capacitance.

Volume (V) of the liquid in the tank is given by V(t) = Ah(t) Where V(t) = the volume of liquid as a function of time h(t) = height of liquid A = surface area of the liquid in the tank
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## Volume of liquid in the tank is given as

V(t) = Ah(t) After rearranging above equation we get A = V(t)/h(t) = quantity/potential If we compare above equation with electrical capacitance (C = q/V), it shows that liquid capacitance is simply the surface area of the liquid in the tank. Differentiating volume equation w.r.t t, we get dV(t)/dt = A h(t)/dt We know that instantaneous rate of change of volume is given by the flow as dV/dt = qi q0 So qi q0 = A dh/dt
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## Instantaneous rate of change of volume is

qi q0 = A dh/dt If we consider turbulent flow from tank, then q0 = 2h/R qi = A (dh/dt) + 2h/R The above equation is a first order linear differential equation that expresses liquid level as a function of time.

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## The basic thermal processes encountered in the process

industries are

The mixing of hot and cold fluids The exchange of heat through adjoining bodies The generation of heat through combustion or chemical reaction

## Two laws of thermodynamics are used in the study of thermal

systems. First law governs the way in which heat energy is produced and amount of heat generated. Second law governs the flow of heat. For a given body, heat input raises the internal energy and rate of change of body temperature is proportional to the heat flow to the body.

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## The constant that relates temperature change and heat flow is

called the thermal capacity of the body. C(dT/dt) = q Where C = thermal capacitance (cal/oC) dT/dt = the rate of change of temperature oC/s q = heat flow (cal/s) The thermal capacitance of a body is found by multiplying the specific heat of the material by the mass of the body. C = MS

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## For example, in above figure, heat flowing into a body with

thermal capacitance (C) causes the temperature (T) to rise above the ambient value T0. Heat flow and charge flow as well as temperature and voltage are analogous quantities. Heat transmission takes place by conduction, convection, or radiation. Conduction involves transmission and mixing, and radiation uses electromagnetic waves to transfer heat.
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## The rate of heat flow through a body is determined by its

thermal resistance. Thermal resistance is the change in temperature that results from a unit change in heat flow rate. Thermal resistance is normally a linear function, in which RT = (T2 T1)/q Where RT = thermal resistance (oC/cal/s) T2 T1 = temperature difference in (oC) q = the heat flow (cal/s) Thermal resistance is analogous to electrical resistance in an electrical circuit.

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## If the temperature of a body is considered to be uniform

throughout, its thermal behavior can be described by a linear differential equation. For such a system, thermal equilibrium requires that at any instant the heat added (qi) to the system equals the heat stored (qS) plus the heat removed (q0). Thus qi = qS + q0

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