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Process Capability Analysis

(Measure Phase)
Scope of Module
Process Variation
Process Capability
Specification, Process and Control Limits
Process Potential vs Process Performance
Short-Term vs Long-Term Process Capability
Process Capability for Non-Normal Data
Cycle-Time (Exponential Distribution)
Reject Rate (Binomial Distribution)
Defect Rate (Poisson Distribution)
I want to compare
process X vs process Y.
`
o
o
o
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

cm
99.7%
= 20 cm
o
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

cm
99.7%
= 10 cm
o
LSL
USL
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

cm
99.7%
= 10 cm
o
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

LSL USL
cm
99.7%
= 10 cm
o
LSL
USL
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190
cm
USL - LSL
6 o
6
o
Cp = 120/60 = 2
LSL
USL
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190
cm
USL - LSL
6 o
6
o
Cp = 120/60 = 2
LSL
USL
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190
cm
USL - LSL
6 o
6
o
Cp = 120/60 = 2
LSL
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190
cm
3
o

USL
3
o

USL -
3
- LSL
3
OR
o
o

LSL
USL
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
X
X
cm
z

X -
o

o
LSL
USL
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
USL -
USL
cm
z


o
o
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
USL -
3
- LSL
3
OR
o
o

USL -
USL
o

TOTAL
WITHIN BETWEEN
= + SS
S
SS
SS
Long-term capability Accuracy
Precision
(short-term capability)
Total Variation
Within Subgroup Between Subgroup
2
g
1 j
n
1 = i
j j i
g
1 = j
2
j j
2
g
1 = j
n
1 = i
j i
) X (X ) X - X ( n ) X X (

=
+ =
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Time
SS
between
SS
within

=
+
SS
total

WITHIN vs OVERALL
Within vs Overall Capability
Within Capability (previously called short-term capability)
shows the inherent variability of a machine/process operating
within a brief period of time.

Overall Capability (previously called long-term capability)
shows the variability of a machine/process operating over a
period of time. It includes sources of variation in addition to
the short-term variability.
Within vs Overall Capability
Within Overall

Sample Size 30 50 units > 100 units

Number of Lots single lot several lots

Period of Time hours or days weeks or months

Number of Operators single operator different operators

Process Potential C
p
P
p


Process Performance C
pk
P
pk

Within vs Overall Capability
Within
p
6
LSL USL
C
o

=
Within
pl
3
LSL
C
o

=
Within
pu
3
USL
C
o

=
Within
pk
3
NSL
C
o

=
Overall
p
6
LSL USL
P
o

=
Overall
pl
3
LSL
P
o

=
Overall
pu
3
USL
P
o

=
Overall
pk
3
NSL
P
o

=
Within Capability Overall Capability

The key difference between the two sets of indices lies in the estimates
for o
Within
and o
Overall
.
Estimating o
Within
and o
Overall

Consider the following observations from a Control Chart:

S/N X
1
X
2
X
k
Mean Range Std Dev

1 x
1,1
x
2,1
x
k,1
X
1
R
1
S
1

2 x
1,2
x
2,2
x
k,2
X
2
R
2
S
2

: : : : : : :
m x
1,m
x
2,m
x
k,m
X
m
R
m
S
m


The overall variation o
Overall
is estimated by



( ) ( )
1 N
x x
c
1
1 N
x
c
1

2
m
1 i
k
1 j ij
4
2
m
1 i
k
1 j ij
4
Overall


= o

= = = =
Estimating o
Within
and o
Overall

The within variation o
Within
may be estimated by one of the
following:
(a) R-bar Method

where d
2
is a Shewhart constant = ](k)

(b) S-bar Method

where c
4
is a Shewhart constant = ](k)

(c) Pooled Standard Deviation Method



In MiniTab, the Pooled Standard Deviation is the default method.
2
Within
d
R
= o
4
Within
c
S
= o
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 n 1 n 1 n
S 1 n S 1 n S 1 n
c
1

m 2 1
2
m m
2
2 2
2
1 1
4
Within
+ + +
+ + +
= o

( ) ( )
4 /
1
4 /
1

2
1 1
2
1 1
c
N
x x
c
N
x
m
i
k
j
ij
m
i
k
j
ij
LT


=

= = = =

o
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 n 1 n 1 n
S 1 n S 1 n S 1 n
c
1

m 2 1
2
m m
2
2 2
2
1 1
4
ST
+ + +
+ + +
= o

Shewhart Constants
n A2 A3 d2 c4 B3 B4 D3 D4
2 1.880 2.659 1.128 0.7979 0 3.267 0 3.267
3 1.023 1.954 1.693 0.8862 0 2.568 0 2.575
4 0.729 1.628 2.059 0.9213 0 2.266 0 2.282
5 0.577 1.427 2.326 0.9400 0 2.089 0 2.115
6 0.483 1.287 2.534 0.9515 0.030 1.970 0 2.004
7 0.419 1.182 2.704 0.9594 0.118 1.882 0.076 1.924
8 0.373 1.099 2.847 0.9650 0.185 1.815 0.136 1.864
9 0.337 1.032 2.970 0.9693 0.239 1.761 0.184 1.816
10 0.308 0.975 3.078 0.9727 0.284 1.716 0.223 1.777
11 0.285 0.927 3.173 0.9754 0.321 1.679 0.256 1.744
12 0.266 0.886 3.258 0.9776 0.354 1.646 0.283 1.717
13 0.249 0.850 3.336 0.9794 0.382 1.618 0.307 1.693
14 0.235 0.817 3.407 0.9810 0.406 1.594 0.328 1.672
15 0.223 0.789 3.472 0.9823 0.428 1.572 0.347 1.653
16 0.212 0.763 3.532 0.9835 0.448 1.552 0.363 1.637
17 0.203 0.739 3.588 0.9845 0.466 1.534 0.378 1.622
18 0.194 0.718 3.640 0.9854 0.482 1.518 0.391 1.608
19 0.187 0.698 3.689 0.9862 0.497 1.503 0.403 1.597
20 0.180 0.680 3.735 0.0969 0.510 1.490 0.415 1.585
21 0.173 0.663 3.778 0.9876 0.523 1.477 0.425 1.575
22 0.167 0.647 3.819 0.9882 0.534 1.466 0.434 1.566
23 0.162 0.633 3.858 0.9887 0.545 1.455 0.443 1.557
24 0.157 0.619 3.895 0.9892 0.555 1.445 0.451 1.548
25 0.153 0.606 3.931 0.9896 0.565 1.435 0.459 1.541
( )
( )
( ) 1 n 2 c
3
1 B
1 n 2 c
3
1 B
3 n 4
1 n 4
c
n c
3
A
4
4
4
3
4
4
3

+ =

~
=
For n > 25
from control
phase file :
SPC(PART1)
All the Metrics...
Rev. 1 12/98
C
p
P
P
C
PK
P
PK
Capability
Long term
Std Dev
Not in Control
Process Capability and Performance
Indicators
Short term
Std Dev
In Control
Performance
C
P
represents
entitlement!
Relates std. deviation
to tolerance
Relates mean &
std. deviation to spec
Snapshot Look Video
Look
Centered
Not Centered
Example 1
Specification Limits : 4 to 16 g

Machine Mean Std Dev
(a) 10 4
(b) 10 2
(c) 7 2
(d) 13 1

Determine the corresponding C
p
and C
pk
for each machine.
Example 1A
( )
5 . 0
4 6
4 16
6
LSL USL
C
p
=

=
o

=
( ) ( )
5 . 0
4 3
4 10
;
4 3
10 16
Min
3
LSL
;
3
USL
Min C
pk
=
)
`


=
)
`

o

o

=
Example 1B
( )
0 . 1
2 6
4 16
6
LSL USL
C
p
=

=
o

=
( ) ( )
0 . 1
2 3
4 10
;
2 3
10 16
Min
3
LSL
;
3
USL
Min C
pk
=
)
`


=
)
`

o

o

=
Example 1C
( )
0 . 1
2 6
4 16
6
LSL USL
C
p
=

=
o

=
( ) ( )
5 . 0
2 3
4 7
;
2 3
7 16
Min
3
LSL
;
3
USL
Min C
pk
=
)
`


=
)
`

o

o

=
Example 1D
( )
0 . 2
1 6
4 16
6
LSL USL
C
p
=

=
o

=
( ) ( )
0 . 1
1 3
4 13
;
1 3
13 16
Min
3
LSL
;
3
USL
Min C
pk
=
)
`


=
)
`

o

o

=
Process Capability
For a normally distributed characteristic, the defective rate F(x) may be
estimated via the following:





For characteristics with only one specification limit:
a) LSL only
b) USL only
( ) ( ) ( ) USL x Pr LSL x Pr x F > + < =
(

|
.
|

\
|
o

u +
|
.
|

\
|
o

u =
USL
1
LSL
( ) ( ) | |
USL LSL
Z 1 Z u + u =
LSL USL
( ) ( ) ( )
LSL
Z LSL x Pr x F u = < =
( ) ( ) ( )
USL
Z 1 USL x Pr x F u = > =
Example 2
Specification Limits : 4 to 16 g

Machine Mean Std Dev
(a) 10 4
(b) 10 2
(c) 7 2
(d) 13 1

Determine the defective rate for each machine.
Example 2
Mean Std Dev Z
LSL
Z
USL
F(x<LSL) F(x>USL) F(x)

10 4 -1.5 1.5 66,807 66,807 133,614

10 2 -3.0 3.0 1,350 1,350 2,700

7 2 -1.5 4.5 66,807 3 66,811

13 1 -9.0 3.0 0 1,350 1,350

Lower Spec Limit = 4 g
Upper Spec Limit = 16 g
Process Potential vs Process Performance
(a) Poor Process Potential (b) Poor Process Performance
LSL USL LSL USL
Experimental Design
to reduce variation
Experimental Design
to center mean
to reduce variation
Process Potential vs Process Performance
Process Potential Index (C
p
)
C
pk
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

1.0 2,699.9 1,363.3 1,350.0 1,350.0 1,350.0 1,350.0

1.2 318.3 159.9 159.1 159.1 159.1

1.4 26.7 13.4 13.4 13.4

1.6 1.6 0.8 0.8

1.8 0.1 0.0

2.0 0.0

Defective Rate (measured in dppm) is dependent on the actual
combination of C
p
and C
pk
..
Process Potential vs Process Performance
a)
C
p
= 2
C
pk
= 2
b)
C
p
= 2
C
pk
= 1
c)
C
p
= 2
C
pk
< 1

C
p
C
pk
Missed Opportunity

Alternative Process Performance Index
( )
2
p pm
T
1 C C
(

o

+ =
Process capability statistics measure process variation relative
to specification limits.

The C
p
statistic compares the engineering tolerance against
the processs natural variation.

The C
pk
statistic takes into account the location of the process
relative to the midpoint between specifications. If the process
target is not centered between specifications, the C
pm
statistic
is preferred.
Process Stability
A process is stable if the distribution of measurements made
on the given feature is consistent over time.
Time
Stable
Process
Time
Unstable
Process
ucl
lcl
ucl
lcl
Example 3
The length of a camshaft for an automobile engine is specified
at 600 2 mm. Control of the length of the camshaft is critical
to avoid scrap/rework.

The camshaft is provided by an external supplier. Assess the
process capability for this supplier.

The data is available in Process Capability Analysis.MTW.
Example 3
Stat Quality Tools Capability Analysis (Normal)
Example 3
604 603 602 601 600 599 598 597 596
Target USL LSL
Process Capability for Camshaft Length
PPM Total
PPM > USL
PPM < LSL
PPM Total
PPM > USL
PPM < LSL
PPM Total
PPM > USL
PPM < LSL
Ppk
PPL
PPU
Pp
Cpm
Cpk
CPL
CPU
Cp
StDev (Overall)
StDev (Within)
Sample N
Mean
LSL
Target
USL
135650.67
74856.34
60794.32
104438.25
58448.09
45990.16
50000.00
10000.00
40000.00
0.48
0.52
0.48
0.50
0.50
0.52
0.56
0.52
0.54
1.33838
1.22964
100
600.072
598.000
600.000
602.000
Exp. "Overall" Performance Exp. "Within" Performance Observed Performance Overall Capability
Potential (Within) Capability
Process Data
Within
Overall
Example 3A
Histogram of camshaft length suggests mixed populations.
Further investigation revealed that there are two suppliers for
the camshaft. Data was collected over camshafts from both
sources.

Are the two suppliers similar in performance?
If not, what are your recommendations?
Example 3A
Stat Quality Tools Capability Sixpack(Normal)
Example 3A
20 10 0
600.5
600.0
599.5
599.0
Xbar and R Chart
Subgr
M
e
a
n
Mean=599.5
UCL=600.3
LCL=598.8
3
2
1
0
R
a
n
g
e
R=1.341
UCL=2.835
LCL=0
20 10 0
Last 20 Subgroups
601
600
599
598
Subgroup Number
V
a
l
u
e
s
602 T 598
Capability Plot
Process Tolerance
I I I
I I I
I I I
Specifications
Within
Overall
601.0 599.5 598.0
Normal Prob Plot
601.0 599.5 598.0
Capability Histogram
Within
StDev:
Cp:
Cpk:
0.576429
1.16
0.90
Overall
StDev:
Pp:
Ppk:
Cpm:
0.620865
1.07
0.83
0.87
Process Capability for Camshaft Length (Supplier A)
Example 3A
20 10 0
604
602
600
598
Xbar and R Chart
Subgr
M
e
a
n
1
1
Mean=600.2
UCL=602.5
LCL=598.0
7.5
5.0
2.5
0.0
R
a
n
g
e
R=3.890
UCL=8.225
LCL=0
20 10 0
Last 20 Subgroups
603.5
601.0
598.5
596.0
Subgroup Number
V
a
l
u
e
s
602 598
Capability Plot
Process Tolerance
I I I
I I I
I I
Specifications
Within
Overall
605 600 595
Normal Prob Plot
605 600 595
Capability Histogram
Within
StDev:
Cp:
Cpk:
1.67231
0.40
0.35
Overall
StDev:
Pp:
Ppk:
1.87861
0.35
0.31
Process Capability for Camshaft Length (Supplier B)
Whats Six Sigma Quality Then
Original Definition by Motorola:
if the specification limits are at least 6o away from the
process mean , i.e. C
p
> 2,
and the process shifts by less than 1.5o, i.e. C
pk
> 1.5,
then the process will yield less than 3.4 dppm rejects.
6o 6o
Shift
1.5o
4.5o
Whats Six Sigma Quality Now
Mikel J Harry claims that the process mean between lots will vary,
with an average process shift of 1.5o.
ko = zo + 1.5o ko = zo + 1.5o
Shift
1.5o
zo
Note: Sigma Capability = (dpmo) = (dppm)
Process Capability for Non-Normal Data
Not every measured characteristic is normally distributed.

Characteristic Distribution
Cycle Time Exponential
Reject Rate Binomial
Defect Rate Poisson
Process Capability for Cycle Time
The Weibull Distribution is a general family of distribution with

where scale parameter u is the value at which CDF=68.17%,
and shape parameter | determines the shape of the PDF.
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
u

|
|
u
|
= u |
x 1
e
x
, ; x Weibull
Process Capability for Cycle Time
complain
close
Cycle time
# of days
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 days
freq
scale parameter u is the value at which CDF=68.17%,
shape parameter | determines the shape of the PDF.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 days
freq
68.17%
scale parameter u = 4
shape parameter | =1
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
u

|
|
u
|
= u |
x 1
e
x
, ; x Weibull

=
x
e
1
Exponential (x; )
| = 1
Process Capability for Cycle Time
At |=1, the Weibull Distribution is reduced to

For an Exponential Distribution,

The Exponential Distribution is thus a Weibull Distribution with |=1.
u

u
=
x
e
1
Weibull (x; |=1, u)

=
x
e
1
Exponential (x; )
Example 4
A customer service manager wants to determine the process
capability for his department. A primary performance index
is the time taken to close a customer complaint. The goal for
this index is to close a complaint within one calendar week.

Performance over the last 400 complaints was reviewed.
Example 4
Stat Quality Tools Capability Analysis (Weibull)
Example 4
25 20 15 10 5 0
USL USL
Process Capability for Complaint Closure
Calculations Based on Exponential Distribution Model
PPM Total
PPM > USL
PPM < LSL
PPM Total
PPM > USL
PPM < LSL
Ppk
PPL
PPU
Pp
Scale
Shape
Sample N
Mean
LSL
Target
USL
122970.80
122970.80
*
75000.00
75000.00
*
0.39
*
0.39
*
3.34
1.00
400
3.34
*
*
7.00
Expected LT Performance
Observed LT Performance
Overall (LT) Capability
Process Data
122970 ppm => Z = 1.16

P
pk
= Z/3 = 1.16/3 =.39
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Example 4A
Stat Quality Tools Capability Sixpack (Weibull)
Example 4A
400 300 200 100 0
24
16
8
0
Individual and MR Chart
Obser.
I
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

V
a
l
u
e
Mean=3.34
UCL=10.46
LCL=-3.779
24
16
8
0
M
o
v
.
R
a
n
g
e
R=2.677
UCL=8.746
LCL=0
400 390 380
Last 25 Observations
9
6
3
0
Observation Number
V
a
l
u
e
s
7
Overall (LT)
Shape: 1.00
Scale: 3.34
Pp: *
Ppk: 0.39
Capability Plot
Process Tolerance
Specifications
I I I
I
10.00 1.00 0.10 0.01
Weibull Prob Plot
20 10 0
Capability Histogram
Process Capability for Complaint Closure
Process Capability for Reject Rate
For a Normal Distribution, the proportion of parts produced beyond a
specification limit is

( )
) Z ( F 1
USL
Z Pr 1
USL
Z Pr
USL X Pr
=
|
.
|

\
|
o

< =
|
.
|

\
|
o

> =
> = Reject Rate
Process Capability for Reject Rate
10%
10%
Total % reject = 20%
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Z = 0.84 ==> Cpk = 0.84/3 = 0.28
Process Capability for Reject Rate
Thus, for every reject rate there is an accompanying Z-Score,

where

Recall that

Hence
o

=
3
NSL
P
pk
o


Limit Spec
Score Z
3
Score Z
P
pk

=
Process Capability for Reject Rate
Estimation of P
pk
for Reject Rate

Determine the long-term reject rate (p)

Determine the inverse cumulative probability for p,
using Calc Probability Distribution Normal

Z-Score is the magnitude of the returned value

P
pk
is one-third of the Z-Score
Example 5
A sales manager plans to assess the process capability of his
telephone sales departments handling of incoming calls.

The following data was collected over a period of 20 days:
number of incoming calls per day
number of unanswered calls per days
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Z=0.75 ==> P
pk
= Z/3 = 0.25
Example 5
Stat Quality Tools Capability Analysis (Binomial)
Example 5
20 10 0
0.26
0.25
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.20
0.19
Sample Number
P
r
o
p
o
r
t
i
o
n
P=0.2264
UCL=0.2555
LCL=0.1973
20 10
23.5
22.5
21.5
Sample Number
%
D
e
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
26 24 22 20
2050 1950 1850
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
%
D
e
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
Sample Size
Process Capability for Telephone Sales
Summary Stats Cumulative %Defective Dist of %Defective
P Chart Rate of Defectives
(denotes 95% C.I.)
Average P:
%Defective:
Target:
PPM Def.:
Process Z:
0.226427
22.643
0
226427
0.751
(0.2222, 0.2307)
(22.22, 23.07)
(222241, 230654)
(0.737, 0.765) P
pk
= 0.25
Process Capability for Defect Rate
Other applications, approximating a Poisson Distribution :

error rates

particle count

chemical concentration
Process Capability for Defect Rate
Estimation of Y
tp
for Defect Rate

Define size of an inspection unit

Determine the long-term defects per unit (DPU)
DPU = Total Defects Total Units

Determine the throughput yield (Y
tp
)
Y
tp
= exp{DPU}
Process Capability for Defect Rate
Estimation of Sigma-Capability for Defect Rate

Determine the opportunities per unit

Determine the long-term defects per opportunity (d)
d = defects per unit opportunities per unit

Determine the inverse cumulative probability for d,
using Calc Probability Distribution Normal

Z-Score is the magnitude of the returned value

Sigma-Capability = Z-Score + 1.5
Example 6
The process manager for a wire manufacturer is concerned
about the effectiveness of the wire insulation process.

Random lengths of electrical wiring are taken and tested for
weak spots in their insulation by means of a test voltage.

The number of weak spots and the length of each piece of
wire are recorded.
Example 6A
150 140 130 120 110 100
Length
Boxplot of Length
Define
1 Inspection Unit = 125 cm
i.e. Units = Length 125 cm
1 unit = 125 cm

Opportunities per Unit = 1

Defects per Opportunity = 3.31493

Z-Score = ???
Example 6A
TTL 329 12406
Example 6A
Stat Quality Tools Capability Analysis (Poisson)
Example 6A
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
10
5
0
Sample Number
S
a
m
p
l
e

C
o
u
n
t
U=3.315
UCL=8.630
LCL=0
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
Sample Number
D
P
U
9 6 3 0
Target
1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
D
P
U
Sample Size
Process Capability for Wire Insulation
Summary Stats Cumulative DPU Dist of DPU
U Chart Defect Rate
(denotes 95% C.I.)
Mean DPU:
Min DPU:
Max DPU:
Targ DPU:
3.31493
0
9.41781
0
(2.96637, 3.69319)
Defects per Unit
= 3.31493

Throughput Yield
= exp{DPU}
= exp{3.31493}
= 0.0363

c.f. First-Time Yield
= 2 / 100
= 0.02
Example 6A
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
10
5
0
Sample Number
S
a
m
p
l
e

C
o
u
n
t
U=3.315
UCL=8.630
LCL=0
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
Sample Number
D
P
U
9 6 3 0
Target
1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
D
P
U
Sample Size
Process Capability for Wire Insulation
Summary Stats Cumulative DPU Dist of DPU
U Chart Defect Rate
(denotes 95% C.I.)
Mean DPU:
Min DPU:
Max DPU:
Targ DPU:
3.31493
0
9.41781
0
(2.96637, 3.69319)
Defects per Unit
= 3.31493

Opportunities per Unit
= 1

Defects per Opportunity
= 3.31493

Z-Score = ???
1 unit = 1 cm
Opportunities per Unit = 1
Defects per Opportunity = 329 12,406
= 0.0265

Z-Score = Abs{u
1
(0.0265)}
= 1.935

Sigma-Capability = Z-Score + 1.5
= 3.435
TTL 329 12406
Example 6B
Example 6 B
Stat Quality Tools Capability Analysis (Poisson)
Example 6B
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
Sample Number
S
a
m
p
l
e

C
o
u
n
t
U=0.02652
UCL=0.06904
LCL=0
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.015
Sample Number
D
P
U
0.075 0.050 0.025 0.000
Target
150 140 130 120 110 100
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
D
P
U
Sample Size
Process Capability for Wire Insulation
Summary Stats Cumulative DPU Dist of DPU
U Chart Defect Rate
(denotes 95% C.I.)
Mean DPU:
Min DPU:
Max DPU:
Targ DPU:
0.0265194
0
0.0753425
0
(0.0237309, 0.0295455)
Defects per Unit
= 0.0265194

Throughput Yield
= exp{DPU}
= exp{0.0265194}
= 0.9738

c.f. First-Time Yield
= 2 / 100
= 0.02
Example 6B
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
Sample Number
S
a
m
p
l
e

C
o
u
n
t
U=0.02652
UCL=0.06904
LCL=0
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.015
Sample Number
D
P
U
0.075 0.050 0.025 0.000
Target
150 140 130 120 110 100
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
D
P
U
Sample Size
Process Capability for Wire Insulation
Summary Stats Cumulative DPU Dist of DPU
U Chart Defect Rate
(denotes 95% C.I.)
Mean DPU:
Min DPU:
Max DPU:
Targ DPU:
0.0265194
0
0.0753425
0
(0.0237309, 0.0295455)
1 inspection unit
= 1 unit length of wire

Opportunities per Unit
= 1

Defects per Opportunity
= 329 12,406
= 0.0265

Z-Score
= Abs{u
1
(0.0265)}
= 1.935

Sigma-Capability
= Z-Score + 1.5
= 3.435
Choice of Six Sigma Metric
Inspection Unit 1 Unit Length 125 Unit Length
Defects 329 329
Units 12,406 99.25
Defects per Unit 0.0265 3.3149
Throughput Yield 0.9738 0.0363
Defects per Opportunity 0.0265 3.3149
Sigma Capability 3.435 ???


Challenge your spec.
Compare Cp vs Cpk ==> shift mean opportunity
Cp vs Cpk
Compare Cpk vs Ppk==> Benchmark opportunity
Cpk vs Ppk
Use proper subgroup size to get true Cpk