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Absorption and Marginal costing

By Mrs. Rashmi Ranjith

COST - MEANING
Cost means the amount of expenditure incurred on, or attributable to, a given thing.

COST ACCOUNTING MEANING


Cost accounting is concerned with recording, classifying and summarizing costs for determination of costs of products or services, planning, controlling and reducing such costs and furnishing of information to management for decision making

ELEMENTS OF
COST

COST

MATERIALS

OTHER EXPENSES

LABOUR

DIRECT

DIRECT INDIRECT INDIRECT DIRECT

INDIRECT

OVERHEADS
DOH

FOH

AOH

SOH

COST SHEET
DIRECT MATERIAL DIRECT LABOUR DIRECT EXPENSES

PRIME COST FACTORY OVERHEADS

FACTORY COST OFFICE OVERHEADS

COST OF PRODUCTION SELL & DIST OVERHEADS

COST OF SALES PROFIT

SALES

Costing Systems/Methods

Historical Absorption Direct Marginal Standard Uniform

Marginal vs. Absorption Costing

Introduction

The allocation of all manufacturing costs to products regardless of whether they are fixed or variable. This approach is known as absorption costing/full costing However, only variable costs are relevant to decision-making. This is known as marginal costing/variable costing
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Definition

Absorption costing Marginal costing

Absorption costing

It is costing system which treats all manufacturing costs including both the fixed and variable costs as product costs

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Marginal costing

It is a costing system which treats only the variable manufacturing costs as product costs. The fixed manufacturing overheads are regarded as period cost

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Marginal vs. Absorption Costing


Absorption Costing

Marginal Costing

Full Costing-Both Fixed & Variable costs treated as Product Costs. Inventory is valued at total cost Apportionment of fixed costs results in over or under absorption of costs. Decision making is based on profits-the excess of sales over total cost.

Variable Costing-Only Variable costs treated as product costs. Fixed costs are period costs Inventory is valued at variable costs only Excludes fixed costs and no question of under or overabsorption arise. Decision making is based on contribution-the excess of sales over variable costs

Absorption Costing Cost Manufacturing cost Direct Materials Direct Labour Overheads Non-manufacturing cost

Period cost Profit and loss account

Finished goods

Cost of goods sold

Marginal Costing Cost


Manufacturing cost Direct Materials Direct Labour Non-manufacturing cost Fixed overhead

Variable Overheads

Period cost

Finished goods

Cost of goods sold

Profit and loss account 13

Presentation of costs on income statement

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Trading and profit and loss account


Absorption costing
Sales Less: Cost of goods sold $ X X

Marginal costing
Sales Less: Variable cost of Goods sold Product contribution margin Less: variable non- manufacturing expenses Variable selling expenses Variable admin. expenses Other variable expenses Total contribution expenses Less: Expenses Fixed selling expenses Fixed admin. expenses Other fixed expenses Net Profit $ X X X

Gross profit
Less: Expenses Selling expenses X Admin. expenses X Other expenses X

Variable and fixed manufacturing

X X X X

Net Profit

X X X X

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Example

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A company started its business in 2005. The following information Was available for January to March 2005 for the company that produced A single product: $ Selling price pre unit 100 Direct materials per unit 20 Direct Labour per unit 10 Fixed factory overhead per month 30000 Variable factory overhead per unit 5 Fixed selling overheads 1000 Variable selling overheads per unit 4 Budgeted activity was expected to be 1000 units each month Production and sales for each month were as follows: Jan Feb March Unit sold 1000 800 1100 Unit produced 1000 1300 900 17

Required:

Prepare absorption and marginal costing statements for the three months

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Absorption costing

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January $ Sales 100000 Less: cost of good sold ($65) 65000 Adjustment for Over-/(under) Absorption of factory overhead Gross profit 35000 Less: Expenses Fixed selling overheads 1000 Variable selling overheads 4000 Net profit 30000

February $ 80000 52000 28000

March $ 110000 71500 38500

9000 37000
1000 3200 32800

(3000) 35500
1000 4400 30100

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Marginal costing

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Sales Less: Variable cost of good sold ($35) 35000 Product contribution margin 65000 Less: Variable selling overhead4000 Total contribution margin 61000 Less: Fixed Expenses Fixed factory overhead 30000 Fixed selling overheads 1000 Net profit 30000

January $ 100000

February $ 80000 28000 52000 3200 48800 30000 1000 32800

March $ 110000 38500 71500 4400 67100 30000 1000 30100

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Wk1: Standard fixed overhead rate = Budgeted total fixed factory overheads Budgeted number of units produced = $30000 1000 units = $30 units Wk 2: Production cost per unit under absorption costing: Direct materials Direct labour Fixed factory overhead absorbed Variable factory overheads Back

$ 20 10 30 5 65
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Wk 3: (Under-)/Over-absorption of fixed factory overheads: January February March $ $ $ Fixed overhead 30000 39000 27000 Fixed overheads incurred 30000 30000 30000 0 9000 (3000) 1000*$30 1300*$30 900*$30

No fixed factory overhead Wk 4: Variable production cost per unit under marginal costing: $ Direct materials 20 Direct labour 10 Variable factory overhead 5 Back 35

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Difference between absorption and marginal costing

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Absorption costing Treatment for Fixed fixed manufacturing manufacturing overheads are overheads treated as product costing. It is believed that products cannot be produced without the resources provided by fixed manufacturing overheads

Marginal costing Fixed manufacturing overhead are treated as period costs. It is believed that only the variable costs are relevant to decisionmaking. Fixed manufacturing overheads will be incurred regardless there is production or not
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Value of closing stock

Absorption costing High value of closing stock will be obtained as some factory overheads are included as product costs and carried forward as closing stock

Marginal costing Lower value of closing stock that included the variable cost only

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Absorption costing Marginal costing Reported If the production = Sales, AC profit = MC Profit profit If Production > Sales, AC profit > MC profit As some factory overhead will be deferred as product costs under the absorption costing If Production < Sales, AC profit < MC profit As the previously deferred factory overhead will be released and charged as cost of goods sold
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Argument for absorption costing

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Compliance with the generally accepted accounting principles Importance of fixed overheads for production Avoidance of fictitious profit or loss

During the period of high sales, the production is small than the sales, a smaller number of fixed manufacturing overheads are charged and a higher net profit will be obtained under marginal costing Absorption costing is better in avoiding the fluctuation of profit being reported in marginal costing 30

Arguments for marginal costing

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More relevance to decision-making Avoidance of profit manipulation

Marginal costing can avoid profit manipulation by adjusting the stock level In fact, marginal costing does not ignore fixed costs in setting the selling price. On the contrary, it provides useful information for break-even analysis that indicates whether fixed costs can be converted with the change in sales volume 32

Consideration given to fixed cost

Break-even analysis

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Definition

Breakeven analysis is also known as costvolume profit analysis Breakeven analysis is the study of the relationship between selling prices, sales volumes, fixed costs, variable costs and profits at various levels of activity

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Application

Breakeven analysis can be used to determine a companys breakeven point (BEP) Breakeven point is a level of activity at which the total revenue is equal to the total costs At this level, the company makes no profit
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Assumption of breakeven point analysis

Relevant range

The relevant range is the range of an activity over which the fixed cost will remain fixed in total and the variable cost per unit will remain constant Total fixed cost are assumed to be constant in total

Fixed cost

Variable cost

Total variable cost will increase with increasing number of units produced
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Sales revenue

The total revenue will increase with the increasing number of units produced

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Cost $

Total cost Variable cost Fixed cost


Sales (units) Total Cost/Revenue $

Sales revenue Profit Total cost

BEP

Sales (units)

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Calculation method

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Calculation method

Breakeven point Target profit Margin of safety Changes in components of breakeven analysis

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Breakeven point

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Calculation method

Contribution is defined as the excess of sales revenue over the variable costs The total contribution is equal to total fixed cost

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Formula
Breakeven point Fixed cost = Contribution per unit Sales revenue at breakeven point = Breakeven point *selling price

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Alternative method: Sales revenue at breakeven point Contribution required to breakeven = Contribution to sales ratio Contribution per unit

Selling price per unit


Breakeven point in units Sales revenue at breakeven point = Selling price

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Example
Selling price per unit Variable cost per unit Fixed costs Required:

$12 $3 $45000

Compute the breakeven point

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Breakeven point in units =

Fixed costs Contribution per unit = $45000 $12-$3 = 5000 units

Sales revenue at breakeven point = $12 * 5000 = $60000

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Target profit

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Formula
No. of units at target profit Fixed cost + Target profit = Contribution per unit Required sales revenue Fixed cost + Target profit = Contribution to sales ratio

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Example
Selling price per unit Variable cost per unit Fixed costs Target profit Required:

$12 $3 $45000 $18000

Compute the sales volume required to achieve the target profit


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No. of units at target profit Fixed cost + Target profit = Contribution per unit $45000 + $18000 = $12 - $3
= 7000 units Required to sales revenue = $12 *7000 = $84000

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Alternative method
Required sales revenue Fixed cost + Target profit = Contribution to sales ratio $45000 + $18000 = 75% = $84000 Units sold at target profit = $84000 /$12 = 7000 units

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Margin of safety

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Margin of safety

Margin of safety is a measure of amount by which the sales may decrease before a company suffers a loss. This can be expressed as a number of units or a percentage of sales

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Formula
Margin of safety = Budget sales level breakeven sales level Margin of safety = Margin of safety *100% Budget sales level

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Total Cost/Revenue $

Sales revenue

Profit

Total cost

BEP Margin of safety

Sales (units)

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Example
The breakeven sales level is at 5000 units. The company sets the target profit at $18000 and the budget sales level at 7000 units Required: Calculate the margin of safety in units and express it as a percentage of the budgeted sales revenue

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Margin of safety = Budget sales level breakeven sales level = 7000 units 5000 units = 2000 units Margin of safety = Margin of safety *100 % Budget sales level = 2000 *100 % 7000 = 28.6% The margin of safety indicates that the actual sales can fall by 2000 units or 28.6% from the budgeted level before losses are incurred. 57

Changes in components of breakeven point

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Example

Selling price per unit Variable price per unit Fixed costs Current profit

$12 $3 $45000 $18000

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If the selling prices is raised from $12 to $13, the minimum volume of sales required to maintain the current profit will be:
Fixed cost + Target profit Contribution to sales ratio $45000 + $18000 $13 - $3 = 6300 units 60

If the fixed cost fall by $5000 but the variable costs rise to $4 per unit, the minimum volume of sales required to maintain the current profit will be:
Fixed cost + Target profit

Contribution to sales ratio = $40000 + $18000 $12 - $4


= 7250 units 61

Limitation of breakeven point

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Limitations of breakeven analysis

Breakeven analysis assumes that fixed cost, variable costs and sales revenue behave in linear manner. However, some overhead costs may be stepped in nature. The straight sales revenue line and total cost line tent to curve beyond certain level of production
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Limitations of breakeven analysis

It is assumed that all production is sold. The breakeven chart does not take the changes in stock level into account Breakeven analysis can provide information for small and relatively simple companies that produce same product. It is not useful for the companies producing multiple products
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