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Traditional school of thought was that epreneurs are born and not made In the modern world it is believed

that some entrepreneurs are born, but a large number can be educated and trained Therefore various EDP s are gaining importance

program of action designed to help an individual in strengthening his entrepreneurial motive and in acquiring skills and capabilities necessary for playing his entrepreneurial role effectively

To prove that need for Achievement can be indused, Mc Clelland conducted the Kakinada expreiment in collaboration with Small Industries Extension and Training Institute of Hyderabad Young persons were selected and put through 3 month training to guide them to set and achieve goals The Kakinada experiment could be treated as an imp basis for present day EDP s

Kakinada experiment made people appreciate the need for and importance of entrepreneurial training Based on this realization brought about by McClelland, in 1971 India embarked upon a a massive entrepreneurship development Program At present about 686 all India and state level financial institutions and public sector banks conduct EDP s

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Economic growth Balanced regional development Eliminates poverty and unemployment Optimum use of local resources Solves industrial problems Defuses social tension- youth feel frustrated if they do not get jobs after education. The surplus young energies can be diverted to self employment Development of backward and tribal areas

8. Successful launching of new units 9. Improves SOL 10 fulfillment of dreams

EDP s play four major roles in entrepreneurial development Stimulatory role- provokes potentials Supportive role- guidance and finance Sustaining role- helps enterprise to survive in competitive environment by helping in modernization and diversification Socio economic role- helps society and economy

1. Impart knowledge on marketing, production, etc 2. Broaden vision of epreneurs 3. Provide opportunities 4.Interchange experience 5. Expose epreneur to latest development 6. Build necessary skills 7. Impart customer education 8. Impart basic knowledge on the industry, product and methods of production

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Introductory session- general knowledge on entrepreneurship, significance, entrepreneurial behavior, etc Motivation training session- focus on developing n ach, developing positive attitude and optimism, examples of successful entrepreneurs Skills development session-technical skill (based on business requirement), business, marketing, management and start up skills

4. Support system and procedure sessionparticipants are exposed to support available from various institutions 5. Fundamentals of project feasibility session 6. Plant visit sessions

Pre-Training Phase Identification of operationally promising area Selection of a leader/co-ordinator for the programme Arrangement of infrastructure Environmental scanning for good business opportunities Establishing contacts with those who can contribute to the programme Getting application forms ready and distributed Forming selection committee to select trainees Preparing budget and organizing activities Basically pre training involves selection of potential epreneurs and arrangement of facilities for imparting training in the best possible manner
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2. Training Phase Generally 4-6 weeks on full time basis Motivation Reinforcement of epreneurial traits, confidence building Facilitating decision making Successful and profitable operation of an enterprise Industrial exposure

3. Post Training Phase Follow up and support This is important because when an entrepreneur is in implementing phase he/she faces problems Review of progress made by trainees Feedback from trainees to make training programme better

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Structure and Composition structure needs to be different according to regional variations more practical training needs to be given Strong backing of Financial agency needs to be given more importance Role of Technical Consistency Organizations (TCO s) needs to be increased

2. Areas of operation- EDP activities are lacking in the North Eastern area

3. Lack of specialist support- there is dependence on external faculty because of lack of in house 4. Lack of confidence- Majority of the institutions engaged in EDP are themselves not convinced of what they are doing, they take it as a task by the government 5. Limited manpower- for selection, follow up and linking with other agencies 6. Non availability of inputs- RM, power etc and poor infrastructure 7. Non standardized course curriculum 8. Low involvement of marketing, financial and voluntary institutions in the programme

9. Difference of opinion amongst practioners and trainers 10. Training institutions do not show much concern for objective identification and selection of entrepreneur 11. Follow ups are taken lightly 12. Training under EDP is not sufficient and out dated

Quantitative evaluation- looking into how many participants have actually started their own enterprises after completing the training Qualitative evaluation- assessing effectiveness in developing n ach through observation and measuring increase in productivity

In India there are various national and state level agencies that are engaged in organizing EDP s for first generation entrepreneurs

Established by GoI In 1983 Apex body for co ordinating and overseeing the activities of the various institutions and agencies engaged in entrepreneurship development, especially of small scale industry Objectives 1. Support mechanism-To support institutions in carrying out activities relating to eship devlelopment 2. to accelerate the process of eship development and ensure it reaches all sections of society 3. Information supplier-To provide vital information, support to trainers, promoters and epreneurs

4. standardization-To evolve standardized materials and processes of selection and training of potential entrepreneurs 5.Conduct EDP s- identify, select, train potentials to start their ventures and develop culture of entrepreneurship in the country 6. National and international forum- for exchange of experiences and interaction between entrepreneurs

Trainers training programs Small business promoters programs Development officers orientation programs Continuing education programs for SSI entrepreneurs International training programs Entrepreneurship Development Programmes (a) Target specific such as General, Women, Science & Technology Graduates , School Leavers , SC/OBC , Ex-Servicemen (Veterans) , SelfEmployment (SEEUY, TRYSEM, PMRY etc.) (b) Product/Process Oriented - Leather , Builders Hardware, Food ,Plastics, Chemicals , Sports Goods , Readymade Garments, Electronics , Information Technology etc.

Set in 1983 and has been sponsored by IDBI, IFCI, ICICI, SBI and the government of Gujarat They have organized programmes all over India including Port Blair, Kerela, Goa and Haryana

General Increase supply of entrepreneurs and encourage self employment To promote small enterprises at rural level and balanced development To collaborate with other institutions Specific To promote entrepreneurship in education Micro finance and micro enterprise development Workshops for academic community and entrepreneurs

SIDO has specialized institutions under it that are responsible for training, research and development of product design and processes CoursesAppreciation course in Industrial management Specialized courses in production, marketing, materials, finance, export management Courses on inspection and quality control, work study, salesmanship, etc

By GOI in 1960 To promote JV s For this purpose they have set up an Entrepreneurial Guidance Beaureau Head office- New Delhi

Located at Hyderabad Provides training in industrial arrangement for SSI s Theoretical training, plant visits Programmes in motivation, accounting, production, marketing, quality control, material management, etc. 45 national and 15 international programs every year

Set in 1990 Provides financial assistance to those institutions involved in conducting EDP s They have two special programs1. Small Industries Management Assistance program (SIMAP)- to develop industrial managers 2. Skill cum technology management program(STMP)- to improve performance of existing SSI units

Established by the All India Financial Institutions They have set up 17 TCO s to provide industrial consultancy and training to epreneurs They identify potential epreneurs, provide them with technical and managerial assistance, undertake market research, identify industrial potential They conduct pre investment studies and prepare project and feasibility study They undertake techno economic study