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Adolescent Sex Offenders

Adult Sex Offenders & Age of Onset


1/3 to 1/2 began offending In adolescence (Prentky et al., 2000)

Juvenile Sex Offenders: Age of Onset


Begin Offending Under Age 12 46% (Burton, 2000)

Rise and Fall of Juvenile Crime 1983 1992 Arrests




Girls Boys

+85% +50%

Youth in juvenile facilities +41% ( Childrens Defense Fund, 1997)

Rise of Juvenile Crime


1980 1994 Arrests Violent crimes Murder +64% +99% (Butts & Travis, 2002)

Fall in Juvenile Violent Crime


Fell 6 years 1994 2000 (Butts & Travis, 2002)

Decline in Juvenile Crime


Violent Crime Murder, rape, robbery aggravated assault -34%

Decline in Juvenile Crime


Arrests 1994 - 2000 Murder Robbery Burglary Rape -68% -51% -33% -25% (Butts & Travis, 2002)

Decline in Violent Crime


2000 Lowest in 20 years (Butts & Travis, 2002)

Decline in Juvenile Crime


Largest of any age group

Increases in Juvenile Crime


Arrests 1994 2000 DUI +54% Liquor Law Violations +33% Drug Abuse +29% (Butts & Travis, 2002)

Decline in Crime 2008


Violent Crime 19991999-2008 Decreased 41%

Decline in Crime 2008


Property Crime 19991999-2008 Decreased 32%

Decline in Crime 2008


Decline in Rape & Sexual Assault 19991999-2008 53%

Adolescents & Violent/Sexual Crime

Age of Onset of Serious Violence


85% of those involved in serious violence by age 27 report that their 1st act occurred between 12 & 20 Peak age of onset 16 Almost no serious violence starts < age 10 & > age 23 (Prentky 2002)

Two Onset Trajectories


Childhood Onset strong link between childhood factors and persistent violence into adulthood Juvenile Onset: most violence begins in adolescence, ends with the transition into adulthood (Prentky, 2002)

Onset of Sexual Offending


Incarcerated adolescents Onset < 12 Onset> 12 Offending < and > age 12 N 48 130 65

Seriousness & complexity of sexual acts more severe for the continuous offenders (Burton, 2000)

Chronic Juvenile Offenders


% of Offenders 6.3% 7.5% % of Crime 52% 61% (Wolfgangs 1958)

Juvenile Crime Offenders 8% Crimes 70%

(Beuhring, 2002; Howell, 1995; Beuhring, Kelley et al., 1997)

Genetic Contribution to Violent Behavior


Variance in antisocial behavior Due to genetic factors ( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles & Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002)

Interaction of Genes and Environment


Males with low MAOA activity allele (specific gene) + Childhood maltreatment Increased antisocial behavior (Beaver, 2008)

Genetic Contribution to Violent Behavior


Variance in antisocial behavior Due to genetic factors ( Beaver, 2008; Mason & Frick, 1994; Miles & Carey, 1997; Rhee & Wald, 2002)

Genetics & Environment Interactive


(Rowe, 2002; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002)

Violence Delinquency Scale




How many times past 12 months hurt someone badly enough to require medical attention Used a weapon to get something from someone Took part in a group fight (Beaver, 2008)

Violent Adolescents
3 samples Pretrial Assessment Institutional Assessment Assessment Before Release (Lodewijks et al., 2010)

Protective Factors Adolescent Violent Offenders


   

 

Prosocial involvement Strong social support Strong attachments & bonds Positive attitude towards intervention and authority Strong commitment to school & work Resilient personality (Lodewijks et al., 2010)

Impact of Protective Factors


0 Pretrial Assessment High risk Low risk 40% 12 6% 6 1 or more

(Lodewijks et al., 2010)

Impact of Protective Factors


Institutional Assessment High risk 86 Low risk 44 PrePre-Release High risk Low risk 54 13

78 33 38 3 (Lodewijks et al., 2010)

Which Factors?


Strong social support Strong attachments to prosocial adults

Boundaries of Developmentally Normative Sexual Behavior

Normal & Deviant Adolescent Sexual Behavior (Adapted from Dr. Robert Prentky & Dr. William Friedrich)

Normal Normal
        

Sexually explicit conversations with peers Obscenities and jokes within cultural norm Sexual innuendo, flirting and courtship Interest in erotica Solitary masturbation Hugging, kissing, holding hands Foreplay, (petting, making out, fondling) Mutual masturbation Sexual intercourse with consenting partner* partner*

Deviant Behaviors: Level 1


     

  

High degree of sexual preoccupation and/or anxiety Frequent use of pornography or sex shows Indiscriminate sexual contact with multiple partners Sexually aggressive remarks/obscenities Sexual graffiti (especially sexually aggressive images) Embarrassment of others with sexual remarks or innuendo Violation of others body space Pulling skirts up / pants down Obscene gestures or mooning

Deviant Level 1


Red flags - may signal an abnormally high degree of sexual preoccupation and/or sexually aggressive impulses Some form of intervention may be desirable

Deviant Behaviors: Level 2


 

 

 

Compulsive masturbation (especially public) Degradation/humiliation of self or others with sexual overtones Attempting to expose others genitals Chronic preoccupation with sexually aggressive pornography Sexually explicit conversation with young children Sexualized touching without permission
(grabbing, goosing)

 

Sexually explicit threats (verbal or written) Obscene phone calls

Deviant Level 2


Indicate a high degree of sexual preoccupation and/or deviant sexual interests, Require intervention

Deviant Behaviors: Level 3


     

Genital touching without permission (e.g.


fondling)

Sexual contact with significant age difference


(sexual abuse of children)

Forced sexual contact (any assault having sexual


overtones)

Forced penetration (vaginal or anal) Sexual contact with animals (bestiality) Genital injury to others

Deviant Level 3


VictimVictim-involved sexual assault Require intervention